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1.
Dissolved pollutants in stormwater are a main contributor to water pollution in urban environments. However, many existing transport models are semi-empirical and only consider one-dimensional flows, which limit their predictive capacity. Combining the shallow water and the advection–diffusion equations, a two-dimensional physically based model is developed for dissolved pollutant transport by adopting the concept of a ‘control layer’. A series of laboratory experiments has been conducted to validate the proposed model, taking into account the effects of buildings and intermittent rainfalls. The predictions are found to be in good agreement with experimental observations, which supports the assumption that the depth of the control layer is constant. Based on the validated model, a parametric study is conducted, focusing on the characteristics of the pollutant distribution and transport rate over the depth. The hyetograph, including the intensity, duration and intermittency, of rainfall event has a significant influence on the pollutant transport rates. The depth of the control layer, rainfall intensity, surface roughness and area length are dominant factors that affect the dissolved pollutant transport. Finally, several perspectives of the new pollutant transport model are discussed. This study contributes to an in-depth understanding of the dissolved pollutant transport processes on impermeable surfaces and urban stormwater management.  相似文献   
2.
Investigating the performance that can be achieved with different hydrological models across catchments with varying characteristics is a requirement for identifying an adequate model for any catchment, gauged or ungauged, just based on information about its climate and catchment properties. As parameter uncertainty increases with the number of model parameters, it is important not only to identify a model achieving good results but also to aim at the simplest model still able to provide acceptable results. The main objective of this study is to identify the climate and catchment properties determining the minimal required complexity of a hydrological model. As previous studies indicate that the required model complexity varies with the temporal scale, the study considers the performance at the daily, monthly, and annual timescales. In agreement with previous studies, the results show that catchments located in arid areas tend to be more difficult to model. They therefore require more complex models for achieving an acceptable performance. For determining which other factors influence model performance, an analysis was carried out for four catchment groups (snowy, arid, and eastern and western catchments). The results show that the baseflow and aridity indices are the most consistent predictors of model performance across catchment groups and timescales. Both properties are negatively correlated with model performance. Other relevant predictors are the fraction of snow in the annual precipitation (negative correlation with model performance), soil depth (negative correlation with model performance), and some other soil properties. It was observed that the sign of the correlation between the catchment characteristics and model performance varies between clusters in some cases, stressing the difficulties encountered in large sample analyses. Regarding the impact of the timescale, the study confirmed previous results indicating that more complex models are needed for shorter timescales.  相似文献   
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基于甘肃省清水县汤峪河径流小区2015—2017年的观测数据,研究不同植被恢复模式条件下坡面次降雨入渗、产流产沙特征。结果表明:不同植被恢复模式条件下的土壤入渗量与降雨强度呈二次函数关系,存在入渗量达到最大值的临界降雨强度。入渗速率与降雨历时可以用幂函数关系表达,符合考斯恰可夫入渗模型。不同植被恢复模式条件下的产流率在0.003 3~0.003 6 mm·min-1之间,相对裸地的减流率为54%~58%。产流率与降雨强度之间呈二次函数关系(R2>0.88),产流率的主要影响因素是降雨强度。径流含沙量平均值乔灌混合区(3.13 g·L-1)>灌木林(2.95 g·L-1)>乔木林(2.79 g·L-1)>草地(2.58 g·L-1),径流含沙量与降雨强度呈线性递增函数关系。裸地的产沙量显著高于各植被小区(P<0.05),是各植被小区的43~57倍,各植被小区的减沙率在93%~94%之间,减沙效益高于其减流效益。各植被坡面土壤流失量与降雨侵蚀力呈线性递增函数关系;产流率与侵蚀产沙率之间呈极显著正相关关系(P<0.01),二者间可采用二次函数关系表达。本研究成果可为黄土高原丘陵沟壑区水土保持优化配置提供理论依据。  相似文献   
5.
吕海深 《水文》2020,40(1):13-17
大孔隙流是土壤优先流的一种,在植被发育区土壤大孔隙比较常见,对径流形成过程产生重要的影响。介绍了大孔隙流的研究方法,系统总结了近50年植被发育区土壤大孔隙对降雨入渗过程及径流形成过程的影响:从水分入渗的角度,大孔隙可以加快降雨入渗过程;由土壤大孔隙流与山坡产流的关系,大孔隙促进了边坡雨水的运动进而引起了快速产流;世界范围内的研究都表明土壤管流或大孔隙流是径流组分重要贡献者。  相似文献   
6.
长江口、钱塘江口和珠江口是受咸潮影响较为严重的区域。本文利用全国沿海海平面变化影响调查、沿海水文观测等数据,分析了近十年长江口、珠江口和钱塘江口咸潮入侵的变化特征及影响。分析结果表明:(1) 2009-2018年,长江口咸潮入侵次数和持续时间均呈减少趋势,该时段长江口共监测到约48次咸潮入侵过程,发生时间集中在9-10月至翌年5月,其中3月和11月入侵次数较多,分别为12次和7次。(2)钱塘江口咸潮入侵过程受沿海季节性海平面影响显著,12月至翌年3月为钱塘江口季节性低海平面期,4-7月上旬径流量较大,上述两个时期钱塘江口受咸潮入侵的影响均较小,7月下旬至11月上旬,钱塘江口处于季节性高海平面期,是咸潮影响的集中时段。(3) 2009-2018年,珠江口共监测到约57次咸潮入侵过程,发生时间集中在9-10月至翌年3-4月,其中1月、2月和10月咸潮入侵次数较多,均超过10次,2015年至今咸潮持续时间明显增加。(4)咸潮入侵次数和持续时间与基础海面和径流量等密切相关,咸潮入侵影响三大河口沿线水厂供水以及工农业生产取水,给沿岸城市的居民生活、工农业生产和渔业养殖等造成一定不利影响。  相似文献   
7.
In estuaries, the morphology of inland and offshore areas usually evolves synergistically. This study examines the decadal link between longitudinal changes in morphology of branching channels and movement of the offshore depo-center (where sediment deposition rate is maximum) of the Yangtze River estuary, under intense human interference. Integrated data analysis is provided on morphology, runoff discharge, and ebb partition ratio from 1950 to 2017. Channel-volume reductions and change rates between isobaths in branching channels reflect the impact of estuarine engineering projects. Ebb partition ratio and duration of discharge ≥ 60 000 m3 s-1 act as proxies for the water excavating force in branching channels and runoff intensity. It is found that deposition occurs in the lower/upper sub-reaches (or further downstream/upstream channels) of the inland north/south branching channels, and the offshore depo-center moves southward or southeastward, as runoff intensity grows; the reverse occurs as runoff intensity declines. This is because the horizontal circumfluence in the Yangtze estuary rotates clockwise as ebb partition ratios of the north/south branching channels increase/decrease for increasing runoff, and conversely rotates anticlockwise for decreasing runoff. Land reclamation activities, the Deepwater Channel Project, and the Qingcaosha Reservoir have impacted greatly on longitudinal changes of morphology in the North Branch and the South Passage and on ebb partition ratio variations in the North/South Channel and the North/South Passage. Dam-induced runoff flattening has enhanced deposition in the upper/lower sub-reaches of the north/south branching channels and caused northward movement of the offshore depo-center, except in areas affected by estuarine engineering projects. Dam-induced longitudinal evolution of branching channel morphology and offshore depo-center movement will likely persist in the future, given the ongoing construction of large cascade dams in the upper Yangtze and the completion of major projects in the Yangtze estuary. © 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
8.
In the Dolomitic region, abundant coarse hillslope sediment is commonly found at the toe of rocky cliffs. Ephemeral channels originate where lower permeability bedrock surfaces concentrate surface runoff. Debris flows initiate along such channels following intense rainfall and determine the progressive erosion and deepening of the channels. Sediment recharge mechanisms include rock fall, dry ravel processes and channel-bank failures. Here we document debris flow activity that took place in an active debris flow basin during the year 2015. The Cancia basin is located on the southwestern slope of Mount Antelao (3264 m a.s.l.) in the dolomitic region of the eastern Italian Alps. The 2.5 km2 basin is incised in dolomitic limestone rocks. The data consist of repeated topographic surveys, distributed rainfall measurements, time-lapse (2 s) videos of two events and pore pressure measurements in the channel bed. During July and August 2015, two debris flow events occurred, following similarly intense rainstorms. We compared rainfall data to existing rainfall triggering thresholds and simulated the hydrological response of the headwater catchment with a distributed model in order to estimate the total and peak water discharge. Our data clearly illustrate how debris entrainment along the channel is the main contributor to the overall mobilized volume and that erosion is dominant when the channel slope exceeds 16°. Further downstream, sediment accumulation and depletion occurred alternately for the two successive events, indicating that sediment availability along the channel also influences the flow behaviour along the prevailing-transport reach. The comparison between monitoring data, topographical analysis and hydrological simulation allows the estimation of the average solid concentration of the two events and suggests that debris availability has a significant influence on the debris flow volume. © 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
9.
The use of heavy machinery during opencast coal mining can result in soil compaction. Severe soil compaction has a negative impact on the transport of water and gas in the soil. In addition, rainfall intensity has traditionally been related to soil surface sealing affecting water transport. To assess the effects of rainfall intensity and compaction on water infiltration and surface runoff in an opencast coal mining area, the disturbed soils from the Antaibao opencast mine in Shanxi Province, China, were collected. Four soil columns with different bulk densities (i.e., 1.4 g cm-3, 1.5 g cm-3, 1.6 g cm-3, and 1.7 g cm-3) were designed, and each column received water five times at rainfall intensities of 23.12, 28.91, 38.54, 57.81, and 115.62 mm hr-1. The total volume of runoff, the time to start runoff, and the volumetric water contents at the depths of 5 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm, 35 cm, 45 cm, 55 cm, and 65 cm were measured. Under the same soil bulk density, high rainfall intensity reduced infiltration, increased surface runoff, and decreased the magnitude of change in the volumetric water contents at different depths. Under the same rainfall intensity, the soil column with a high bulk density showed relatively low water infiltration. Treatments 3 (1.6 g cm-3) and 4 (1.7 g cm-3) had very small changes in volumetric water contents of the profiles even under a lower rainfall intensity. Severe soil compaction was highly prone to surface runoff after rainfall. Engineering and revegetation measures are available to improve compacted soil quality in dumps. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the management of land reclamation in opencast coal mine areas.  相似文献   
10.
Infiltration into frozen soil plays an important role in soil freeze–thaw and snowmelt-driven hydrological processes. To better understand the complex thermal energy and water transport mechanisms involved, the influence of antecedent moisture content and macroporosity on infiltration into frozen soil was investigated. Ponded infiltration experiments on frozen macroporous and non-macroporous soil columns revealed that dry macroporous soil produced infiltration rates reaching 103 to 104 mm day−1, two to three orders of magnitude larger than dry non-macroporous soil. Results suggest that rapid infiltration and drainage were a result of preferential flow through initially air-filled macropores. Using recorded flow rates and measured macropore characteristics, calculations indicated that a combination of both saturated flow and unsaturated film flow likely occurred within macropores. Under wet conditions, regardless of the presence of macropores, infiltration was restricted by the slow thawing rate of pore ice, producing infiltration rates of 2.8 to 5.0 mm day−1. Reduced preferential flow under wet conditions was attributed to a combination of soil swelling, due to smectite-rich clay (that reduced macropore volume), and pore ice blockage within macropores. In comparison, dry soil column experiments demonstrated that macropores provided conduits for water and thermal energy to bypass the frozen matrix during infiltration, reducing thaw rates compared with non-macroporous soils. Overall, results showed the dominant control of antecedent moisture content on the initiation, timing, and magnitude of infiltration and flow in frozen macroporous soils, as well as the important role of macropore connectivity. The study provides an important data set that can aid the development of hydrological models that consider the interacting effects of soil freeze–thaw and preferential flow on snowmelt partitioning in cold regions.  相似文献   
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