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Temporarily open/closed estuaries typically open to the sea due to freshwater inflow coupled with storm surge events. In September 2008, in the absence of freshwater inflow, the mouth of the East Kleinemonde Estuary breached in response to a storm surge. The mouth of the estuary closed the following day at a high level. Marine overwash events following the breach introduced large volumes of saline water into the estuary and raised the water level by 0.07–0.33 m. Salinity was significantly higher in the 15 month closed phase after the breach (31 ± 0.9) compared to 21.9 ± 0.9 in the closed brackish phase before the breach. The historical average salinity for the estuary during a closed period is 23–25. The increase in salinity has reduced submerged macrophytes Ruppia cirrhosa and Chara vulgaris cover by 38.1%. Macroalgal cover of species such as Dictyota dichotoma, Caulacanthus ustulatus, Codium tenue and Ulva spp. have increased by 7.9%. The saline high water levels have also significantly reduced supratidal salt marsh cover by 15.2%, and reed and sedge cover by 19.7%. Loss of these habitats may result in bank destabilisation and erosion. This is the first record of an extended saline period in the 15 years the estuary has been monitored. Sea level rise in association with climate change, together with localised freshwater inflow reduction is likely to result in an increase in marine overwash events. The frequency and duration of closed saline periods are likely to increase in this type of estuary. A loss of submerged macrophytes may have significant impacts on faunal composition and abundance and on the subsequent functioning of temporarily open/closed estuaries. This has serious ecological implications since these estuaries represent 70% of the different types of estuaries found in South Africa.  相似文献   
福建闽江水口库区飘浮植物覆盖对水体环境的影响   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18       下载免费PDF全文
蔡雷鸣 《湖泊科学》2006,18(3):250-254
为了探索城市富营养化湖泊生态修复技术,2000年9月在南京市莫愁湖物理生态工程试验区内,开展了隔离外源污染、覆盖底泥和种植水生植物对湖泊水质平均水平和水体脉动强度影响的比较研究.试验结果表明,通过围隔隔离外源污染可在较短时间内迅速改善湖泊TN的平均水平,但难以提高湖泊生态系统的稳定性;通过覆盖底泥控制内源污染难以改善湖泊水质的平均水平,并且难以提高湖泊生态系统的稳定程度;种植水生植物不仅能够全面改善湖泊水质的平均水平,而且可以提高湖泊生态系统的稳定性.此外,富营养化湖泊中,藻类生长与湖水营养盐浓度并不存在正相关的关系.因此,对城市湖泊富营养化的防治,在控制外源污染降低营养盐浓度的同时,应恢复湖泊原有的以水生高等植物为主的生态系统.  相似文献   
东营凹陷古近系古湖盆演化与水化学场响应   总被引:12,自引:2,他引:10       下载免费PDF全文
陈中红  查明  刘太勋 《湖泊科学》2008,20(6):705-714
采用人工配制污水为实验用水进行室内水培实验,研究10种人工湿地中常见水生植物对氨氮和总磷的同化吸收能力,筛选出净化效果好的植物,构建植物组合,以单一植物为对照,研究植物组合对于提高氨氮、总磷净化效果的作用.结果表明:不同植物对氨氮、总磷的去除能力差别较大千屈菜(Lythrum salicaria)、菖蒲(Acorus calamus)、美人蕉(Cannindica)、达香蒲(Typha davidiana)对氨氮净化效果较好,初始浓度2969mg/L、15d后,去除率966%、98.6%、877%、95.1%美人蕉、凤眼莲(Eichhornia crssipes)、干屈菜、石菖蒲(Acorus tartarinowii)对TP净化效果较好,初始浓度4.44mg/L、15d后,去除率99.0%、546%、69.9%、36.7%千屈菜与石菖蒲的组合能同时提高氨氮与总磷的净化效果;美人蕉与干屈菜的组合、菖蒲与美人蕉的组合、菖蒲与千屈菜的组合、美人蕉与石菖蒲的组合能提高总磷的净化效果组合实验结果表明,适当的水生植物组合能提高氨氮与总磷的净化效果。  相似文献   
A concept of aquatic macrophyte management that integrates the positive and negative aspects of vegetation in lakes and rivers is discussed. This integrated approach involves three factors: macrophyte control, macrophyte enhancement, and identification and resolution of the conflicts created by multiple use of a waterbody. The primary decision in macrophyte management programmes must be whether to optimise for single‐purpose or for multipurpose use of the waterbody. Both technical (macrophyte control and enhancement) and social (conflict resolution) procedures are required to solve problems associated with the macrophyte status of multipurpose waterbodies.  相似文献   
以湿地植物菖蒲为研究对象,在水培条件下观察3个浓度梯度的氮磷污水(处理组1、2、3依次为N:40 mg/L、P:4 mg/L;N:80 mg/L、P:8 mg/L;N:120 mg/L、P:12 mg/L)对其胁迫后的根系释氧和通气组织的变化规律,研究发现高氮磷胁迫明显抑制菖蒲株高和根系长度的生长,减少植物根系数量;高氮磷胁迫还可以增加植物根系释氧量和促进根系通气组织形成,由于根系长度和数量的减少,处理组的根系释氧总量不及对照组;高氮磷胁迫不改变菖蒲根系释氧趋势,根尖最大,离根尖越远释氧越小.研究还发现,根尖释氧量大小和通气组织呈正相关,根基和根中部释氧量与通气组织关系不显著,说明植物通气组织的形式更有利于根尖释氧.  相似文献   
广东肇庆星湖仙女湖区水生植被的演变   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
陈学年  郭玉娟 《湖泊科学》2005,17(4):334-339
通过在人工构建湿地“小宇宙”系统开展受控模拟实验,研究湿地湿生植物对水环境中磷的吸收和去除规律.本 次研究,选择对比四种不同类型挺水植物和浮叶植物,在不同体系环境条件下(如溶解氧、pH)对水环境中磷吸收和去 除.模拟实验通过对比四种不同类型的水生植物系统,结果显示,不同类型湿生植物对环境中磷的吸收强度和作用方式 有较大的差别.总体来看,实验体系水体中正磷酸盐浓度下降趋势大致呈现的“三阶段”变化模式,即:坡降期、陡降期、平 台期,不同期内磷去除率分别为:35.53%、29.98%和7.20%.  相似文献   
人工湿地植物的选择   总被引:66,自引:1,他引:65       下载免费PDF全文
本文阐述了植物在人工湿地中的作用和选择人工湿地植物的一些原则,并分析了人工湿地在我国的应用前景.植物在人工湿地中起着非常重要的作用,不但可以去除污染物质,维持湿地环境,而且具有生态美学和经济价值;选择了人工湿地植物应考虑植物的适应性、耐污能力、净化能力、根系、经济和观赏价值以及物种间的合理搭配.最后指出,人工湿地技术在我国有广阔的应用前景.  相似文献   
Large fluvial lakes, as part of river corridors, are recognized as spatially heterogeneous ecosystems. Due to their shallowness, the littoral zone of these lakes occupies a large proportion of their surface and is extensively covered by macrophytes that are known to affect their physical, chemical and biological environments in various ways. This study documents the small-scale (5 km) bio-optical variations associated with the longitudinal passage of a water mass through macrophyte beds during their maximal growth season. The utilization of a 2D hydrodynamic model allowed us to establish hydrological connectivity between stations within the beds, and thus to identify longitudinal heterogeneity along the macrophyte beds. Significant changes in the inherent properties of the water were observed along the upstream-downstream gradient. Due to their effects on hydrodynamics, macrophytes were responsible for a decrease in particles and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) resulting in an increasing penetration depth of ultraviolet (UV) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Along the transect, chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) decreased more rapidly than DOC resulting in a decrease of the CDOM to DOC ratio. The observed changes in the DOC pool may be explained by the constant input of non-chromophoric DOC from macrophyte leachates and exudation within the bed and/or the photochemical and microbial degradation of CDOM. The implication of such small-scale heterogeneity on Lake Saint-Pierre productivity is discussed.  相似文献   
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