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1.
Yonghui Yang  Fei Tian   《Journal of Hydrology》2009,374(3-4):373-383
Runoff in Haihe River Catchment of China is steadily declining due to climate change and human activity. Determining abrupt changes in runoff could enhance identification of the main driving factors for the sudden changes. In this study, the sequential Mann–Kendall test analysis is used to determine abrupt changes in runoff in eight sub-catchments of Haihe River Catchment, while trend analysis via the traditional Mann–Kendall test for the period 1960–1999 is used to identify the basic trend of precipitation and runoff. The results suggest an insignificant change in precipitation and a significant decline in runoff in five of the eight sub-catchments. For most of the sub-catchments, abrupt changes in runoff occurred in 1978–1985. Through correlation comparisons for precipitation and runoff for the periods prior to and after abrupt runoff changes, human activity, rather than climatic change, is identified as the main driving factor of runoff decline. It is also noted that abrupt decline in runoff was actually at the beginning of China’s 1978–1985 land reform. Given that the land reform motivated farmers to productively manage their reallocated lands, agricultural water use therefore increased. Hence percent agricultural land is analyzed in relation to land use/cover pattern for the late 1970s and early 1980s. The analysis shows that when cultivated farmland exceeds 25% of a sub-catchment area, an abrupt decline in runoff occurs. It is therefore concluded that high percent agricultural land and related agricultural water use are the most probable driving factors of runoff decline in the catchment.  相似文献
2.
Sediment load reduction in Chinese rivers   总被引:10,自引:7,他引:3  
In this paper, the changes in the annual runoff and sediment transport have been assessed by using the long term observation data from 10 gauging stations on 10 large rivers across China from far north to far south. It is found that the annual sediment yield has generally had a decreasing trend in the past half century. According to the changes in annual runoff and the sediment yield per area, rivers in China can be classified into the following three groups: 1) rivers with decreasing annual sediment transport and stable runoff; 2) rivers with both decreasing annual sediment transport and runoff and 3) rivers with greatly reduced annual sediment transport and decreasing annual runoff. The results indicate that, in all southern rivers (to the south of the Huaihe River including the Huaihe River), there has been little change in average annual runoff but a dramatic decrease in annual sediment transport. In the northern rivers, however, both the annual sediment yield and the runoff show significant evidence of reduction. To further investigate the recent changes in annual runoff and sediment transport, the short-term observation data from these 10 gauging stations in the recent 10 years have been assessed. Results show that both the annual sediment transport and the runoff have decreased" significantly in the northern rivers in the past 10 years. Using the Yellow River at the Lijin Station as an example, the average annual runoff for the last 10 years is only 1/3 of the long term average value and the average annual sediment yield of the last 10 years is only 1/4 of the long term average value. More unusually, in the Yongding River the annual sediment yield has approached zero and the runoff has decreased significantly. In addition, the impacts of human activities on the changes in both runoff and sediment transport have been discussed.  相似文献
3.
鄱阳湖流域径流模型   总被引:7,自引:3,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
流域径流是鄱阳湖主要来水,建立鄱阳湖流域径流模型对揭示湖泊水量平衡及其受流域自然和人类活动的影响具有重要意义.针对鄱阳湖-流域系统的特点:流域面积大(16.22×104km2)、多条入湖河流、湖滨区坡面入湖径流等,研究了相应的模拟方法,建立了考虑流域土壤属性和土地利用空间变化的鄱阳湖流域分布式径流模型.采用6个水文站1991-2001年的实测河道径流对模型进行了率定和验证.结果显示,模型整体模拟精度较高.其中,赣江、信江和饶河均取得了较好的模拟结果,月效率系数为0.82-0.95;抚河和修水模拟精度略低,为0.65-0.78.模型揭示了研究时段内年平均入湖径流总量为1623×108m3,其中,赣江最多,占47%,其次为信江和抚河,分别占13%和12%,湖滨区坡面入湖径流约占4%,其余24%来自饶河、修水以及其它入湖支流.模型将用于评估流域下垫面或气候变化引起的入湖水量变化,为湖泊水量平衡计算提供依据.  相似文献
4.
抚仙湖集水域地表径流入湖水量模拟   总被引:7,自引:2,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
徐金涛  张奇  徐力刚 《湖泊科学》2007,19(6):718-726
采用适用于无资料流域、参数较少的SCS模型计算抚仙湖集水域地表径流量.模型考虑了集水域下垫面条件的空间差异,利用Maplnfo/Arc view软件按照土地利用方式与土壤类型的不同,把集水域划分为若干个水文响应单元,分别计算产流量,较准确地模拟了入湖径流量.通过对梁王河流域和大鲫鱼沟流域实测降雨径流资料的分析与反演,提出了适合该区域的产流计算CN值.在对CN值作坡度修正后再应用到其它无观测数据区域.通过模型计算得到的抚仙湖集水域2005年3月1日-2006年2月28日地表径流量为1.74×108 m3,陆面径流系数为0.395.模型为指导抚仙湖集水域径流观测及入湖污染物负荷的计算提供依据.  相似文献
5.
水利工程兴建后洞庭湖径流与泥沙的变化   总被引:6,自引:6,他引:6  
本文根据1951—1988年洞庭湖及其入湖河流的水文泥沙资料,研究大型水利工程兴建后洞庭湖径流与泥沙的变化。研究表明,近40年来洞庭湖的径流量减少了29.2%,输沙量减少了48.7%。引起水沙变化的主要原因是荆江四口分流河床的淤积,使荆江入湖的径流量与输沙量减少。1966—1972年下荆江三个弯道裁弯取直,使荆江河床下切,导致荆江及其分流水位的下降,也促使荆江分流的流量与输沙量的减少。40年来洞庭湖水流变化的趋势对洞庭湖、江汉平原与长江中下游的防洪较为有利。  相似文献
6.
模拟暴雨条件下农田磷素迁移特征   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
庹刚  李恒鹏  金洋  李燕 《湖泊科学》2009,21(1):45-52
开展三次重复人工暴雨试验,研究太湖流域平原河网区农田磷素在暴雨径流过程中的迁移输出特征,结果表明,地表径流是暴雨径流过程农田磷素迁移的主要途径,地表径流水相和侵蚀相磷素迁移量分别占总磷输出量的58.50%和34.69%;随壤中水流输移的磷素仅占总磷输出量的6.81%,磷素迁移以颗粒态为主,约占总磷输出量的60.73%,溶解态磷素以无机磷酸盐输出为主,溶解态磷素更易于在土壤中运动,地表径流与壤中流磷素输出特征对比分析显示,土壤对磷素具有较强的滤减作用,尤其对总颗粒态附着磷浓度的消减效果明显,可达80%以上,尽管暴雨径流过程中磷素迁移以地表径流为主,然而在降雨丰富的太湖地区,一般降雨条件下壤中流是产流的主要形式,同时壤中流溶解态磷流失占有较大的比例,对区域水环境恶化具有重要贡献,因此加强壤中流溶解态磷素输移和控制研究具有重要意义.  相似文献
7.
Vegetation processes are seldom considered in lumped conceptual rainfall–runoff (RR) models although they have significant impacts on runoff via the control of evapotranspiration. This paper incorporates the remotely-sensed the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer mounted on the polar-orbiting terra satellite-leaf area index (MODIS-LAI) data into Xinanjiang rainfall–runoff model and assesses the model performance on 210 catchments in south-east Australia. The results show that the inclusion of LAI data improves both the model calibration results as well as the daily runoff prediction in ungauged catchments. It is likely that more significant improvements to the model structure to integrate the remotely-sensed vegetation and other data can further reduce the uncertainty in runoff prediction in ungauged catchments.  相似文献
8.
研究了鄱阳湖流域在1955-2002年间的径流系数的变化,重点分析了它与水循环的两个基本要素:降水量和蒸发量的关系,同时对其原因进行了初步的探讨.经分析,在鄱阳湖流域中,径流系数较大的是饶河流域和信江流域,较小的是抚河流域;在年内变化上,4-6月为五河流域径流系数比较大的月份,这与鄱阳湖流域降水集中期相对应.在空间上,4-6月仍然以饶河流域和信江流域相对较大,而抚河流域较小,特别是8月份的径流系数远小于其他四河;年代际变化上,1990s径流系数增加较为显著.尽管鄱阳湖流域的径流系数除了受气候因子的影响外,还受到水土流失和地形等因素的影响,但是降水量的增加,特别是暴雨频率的增加仍然是其主要影响因素,蒸发量的减小对径流系数的增加也有一定程度的影响.径流系数与气温并无明显的线性相关关系.  相似文献
9.
The evaluation of surface water resources is a necessary input to solving water management problems. Neural network models have been trained to predict monthly runoff for the Tirso basin, located in Sardinia (Italy) at the S. Chiara section. Monthly time series data were available for 69 years and are characterized by non-stationarity and seasonal irregularity, which is typical of a Mediterranean weather regime. This paper investigates the effects of data preprocessing on model performance using continuous and discrete wavelet transforms and data partitioning. The results showed that networks trained with pre-processed data performed better than networks trained on undecomposed, noisy raw signals. In particular, the best results were obtained using the data partitioning technique.  相似文献
10.
天目湖流域丘陵山区典型土地利用类型氮流失特征   总被引:4,自引:2,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
天目湖丘陵山区农业综合开发持续推进,大量林地转变为茶园,迫切需要认识茶园扩张对流域氮流失的影响.本研究选取茶园、次生马尾松林和毛竹林开展自然降雨条件下的径流小区实验,分析天目湖丘陵山区典型用地类型径流氮流失规律,为评估丘陵山区综合开发的水环境影响提供实测参数.研究表明:茶园、次生马尾松林和毛竹林地表径流TN浓度分别为11.25、2.83和3.60 mg/L,均以溶解态为主;壤中流TN浓度分别为27.16、3.59和1.06 mg/L,茶园和次生马尾松林均以溶解性无机氮(尤其是硝态氮)为主,毛竹林以溶解性有机氮为主;茶园、次生马尾松林和毛竹林的小区尺度地表径流系数均不到0.03,壤中流是丘陵山区径流的主要来源;茶园开发加剧了丘陵山区的氮素流失,茶园径流TN流失强度高达103.08 kg/(hm2·a),分别是次生马尾松林和毛竹林的7.6和23.2倍,壤中流贡献了流失总量的86.7%~99.7%.防治茶园径流氮流失需重点关注壤中流输出,在减量施肥的基础上,采取坡脚构建毛竹林生态缓冲带/在小流域出口布设塘坝等原位拦截措施,实现流域氮流失综合防控.  相似文献
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