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1.
The variability of rainfall-dependent streamflow at catchment scale modulates many ecosystem processes in wet temperate forests. Runoff in small mountain catchments is characterized by a quick response to rainfall pulses which affects biogeochemical fluxes to all downstream systems. In wet-temperate climates, water erosion is the most important natural factor driving downstream soil and nutrient losses from upland ecosystems. Most hydrochemical studies have focused on water flux measurements at hourly scales, along with weekly or monthly samples for water chemistry. Here, we assessed how water and element flows from broad-leaved, evergreen forested catchments in southwestern South America, are influenced by different successional stages, quantifying runoff, sediment transport and nutrient fluxes during hourly rainfall events of different intensities. Hydrograph comparisons among different successional stages indicated that forested catchments differed in their responses to high intensity rainfall, with greater runoff in areas covered by secondary forests (SF), compared to old-growth forest cover (OG) and dense scrub vegetation (CH). Further, throughfall water was greatly nutrient enriched for all forest types. Suspended sediment loads varied between successional stages. SF catchments exported 455 kg of sediments per ha, followed by OG with 91 kg/ha and CH with 14 kg/ha, corresponding to 11 rainfall events measured from December 2013 to April 2014. Total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) concentrations in stream water also varied with rainfall intensity. In seven rainfall events sampled during the study period, CH catchments exported less nutrients (46 kg/ha TN and 7 kg/ha TP) than SF catchments (718 kg/ha TN and 107 kg/ha TP), while OG catchments exported intermediate sediment loads (201 kg/ha TN and 23 kg/ha TP). Further, we found significant effects of successional stage attributes (vegetation structure and soil physical properties) and catchment morphometry on runoff and sediment concentrations, and greater nutrients retention in OG and CH catchments. We conclude that in these southern hemisphere, broad-leaved evergreen temperate forests, hydrological processes are driven by multiple interacting phenomena, including climate, vegetation, soils, topography, and disturbance history.  相似文献   
2.
Water quality is often highly variable both in space and time, which poses challenges for modelling the more extreme concentrations. This study developed an alternative approach to predicting water quality quantiles at individual locations. We focused on river water quality data that were collected over 25 years, at 102 catchments across the State of Victoria, Australia. We analysed and modelled spatial patterns of the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles of the concentrations of sediments, nutrients and salt, with six common constituents: total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrate-nitrite (NOx), and electrical conductivity (EC). To predict the spatial variation of each quantile for each constituent, we developed statistical regression models and exhaustively searched through 50 catchment characteristics to identify the best set of predictors for that quantile. The models predict the spatial variation in individual quantiles of TSS, TKN and EC well (66%–96% spatial variation explained), while those for TP, FRP and NOx have lower performance (37%–73% spatial variation explained). The most common factors that influence the spatial variations of the different constituents and quantiles are: annual temperature, percentage of cropping land area in catchment and channel slope. The statistical models developed can be used to predict how low- and high-concentration quantiles change with landscape characteristics, and thus provide a useful tool for catchment managers to inform planning and policy making with changing climate and land use conditions.  相似文献   
3.
Berry Head, a limestone headland in Torbay, southwest England, exhibits a series of subaerial marine erosion platforms and raised beaches spanning an altitude range of 97 m. Solution caves on the headland show preferred horizontal development at elevations that are correlated with the marine erosion platforms, and developed in a marine/freshwater mixing zone whose position was controlled by high sea-level still-stands. Corbridge Cave in Berry Head Quarry lies below the raised beaches in Torbay, and contains evidence of three marine transgressions in the form of fine-grained marine ponding deposits with a marine microfauna. Uranium-series dating of intercalated speleothems indicates that a transgression during oxygen isotope stage 5e reached an elevation of 5.8 m OD, while an earlier transgression (probably during stage 7) reached at least 7.2 m OD. These findings are used to constrain possible interpretations of the aminostratigraphy of raised beaches in Southwest Britain, and a correlation of the Unnamed Stage of Bowen, Sykes, Reeves, Miller, Andrews, Brew and Hare with oxygen isotope stage 5e is proposed.  相似文献   
4.
A new analysis of all 346 published 14C dated Holocene alluvial units in Britain offers a unique insight into the regional impacts of global change and shows how surprisingly sensitive British rivers have been to relatively modest but repeated changes in climate. Fourteen major but probably brief periods of flooding are identified bracketed within the periods 400–1070, 1940–3940, 7520–8100 and at ca. 10 420 cal. yr BP. There is a strong correspondence between climatic deteriorations inferred from mire wet shifts and major periods of flooding, especially at ca. 8000 cal. yr BP and since ca. 4000 cal. yr BP. The unusually long and complete British record also demonstrates that alterations in land cover have resulted in a step change in river basin sensitivity to variations in climate. This has very important implications for assessing and mitigating the impact of increasing severe flooding. In small and medium‐sized river basins land use is likely to play a key role in either moderating or amplifying the climatic signal. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
5.
A critical evaluation of literature values for the solubility products, K sp NBS = [Fe2+][HS] Fe2+ HS (H NBS + )–1, of various iron sulphide phases results in consensus values for the pKs of 2.95 ± 0.1 for amorphous ferrous sulphide, 3.6 ± 0.2 for mackinawite, 4.4 ± 0.1 for greigite, 5.1 ± 0.1 for pyrrhotite, 5.25 ± 0.2 for troilite and 16.4 ± 1.2 for pyrite.Where the analogous ion activity products have been measured in anoxic freshwaters in which there is evidence for the presence of solid phase FeS, the values lie within the range of 2.6–3.22, indicating that amorphous iron sulphide is the controlling phase. The single value for a groundwater of 2.65 (2.98 considering carbonate complexation) agrees. In seawater four values range between 3.85 to 4.2, indicating that mackinawite or greigite may be the controlling phase. The single low value of 2.94 is in a situation where particularly high fluxes of Fe (II) and S (–II) may result in the preferential precipitation of amorphous iron sulphide. Formation of framboidal pyrite in these sulphidic environments may occur in micro-niches and does not appear to influence bulk concentrations. Calculations show that the formation of Fe2S2 species probably accounts for very little of the iron or sulphide in most natural waters. Previously reported stability constants for the formation of Fe (HS)2 and (Fe (HS)3) are shown to be suspect, and these species are also thought to be negligible in natural waters. In completely anoxic pore waters polysulphides also have a negligible effect on speciation, but in tidal sediments they may reach appreciable concentrations and lead to the direct formation of pyrite. Concentrations of iron and sulphide in pore waters can be controlled by the more soluble iron sulphide phase. The change in the IAP with depth within the sediment may reflect ageing of the solid phase or a greater flux of Fe (II) and S (–II) nearer the sediment surface. This possible kinetic influence on the value of IAPs has implications for their use in geochemical studies involving phase formation.  相似文献   
6.
Based on our detailed structural characterization, we examine possible relationships between thrust faults and strike-slip faults and thrust-cored folds and depositional units in the Silla Syncline, a 4 km wide fold composed of fine-grained mudstone, coarse sandstone and conglomerate deposits of the Cerro Toro Formation in the Magallanes foreland basin, Chilean Patagonia. The syncline is bounded on its western flank by an asymmetric anticline and on its eastern flank by a broad zone of thrust faults and associated folds, which are oriented sub-parallel to the syncline axis. Deposition of the coarse-grained units of the Silla Syncline appears to have taken place in this structurally defined trough controlled primarily by thrust fault related growth structures flanking the syncline.The syncline and surrounding area have also been deformed by two sets of strike-slip faults, one right-lateral and one left-lateral. The strike-slip and thrust faulting operated contemporaneously for much of their active periods, although it appears that thrust faulting, confined within the fine-grained units, initiated slightly earlier than strike-slip faulting. In addition, younger igneous intrusions at high angle to bedding generally localize along the strike-slip faults. The cross-cutting relationships among the intrusions, strike-slip faults, and flexural slip faults show that all these structures were active during the same period, which extends beyond mid-Miocene.These conclusions support the premise that structures in deep-water sediments are important for understanding not only the deformation of a foreland basin, but also its depositional architecture.  相似文献   
7.
Three discriminant function models are raised and cross-compared in order to distinguish geochemical patterns characteristic for the Drava River floodplain sediments. Based on data representing total element concentrations in samples collected from alluvium (A), terrace (T), and unconsolidated bedrock (B) at the border of a floodplain, four element clusters emerged accounting for discrimination between the referred groups of sediments. The most prominent is contaminant/carbonate cluster characteristic for alluvium. The other two are: silicate cluster typical for unconsolidated geological substrate (Neogene sedimentary rocks); and naturally dispersed heavy metal cluster separating terrace from the former two groups. Models introducing depth intervals and single profiles as grouping criteria reveal identical sediment-heavy metal matrices. The second important issue of this paper is possibility of reclassification of samples originally assigned to one of the a priori defined groups of sediments, based on established geochemical pattern. The mapped geological units can be reconsidered by the post hoc assignments to a different group if geological border between alluvium and terrace or between terrace and bedrock can not be established geologically with absolute certainty.  相似文献   
8.
在冈底斯岩浆岩带的羊八井地区,林子宗火山岩系上部出现小规模的粗面质火山岩.岩石学与地球化学研究表明粗面岩与时空密切相关的大体积安山质-英安质-流纹质火山岩属于不同的火山岩系:碱性钾质系列与钙碱性系列.详细的地球化学研究证明林子宗晚期小体积钾质岩具有独立的岩浆源区,而非早期钙碱性系统低压岩浆过程演化的产物.粗面质熔岩SiO2含量为62.91%~64.63%,具有高K2O(7.52%~8.05%)、Al2O3(16.64%-17.35%)、低TiO2(0.59%~0.68%)与MsO(0.15%~0.77%).钾质熔岩富集LILE与LREE,亏损HFSE,具有高Rb/Sr(1.1~2.3)、Th/La(0.59~0.80)、Th/U(6.3~10.9)和低Ce/Pb(4.1~6.2)与Ba/Th(4.3~14.5)比值,其同位素组成变化范围分别是87Sr/86Sr(I)=0.7068~0.7075、143Nd/144Nd(I)=0.51241~0.51252、206Pb/204Pb=18.87~18.95、207Pb/204Pb=15.63~15.70和208Pb/204Pb=39.24~39.68.粗面岩的地球化学与同位素特征表明冈底斯新近纪钾质火山岩来源于角闪岩相的消减沉积物熔融.因此,羊八井新近纪钾质火山熔岩提供了印度-亚洲大陆碰撞早期消减沉积物折返的证据.  相似文献   
9.
大同盆地孔隙地下水化学场的分带规律性研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
本文通过对大同盆地2004年孔隙地下水水化学资料的分析发现,盆地内孔隙地下水的水化学特征在水平方向上具有以盆地中部为中心,呈环状分布的特点,且与盆地水动力分区具有很好的一致性。由山前冲洪积倾斜平原到中部冲湖积平原,地下水依次经历了补给区、径流区和排泄区,相应的主要水化学类型分别为HCO3型、HCO3.SO4型和HCO3.SO4.Cl型。与中深层孔隙水相比,浅层孔隙水由于水位埋深浅,蒸发浓缩强烈,易受人类活动的影响,各组分的含量较高,变化幅度较大,水化学类型也相对复杂。浅层地下水的水质呈好转趋势,深层地下水水质基本保持稳定。  相似文献   
10.
长江三角洲北翼J9孔揭示地层和古地磁特征   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
长江三角洲北翼地区缺少较长尺度的第四纪海陆变迁及环境演变的深入探讨,深达423m的海安县基岩标J9孔为此提供了较好的研究对象。通过观察该孔松散层岩心,总结其沉积特征,认为岩心可明显地划分为6个特征岩性段。同时,地层古地磁测试结果显示:0~200m为布容正极性世,200~334m为松山负极性世,334m以下为高斯正极性世。综合分析岩心沉积特征并参考古地磁测试结果对地层进行了初步划分,认为:0~39m为全新世地层,39~153m为晚更新世地层,153~200m为中更新世地层,200-334m为早更新世地层,之下为新近纪地层。地层中存在晚更新世晚期特征的硬粘土标志层,指示本地不是冰后期古河谷的发育地。  相似文献   
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