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1.
The heat capacity (C p ) of dmitryivanovite synthesized with a cubic press was measured in the temperature range of 5–664 K using the heat capacity option of a physical properties measurement system and a differential scanning calorimeter. The entropy of dmitryivanovite at standard temperature and pressure (STP) was calculated to be 110.1 ± 1.6 J mol−1 K−1 from the measured C p data. With the help of new phase equilibrium experiments done at 1.5 GPa, the phase transition boundary between krotite and dmitryivanovite was best represented by the equation: P (GPa) = −2.1825 + 0.0025 T (K). From the temperature intercept of this phase boundary and other available thermodynamic data for krotite and dmitryivanovite, the enthalpy of formation and Gibbs free energy of formation of dmitryivanovite at STP were calculated to be −2326.7 ± 2.1 and −2,208.1 ± 2.1 kJ mol−1, respectively. It is also inferred that dmitryivanovite is the stable CaAl2O4 phase at STP and has a wide stability field at high pressures whereas the stability field of krotite is located at high temperatures and relatively low pressures. This conclusion is consistent with natural occurrences (in Ca–Al-rich inclusions) of dmitryivanovite and krotite, where the former is interpreted as the shock metamorphic product of originally present krotite.  相似文献
2.
The low-temperature heat capacity (C P) of stishovite (SiO2) synthesized with a multi-anvil device was measured over the range of 5–303 K using the heat capacity option of a physical properties measurement system (PPMS) and around ambient temperature using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The entropy of stishovite at standard temperature and pressure calculated from DSC-corrected PPMS data is 24.94 J mol−1 K−1, which is considerably smaller (by 2.86 J mol−1 K−1) than that determined from adiabatic calorimetry (Holm et al. in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 31:2289–2307, 1967) and about 4% larger than the recently reported value (Akaogi et al. in Am Mineral 96:1325–1330, 2011). The coesite–stishovite phase transition boundary calculated using the newly determined entropy value of stishovite agrees reasonably well with the previous experimental results by Zhang et al. (Phys Chem Miner 23:1–10, 1996). The calculated phase boundary of kyanite decomposition reaction is most comparable with the experimental study by Irifune et al. (Earth Planet Sci Lett 77:245–256, 1995) at low temperatures around 1,400 K, and the calculated slope in this temperature range is mostly consistent with that determined by in situ X-ray diffraction experiments (Ono et al. in Am Mineral 92:1624–1629, 2007).  相似文献
3.
Spatial profiling of community food security data can help the targeting of geographic areas and populations most vulnerable to food insecurity. While multiple poverty mapping systems support spatial profiling, they often lack capabilities to disseminate mapping results to a wide range of audiences and to spatially link qualitative data to quantitative analysis. To address these limitations, this study presents a web mapping framework which integrates a variety of publicly available software tools to enable spatial exploration of both quantitative and qualitative data. Specifically, our framework allows online choropleth mapping and thematic data exploration through a mixture of free mapping Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) and open source software tools for spatial data processing and desktop-like user interfaces. The study demonstrates this framework by developing a web prototype for informing food insecurity issues in Bogotá, Colombia. The prototype implementation reveals that the proposed framework facilitates the development of scalable and functionally-extensible mapping systems and the identification of community-specific food insecurity problems (e.g., food kitchens inaccessible from workplaces of low-income residents). This suggests that web-based cartographic visualization using publicly available software tools can be useful for spatial examination of community food insecurity as well as for cost-effective distribution of the resulting map information.  相似文献
4.
The Carnian Raibl group of the Eastern Alps consists of three 50–100 m thick, alternating carbonate and clastic third-order cycles, each of which can be traced for hundreds of kilometers. Tectono-eustatic sea-level fluctuations of a few tens of metres, spanning a few millions of years, are the driving mechanism of this cyclicity. The carbonate intervals represent restricted marginal marine, tidal and evaporitic environments. The clastic intervals represent inner and outer shelf facies, and are related to the fluviatile “Schilfsandstein” of the Germanic facies belt. In the Raibl group, contrary to other carbonate/clastic depositional settings, relative sea-level lowstands are dominated by carbonate production, and highstands are dominated by clastic deposition.

Each of the three Raibl cycles corresponds to a type-2 sequence, containing shelf margin, transgressive and highstand systems tracts. During sea-level lowstands, deltaic point sources were near the shelf margin, allowing clastics to bypass the carbonate platform. This setting corresponds to a shelf margin systems tract. Transgressive and highstand systems tracts developed during the subsequent sea-level rise, as deltaic clastics were reworked and redistributed over the carbonate platform, and the deltas retrograded to the inner shelf. The highstand systems tracts are capped by a type 2 sequence boundary, which is conformable in the study area. The systems tracts can be further subdivided into shallowing upward subcycles, caused by fourth-order sea-level fluctuations, believed to represent Milankovitch rhythms.

The middle Raibl cycle is consistently thinner, and may represent a shorter termed, third-order sea-level fluctuation. Our data also corroborate a second-order transgressive trend for the Carnian.  相似文献

5.
6.
Major (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Si) and minor (Cd, Pb, Zn) elements of aeolian dust samples collected onboard ship around Italy were analysed, and the concentrations of metal in the dusts were in good agreement with previously published data from the Mediterranean Sea.
The elemental composition of dust samples collected in four subareas (Adriatic, Ionian, Tyrrhenian, and Sicily Channel) was compared with the composition of marine deep sediments obtained in the same regions: Mn, Al, Cd and Zn contents differentiated between the four areas in both sets of samples, suggesting a possible 'geochemical signature' of the atmospheric crustal contribution in marine deep sediments.
An estimate of the relative contribution of atmospheric dry deposition of Cd, Pb and Zn and riverine discharge indicates that: (a) the metals deposited from the atmosphere to the Adriatic basin are a small fraction (2–5%) of those discharged by the Po and Adige rivers; (b) almost the same amounts of Cd, Pb and Zn are delivered to the Tyrrhenian Sea by the atmosphere and by the Arno and Tiber Rivers.  相似文献
7.
Besides systematic instrumental and environmental effects in high-precision levellings and gravimetry, some theoretical problems are decisive in the evaluation and interpretation of recent vertical crustal movements. In view of the increased accuracy of recently developed portable instruments for absolute gravity measurements, some global effects on gravity may no longer be neglected, necessitating additional time-dependent reductions for polar motion effects. Another problem concerns the evaluation of recent vertical crustal movements from repeated geodetic measurements: a rigorous treatment of the problem demands both repeated levellings and gravity measurements; only under additional hypotheses can these limitating prerequisites be eliminated.  相似文献
8.
9.
Heavy-mineral geochemistry and its use in prospecting are based on the fact that some ore minerals (e.g. cassiterite, scheelite, wolframite, chromite, pyrochlore and columbite-tantalite) have a higher specific gravity than the common rock-forming silicates and are highly resistant to weathering in the secondary environment. Till, the most common type of surficial deposit in Finland, is relatively homogeneous and thus constitutes an appropriate sampling material for heavy-mineral geochemical studies. This is especially true in reconnaissance prospecting.The present work concentrates on the interpretation of heavy-mineral anomalies by reference to mineralogical and mineral chemistry data. Tetrabromoethane and a Frantz Isodynamic Separator were used to divide the heavy-mineral samples into subfractions, after which the minerals present were identified by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, electron microprobe techniques and X-ray diffraction.Applications of the methods at three tin anomaly sites in southern Finland are described. The results successfully predicted the presence of a greisen in one area and a pegmatite in another. Those for the third area were somewhat contradictory, the mineralogical composition of the samples suggesting a greisen source for the tin while the composition of the cassiterite pointed to a pegmatite or granite source.  相似文献
10.
The variation of Cu and Zn contents with grain size was studied in the size fractions: 2000-500 μm, 500-64 μm, 64-2 μm and minus 2 μm. The fixation to different minerals was investigated in the 500-64 μm and minus 64 μm fractions with microscope, microprobe, electron microscope and X-ray diffraction after heavy-liquid separation.The distribution of Cu and Zn between the four size fractions is very similar in all target areas. The contents tend to be highest in the minus 2 μm fraction, and to decrease with increasing grain size except for an increase in the coarsest material. This feature is typical in mineralized areas with till having anomalously high Cu and Zn contents.The anomalous Cu and Zn in the till of Talvivaara are mainly fixed to chalcopyrite and sphalerite, respectively, which indicates that the main part of the material originates from fresh bedrock and that postglacial alterations are slight. In the till of Outokumpu and Maaselkä sulphides are rare. We assume that in Outokumpu the reason for this is the postglacial weathering of sulphides and that in Maaselkä a great deal of till derives from highly weathered, sulphide-poor, preglacial regolith. In both target areas Cu in till seems to fix to limonite and also to clay minerals, particularly in Maaselkä. Zinc seems mainly to be hosted by limonite in Outokumpu.  相似文献
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