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1.
作为大洋典型地貌特征的海山,其邻近的海洋生境并不被人熟知。依据2014年冬季对热带西太平洋Y3海山及其邻近海域的综合调查,首次探讨了该海山区海水中营养盐的分布特征及其与生态环境的耦合关系。结果表明Y3海山区是典型的热带寡营养海域。在50~125 m的深度,温跃层和高盐区双重作用对底部高浓度营养盐向上输送的阻碍,是导致真光层上部营养盐浓度较低的重要原因;同时,浮游植物和异养细菌的消耗也加剧了该区域营养盐的缺乏。Y3海山突出的地形地貌对营养盐的分布产生重要的影响,海山对流经的海流产生阻碍,形成上升流,使底部高浓度的营养盐突破温跃层和高盐区的阻碍向上输送,从而使海山周围营养盐的平均浓度高于远离海山的海域。相关性分析显示,Y3海山区真光层中营养盐浓度与温度、盐度、叶绿素a浓度和异养细菌丰度分别呈负相关、正相关、负相关(除NO2-N外)和负相关关系。海山区特殊的营养盐分布及其与生态环境的耦合是其成为一种独特的大洋生态系统的重要因素。  相似文献   
2.
福建省浦城县是水稻和薏米的重要产区,土壤环境质量和有益营养元素的含量直接影响农作物的产量和品质。基于福建省浦城县1: 5万比例尺土壤地球化学调查成果,依据相关标准和规范对研究区土壤植物生长必需营养元素、重金属环境质量和植物生长有益元素Se进行了评价,为研究区优质土地开发、特色农产品种植、高标准农田建设等提供了科学依据。评价结果表明: 植物生长必需大量元素有机质、N及碱解氮总体处于丰富—适中状态,P总体处于适中—缺乏状态,速效磷处于缺乏—很缺乏状态,K及速效钾含量丰富; 植物生长必需中量元素S的分布情况主要以丰富—适中为主; 植物生长必需微量元素Fe、B、Mn处于很缺乏状态,Mo的分布主要以很丰富—丰富为主,Zn和Cl的分布主要以很丰富—丰富为主; 植物生长有益元素Se总体处于适量状态,富硒土壤面积为6.41 km2。整体而言,浦城县土壤重金属元素达到了一等土壤环境质量标准,具备发展绿色农产品的土壤环境生态条件。  相似文献   
3.
We investigated soil respiration (Rs) dynamics and influencing factors under different nitrogen (N) addition levels (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 g m-2 yr-1) on typical grassland plots in Inner Mongolia. We measured soil respiration, temperature, moisture and nutrients. We found that N addition did not change dynamic characteristics of Rs; daily and seasonal dynamics followed a single peak curve. N addition reduced Rs during the growing season. Rs under N2, N4, N8, N16 and N32 treatments decreased by 24.00%, 21.93%, 23.49%, 30.78% and 28.20% in the growing season, respectively, compared to the N0 treatment. However, Rs in the non-growing season was not different across treatments. Rs was significantly positively correlated with soil temperature and moisture and these two factors accounted for 72%-97% and 74%-82% of variation in Rs, respectively. The soil respiration temperature sensitivity (Q10) was between 2.27 and 4.16 and N addition reduced Q10 except in the N8 treatment.  相似文献   
4.
大亚湾核电站温排水对其邻近海域的生态效应日益突出。文章结合现场调查和室内模拟实验, 研究了夏季和冬季大亚湾海域沿温排水温度梯度的浮游植物粒径结构特征, 探讨了营养物质的输入可能对其产生的影响, 以期深入了解浮游植物对升温以及富营养化作用的响应机制。结果表明, 适温条件对浮游植物的生长起促进作用, 在极高温(36.0℃)环境下则产生抑制作用, 在排水口邻近高温区夏季和冬季浮游植物叶绿素a含量均呈较低分布。交互模拟实验发现不同季节浮游植物对于温度和营养盐的敏感性存在差异, 夏季营养盐对浮游植物生长的促进作用比温度明显, 冬季温度的作用则更为显著。现场观测和模拟实验均显示, 水温升高和营养盐加富均可造成小粒级浮游植物 (<20μm)所占比例的增加; 因此, 升温和营养盐输入均可能导致浮游植物粒级结构呈小型化趋势, 并对食物网能量流动与物质循环、生态系统的结构稳定性以及海洋渔业的产量造成潜在影响。  相似文献   
5.
Efficiency of non‐point source pollution control methods may be altered in future climate. This study investigated climate change impacts on sediment and nutrient transport, and efficiency of best management practices (BMPs), in the Upper Pearl River Watershed (UPRW) in Mississippi. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was applied to the UPRW using observed flow, sediment and nutrient data. Water quality samples were collected at three US geological survey gauging stations. The model was successfully calibrated and validated for daily time steps (Nash Sutcliffe efficiency and coefficient of determination – R2 up to 0.7) using manual and automatic (sequential uncertainty fitting version 2) methods from February 2010 to May 2011. Future weather scenarios were simulated using the LARS‐WG model, a stochastic weather generator, with Community Climate System Model, global climate model, which was developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research in the USA. On the basis of the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B, A2 and B1 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, climate change scenarios were simulated for the mid (2046–2065) and late (2080–2099) century. Effectiveness of four BMPs (Riparian buffer, stream fencing, sub‐surface manure applications and vegetative filter strips) on reducing sediment and nutrient were evaluated in current and future climate conditions. Results show that sediment, nitrogen and phosphorus loadings will be increased up to a maximum of 26.3%, 7.3% and 14.3%, respectively, in future climate conditions. Furthermore, the effectiveness of BMPs on sediment removal will be reduced in future climate conditions, and the efficiency of nitrogen removal will be increased, whereas phosphorus removal efficiency will remain unchanged. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
6.
Understanding what drives farmers’ voluntary adoption of nutrient and soil best management practices has important consequences for many environmental outcomes including water quality. We build on research revealing the need for simultaneous use of multiple nitrogen best management practices to achieve water quality improvement goals. Using social, economic and attitudinal variables we predict the use of multiple nitrogen best management practices at three time points: current use (2013), past use (before 2013), and likelihood of use on their largest field in the next three years. Our empirical analysis uses structural equation modeling with latent variables and 2014 farmer survey data from three Midwestern US states. Most farmers in our sample used at least one of the six best management practices. Our results reveal that farmers’ attitudes, use of information sources, and conservation program participation affect the number of nitrogen best management practices concurrently in use at multiple time points.  相似文献   
7.
The Northland region of New Zealand includes numerous high-value, macrophyte-dominated dune lakes. Recent water policy reforms offer limited guidance on managing for aquatic macrophytes. In addition, dune lake histories are poorly known as regular monitoring dates to 2005 AD. Here, ca. 4000 years of lake functional behaviour is reconstructed from sedimentary archives in two Northland dune lakes (Humuhumu and Rotokawau). Results demonstrated that macrophyte dominance is sensitive to catchment erosion and hydrological drawdown. Degradation of macrophyte communities occurred in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, earlier at Lake Humuhumu than Lake Rotokawau (post-1880 AD and post-1930 AD, respectively). In both lakes, increased erosional influx reduced macrophyte productivity, before later increases to wider trophic state (post-1970 AD). Lake-level decline is linked to increased nutrient loading at Lake Rotokawau but less so, Lake Humuhumu which is more strongly groundwater-fed. In Northland dune lakes, water-level reduction and erosional influx from land use have driven macrophyte degradation.  相似文献   
8.
Microbioerosion rates and microbioeroder community structure were studied in four Kenyan protected coral-reef lagoons using shell fragments of Tridacna giant clams to determine their response to the influence of terrestrial run-off. Fourteen different microbioeroder traces from seven cyanobacteria, three green algae and four fungi species were identified. The river discharge-impacted reef and ‘pristine’ reef showed similar composition but higher microbioeroder abundance and total cyanobacteria- and chlorophyte-bioeroded areas when compared with the other study reefs. Cyanobacteria dominated during the north-east monsoon (NEM) relative to the south-east monsoon (SEM) season, with algae and cyanobacteria being major microbioeroders in the river-impacted and pristine reefs. The rate of microbioerosion varied between 4.3 g CaCO3 m?2 y?1 (SEM) and 134.7 g CaCO3 m?2 y?1 (NEM), and was highest in the river-impacted reef (127.6 g CaCO3 m?2 y?1), which was almost double that in the pristine reef (69.5 g CaCO3 m?2 y?1) and the mangrove-fringed reef (56.2 g CaCO3 m?2 y?1). The microbioerosion rates measured in this study may not be high enough to cause concern with regard to the health and net carbonate production of Kenya’s coral reefs. Nevertheless, predicted increases in the frequency and severity of stresses related to global climate change (e.g. increased sea surface temperature, acidification), as well as interactions with local disturbances and their influence on bioerosion, may be increasingly important in the future.  相似文献   
9.
海底地下水排放(SGD)是近海海域的一个重要的营养盐来源。本研究借助多种天然镭同位素对春季苏北浅滩海域的SGD及其携带入海的营养盐通量进行量化评估。研究发现:苏北浅滩海域的~(224)Ra、~(223)Ra和~(226)Ra等镭同位素的浓度水平较高,呈现近岸高、远岸低的分布趋势;根据~(224)Ra/~(226)Ra的"表观年龄模型"估算的水龄的分布情况推断,春季该海域表层水体主体流向为东北向,流速约为0.1m/s,这与前人物理海洋数值模拟结果一致;最终利用226Ra质量平衡模型发现海域的SGD通量为(46±29)cm/d,由其携带入海的溶解态无机氮、磷、硅营养盐(DIN、 DIP、 DSi)等的通量分别为(2.6±3.1)×1~09、(3.0±2.5)×10~6和(5.5±4.2)×10~8mol/d。  相似文献   
10.
中国多数红树林陆地边缘存在着大量的养虾池塘。这些养虾池塘可通过:(1)换塘外排废水,(2)清塘直排污泥影响周围的红树林。本研究共包含两个实验,来探讨这两种类型的排污对秋茄幼苗生长的影响。实验一模拟虾池常规换塘情况,研究换塘废水对秋茄幼苗生长的影响。实验二设置四种虾池清塘污泥沉积厚度(0 cm,2 cm,4 cm,8 cm),研究虾池清塘污泥的累积效应对秋茄幼苗生长的影响。结果如下:在5,15和25三种盐度下,虾池换塘废水未对秋茄生长指标造成显著影响;而清塘污泥对秋茄生长的影响与其沉积厚度有关,大多数生长参数在污泥沉积厚度为4 cm时呈现最大值。秋茄幼苗在适量的沉积厚度下加速了生长,且本实验秋茄幼苗对虾池清塘污泥的耐受性为沉积厚度8 cm。  相似文献   
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