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1.
Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze quantitatively water in silicate glasses and melt inclusions and to monitor H2O–OH speciation. Calibration is based on synthetic glasses with various water contents (0.02–7.67% H2O); water determination and OH–H2O differentiation on the area of the Si–O broad band at 468 cm–1 and the asymmetric O–H band at 3,550 cm–1. Each Raman spectrum has been decomposed into four Gaussian + Lorentzian components centered at 3,330, 3,458, 3,560, and 3,626 cm–1 using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. These components are interpreted to be two different types of H2O molecule sites. The influence of the temperature on the loss of water is more important for molecular water than for the hydroxyl groups. The H2O–OH partition confirms the typical evolution of water speciation in rhyolitic glasses as a function of the bulk water content. Method limitations have been studied for the application to natural melt inclusions.Editorial responsibility: T.L Grove  相似文献
2.
The Rosia Poieni deposit is the largest porphyry copper deposit in the Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Hydrothermal alteration and mineralization are related to the Middle Miocene emplacement of a subvolcanic body, the Fundoaia microdiorite. Zonation of the alteration associated with the porphyry copper deposit is recognized from the deep and central part of the porphyritic intrusion towards shallower and outer portions. Four alteration types have been distinguished: potassic, phyllic, advanced argillic, and propylitic. Potassic alteration affects mainly the Fundoaia subvolcanic body. The andesitic host rocks are altered only in the immediate contact zone with the Fundoaia intrusion. Mg-biotite and K-feldspar are the main alteration minerals of the potassic assemblage, accompanied by ubiquitous quartz; chlorite, and anhydrite are also present. Magnetite, pyrite, chalcopyrite and minor bornite, are associated with this alteration. Phyllic alteration has overprinted the margin of the potassic zone, and formed peripheral to it. It is characterized by the replacement of almost all early minerals by abundant quartz, phengite, illite, variable amounts of illite-smectite mixed-layer minerals, minor smectite, and kaolinite. Pyrite is abundant and represents the main sulfide in this alteration zone. Advanced argillic alteration affects the upper part of the volcanic structure. The mineral assemblage comprises alunite, kaolinite, dickite, pyrophyllite, diaspore, aluminium-phosphate-sulphate minerals (woodhouseite-svanbergite series), zunyite, minamyite, pyrite, and enargite (luzonite). Alunite forms well-developed crystals. Veins with enargite (luzonite) and pyrite in a gangue of quartz, pyrophyllite and diaspore, are present within and around the subvolcanic intrusion. This alteration type is partially controlled by fractures. A zonal distribution of alteration minerals is observed from the centre of fractures outwards with: (1) vuggy quartz; (2) quartz + alunite; (3) quartz + kaolinite ± alunite and, in the deeper part of the argillic zone, quartz + pyrophyllite + diaspore; (4) illite + illite-smectite mixed-layer minerals ± kaolinite ± alunite, and e) chlorite + albite + epidote. Propylitic alteration is present distal to all other alteration types and consists of chlorite, epidote, albite, and carbonates. Mineral parageneses, mineral stability fields, and alteration mineral geothermometers indicate that the different alteration assemblages are the result of changes in both fluid composition and temperature of the system. The alteration minerals reflect cooling of the hydrothermal system from >400 °C (biotite), to 300–200 °C (chlorite and illite in veinlets) and to lower temperatures of kaolinite, illite-smectite mixed layers, and smectite crystallization. Hydrothermal alteration started with an extensive potassic zone in the central part of the system that passed laterally to the propylitic zone. It was followed by phyllic overprint of the early-altered rocks. Nearly barren advanced argillic alteration subsequently superimposed the upper levels of the porphyry copper alteration zones. The close spatial association between porphyry mineralization and advanced argillic alteration suggests that they are genetically part of the same magmatic-hydrothermal system that includes a porphyry intrusion at depth and an epithermal environment of the advanced argillic type near the surface.Editorial handling: B. Lehmann  相似文献
3.
Investigation of solid waste soil as road construction material   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The geotechnical properties of solid waste soils for use as sub-base materials in road construction were investigated. A series of field tests and laboratory tests were performed to assess the physical and mechanical properties of the solid waste soils sampled from a landfill site, near to a riverside, which had been reclaimed over the last two decades. The tests showed that geotechnical properties are clearly affected by the magnitude of organic matter content. As the organic matter content increases, the maximum dry unit weight, the shear strength and bearing capacity of ground decrease, while the void ratio and compressibility increase. If the organic matter content is more than about 8% in solid waste soils, it is not suitable for use as a sub-base material in road construction due to the significant decrease of shear strength and bearing capacity.  相似文献
4.
Experiments were conducted to study Mg diffusion in quartz grain boundaries. A detector particle method was used to study grain-boundary diffusion because Mg was confined exclusively to the grain boundaries. Diffusion couples were assembled by placing a MgF2 disk against a disk of quartzite, which was placed against a disk of quartzite that contained fayalite (Fe2SiO4) ‘detector particles.’ During diffusion experiments, Mg diffused along the grain boundaries of the central quartzite toward the fayalite quartzite where it was incorporated into fayalite detector particles. The only pathway for transport from the diffusant source to fayalite detector particles was through the grain boundaries in the central quartzite. The cross-sectional area of the grain boundaries that delivered Mg to the fayalite detector particles was determined from scanning electron microscope images. The Mg contents of the fayalite detector particles were used to calculate the mass of Mg that fluxed through the grain boundaries. During the diffusion experiments, pyroxene crystallites nucleated and grew in the central quartzites from Mg and Fe that was transported along quartz grain boundaries. The Mg contents of the crystallites vary linearly throughout the quartzites, suggesting that steady-state transport conditions were rapidly established in the quartz grain boundaries. Magnesium concentrations in the pyroxene crystallites are proportional to concentration gradients in the grain boundaries of the central quartzite. Grain-boundary fluxes and linear concentration gradients were used to calculate diffusion of Mg in grain boundaries of the central quartzite component in the diffusion couples.  相似文献
5.
The West Development Program, initiated in 2000 by the central government of China, has attracted huge investments in the arid and semiarid regions of northwest China. As a consequence of this development, environmental pollution and ecological degradation have been widely reported. The Silk Road economic belt proposed by China promotes further economic development in the regions, but rational planning and regular monitoring are essential to minimize any additional negative impacts of the anthropogenic activities. This article reports an investigation on the distribution, enrichment and sources of trace metals in the topsoil in and around the Ningxia Hengli Steel Wire Plant (HSWP) situated along the Silk Road economic belt. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, V and Co in the surface soils of the study area vary, respectively, in the following ranges: 0.083–18.600, 21.9–2681.0, 58.0–100.0, 14.6–169.9, 59.0–4207.3, 19.3–40.8, 411–711, 55.2–76.6 and 7.46–25.21 mg/kg. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Co are significantly higher than their local background values. Pollution levels of these trace metals in the surface soils were assessed using contamination index (C f i ), geo-accumulation index (I geo), modified contamination degree (mC d) and pollution load index. The potential ecological risks caused by the metal pollution were assessed by means of potential ecological risk factor (E f i ) and potential ecological risk index. The Spearman correlation and cluster analysis were applied to determine the contamination sources. The HSWP zone, associated with very high potential ecological risk caused by Pb and Cd, is more seriously contaminated by trace metals than the residential zone. This study indicates that Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Co mainly originate from industrial pollution, whereas Cr, Mn, Ni and V result from both industrial activities and natural processes.  相似文献
6.
Multiple-point statistics are used to model facies heterogeneities in the vadose zone of the Komadugu-Yobe River valley (southeastern Niger) which is presently submitted to an undergoing intensive agricultural development; therefore, increasing quantitative and qualitative pressures are exerted on groundwater resources. The sand–clay heterogeneities are analyzed by means of a Landsat image acquired during a high flow period over a 160 km stretch in the downstream part of the valley and a set of 50 boreholes drilled near the town of Diffa (4 km×4 km area). The horizontal variograms of heterogeneities are characterized by a noticeably constant length scale of 380 m and clayey objects are shown to be randomly distributed in space according to a Poisson process. A set of two-dimensional vertical images is built based on a Boolean procedure and the Snesim algorithm is used to simulate synthetic three-dimensional media. When the vertical correlation length is fitted, the three-dimensional model satisfactorily reproduces the second order statistics of heterogeneities and the specific facies patterns.  相似文献
7.
The epithermal Shila-Paula Au–Ag district is characterized by numerous veins hosted in Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Western Cordillera (southern Peru). Field studies of the ore bodies reveal a systematic association of a main E–W vein with secondary N55–60°W veins—two directions that are also reflected by the orientation of fluid-inclusion planes in quartz crystals of the host rock. In areas where this pattern is not recognized, such as the Apacheta sector, vein emplacement seems to have been guided by regional N40°E and N40°W fractures. Two main vein-filling stages are identified. stage 1 is a quartz–adularia–pyrite–galena–sphalerite–chalcopyrite–electrum–Mn silicate–carbonate assemblage that fills the main E–W veins. stage 2, which contains most of the precious-metal mineralization, is divided into pre-bonanza and bonanza substages. The pre-bonanza substage consists of a quartz–adularia–carbonate assemblage that is observed within the secondary N45–60°W veins, in veinlets that cut the stage 1 assemblage, and in final open-space fillings. The two latter structures are finally filled by the bonanza substage characterized by a Fe-poor sphalerite–chalcopyrite–pyrite–galena–tennantite–tetrahedrite–polybasite–pearceite–electrum assemblage. The ore in the main veins is systematically brecciated, whereas the ore in the secondary veins and geodes is characteristic of open-space crystallization. Microthermometric measurements on sphalerite from both stages and on quartz and calcite from stage 2 indicate a salinity range of 0 to 15.5 wt% NaCl equivalent and homogenization temperatures bracketed between 200 and 330°C. Secondary CO2-, N2- and H2S-bearing fluid inclusions are also identified. The age of vein emplacement, based on 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained on adularia of different veins, is estimated at around 11 Ma, with some overlap between adularia of stage 1 (11.4±0.4 Ma) and of stage 2 (10.8±0.3 Ma). A three-phase tectonic model has been constructed to explain the vein formation. Phase 1 corresponds to the assumed development of E–W sinistral shear zones and associated N60°W cleavages under the effects of a NE–SW shortening direction that is recognized at Andean scale. These structures contain the stage 1 ore assemblage that was brecciated during ongoing deformation. Phase 2 is a reactivation of earlier structures under a NW–SE shortening direction that allowed the reopening of the preexisting schistosity and the formation of scarce N50°E-striking S2-cleavage planes filled by the stage 2 pre-bonanza minerals. Phase 3 coincides with the bonanza ore emplacement in the secondary N45–60°W veins and also in open-space in the core of the main E–W veins. Our combined tectonic, textural, mineralogical, fluid-inclusion, and geochronological study presents a complete model of vein formation in which the reactivation of previously formed tectonic structures plays a significant role in ore formation.  相似文献
8.
Indexing methods are used for the evaluation of aquifer vulnerability and establishing guidelines for the protection of ground-water resources. The principle of the indexing method is to rank influences on groundwater to determine overall vulnerability of an aquifer to contamination. The analytic element method (AEM) of ground-water flow modeling is used to enhance indexing methods by rapidly calculating a potentiometric surface based primarily on surface-water features. This potentiometric map is combined with a digital-elevation model to produce a map of water-table depth. This is an improvement over simple water-table interpolation methods. It is physically based, properly representing surface-water features, hydraulic boundaries, and changes in hydraulic conductivity. The AEM software, SPLIT, is used to improve an aquifer vulnerability assessment for a valley-fill aquifer in western New York State. A GIS-based graphical user interface allows automated conversion of hydrography vector data into analytic elements.  相似文献
9.
In order to reconstruct the late Pleistocene seismic stratigraphy, 550 km of high-density 3.5 kHz sub-bottom seismic-reflection profiles were recorded within a 70 km2 area in the narrow offshore border zone between Germany and Denmark. A depositional unit 3 was analysed for its seismic facies association, and in the central study area mound, oblique, channel, reflection-free, shingled, hummocky, broken and parallel associations occurred. The rims of the association shows mound, oblique, hummocky and minor parallel seismic facies. Stratigraphic control was available from 32 coring sites. In the central study area, unit 3 represents rhythmic layers of silt with fine sand and clay in an overall fining-upward 3 to 5-m-thick sequence. At the rim of the basin, the unit comprises fine sand, silt and rhythmic layers of silt with clay and fine sand. Unit 3 is proposed as having formed during the transgression of a lake, partly in contact with the Baltic Ice Lake, some time between 10.8–10.0 14C ka BP. After 10.0 14C ka BP the water body stagnated when contact with the Baltic Basin was cut off. Analysis of base level of the subunits implies tectonic activity resulting in subsidence of the central study area which could possibly have influenced the transgressive development.  相似文献
10.
On November 28, 2003, at about 00:30 PST, 35 km east of Prince Rupert in northwestern British Columbia, an extremely rapid, retrogressive liquefaction earth flow, or a clay flow-slide, severed the natural gas pipeline. As a result, Prince Rupert residents were without natural gas heat for 10 days. The landslide has a steep main scarp that is 45 m high by 345 m wide. It consists of glaciomarine sediments mantled by rubbly colluvium lying on, and against smooth bedrock of the valley wall. It covers an area of 32 ha, and displaced about 4.7 M m3 of material. This displaced material flowed up and down river over a distance of 1.7 km, blocked the river, and caused flooding upstream for a distance of 10 km. This landslide is the most recent of four large landslides that have occurred over the last four decades in glaciomarine sediments in northwestern British Columbia.  相似文献
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