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2014年8月3日云南鲁甸MS6.5地震不仅直接造成建筑倒塌,还触发了大量的山体滑坡,一些滑坡掩埋了居民点,造成了严重的人员伤亡与财产损失.基于震后高分辨率TH01-02与SJ9A卫星影像,震前高分辨率GF1卫星影像,采用人工目视解译方法,建立了鲁甸地震滑坡编录图.并基于部分滑坡的野外照片与超高分辨率航片对解译结果进行验证.结果表明,鲁甸地震至少触发了1 024处面积>100m2的滑坡.这些滑坡分布在一个面积约为250km2的区域内,滑坡覆盖面积为5.19km2,总体积约为2.2×107m3.滑坡分布区内的滑坡点密度约为4.03个·km-2,面密度约为2.04%,滑坡平均剥蚀厚度约为86.7mm.对震中周围不同方位的滑坡数量与面积进行了统计,结果显示,滑坡总体上呈NW-SE方向分布,且大多数滑坡位于震中的SE方向.这表明鲁甸地震发震构造更可能是一条NW向断层,且破裂方向是自NW向SE.这与其他地震、地质、地球物理等方面的证据所表现出来的发震断层性质相吻合.将鲁甸地震滑坡分布面积、滑坡数量、面积、体积与全球其他震例进行对比,结果表明,鲁甸地震滑坡分布区较小,但是大滑坡较多、滑坡体积相对大.这反映了鲁甸地震具有震源浅与地震能量衰减迅速的特点.  相似文献
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Post-earthquake field investigations of landslide occurrence have provided a basis for understanding, evaluating, and mapping the hazard and risk associated withearthquake-induced landslides. This paper traces thehistorical development of knowledge derived from these investigations. Before 1783, historical accounts of the occurrence of landslides in earthquakes are typically so incomplete and vague that conclusions based on these accounts are of limited usefulness. For example, the number of landslides triggered by a given event is almost always greatly underestimated. The first formal, scientific post-earthquake investigation that included systematic documentation of the landslides was undertaken in the Calabria region of Italy after the 1783 earthquake swarm. From then until the mid-twentieth century, the best information on earthquake-induced landslides came from a succession ofpost-earthquake investigations largely carried out by formal commissions that undertook extensive ground-based field studies. Beginning in the mid-twentieth century, when the use of aerial photography became widespread, comprehensive inventories of landslide occurrence have been made for several earthquakes in the United States, Peru, Guatemala, Italy, El Salvador, Japan, and Taiwan. Techniques have also been developed for performing ``retrospective' analyses years or decades after an earthquake that attempt to reconstruct the distribution of landslides triggered by the event. The additional use of Geographic Information System (GIS) processing and digital mapping since about 1989 has greatly facilitated the level of analysis that can applied to mapped distributions of landslides. Beginning in 1984, syntheses of worldwide and national data on earthquake-induced landslides have defined their general characteristics and relations between their occurrence and various geologic and seismic parameters. However, the number of comprehensive post-earthquake studies of landslides is still relatively small, and one of the most pressing needs in this area of research is for the complete documentation of landslides triggered by many more earthquakes in a wider variety of environments.  相似文献
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Large, deep‐seated landslides are common features in the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium). As most of these old (>100 years) landslides are located under forest in this hilly region, aerial photograph interpretation is not an appropriate landslide mapping method. This study tested the potential of LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) images for mapping old landslides under forest. Landslide inventory maps were created for a 125 km2 area by applying the expert knowledge of seven geomorphologists to LIDAR‐derived hillshade, slope and contour line maps in a GIS environment. Each of the seven LIDAR‐based landslide inventories was compared (i) with the other six, (ii) with a detailed field survey‐based inventory, and (iii) with a comparable study in which topographic data were extracted from a topographical map. The combination of the percentage of field landslides indicated by an expert and the percentage of positional discrepancies (expressed in terms of positional mismatch) were used to evaluate the quality of the LIDAR‐based inventory maps. High‐quality LIDAR‐derived landslide inventory maps contain more than 70 per cent of the landslides mapped during the field survey, and have positional discrepancies smaller than 70 per cent when compared with the field survey‐based inventory map. Four experts and the combination map of all experts satisfied these criteria. Together the seven experts indicated all landslides mapped in the field. Importantly, LIDAR enabled the experts to find ten new landslides and to correct the boundaries of eleven (of the 77) landslides mapped during the field survey. Hence, this study showed that large‐scale LIDAR‐derived maps analysed by experienced geomorphologists can significantly improve field survey‐based inventories of landslides with a subdued morphology in hilly regions. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
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