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Experiments were conducted to study Mg diffusion in quartz grain boundaries. A detector particle method was used to study grain-boundary diffusion because Mg was confined exclusively to the grain boundaries. Diffusion couples were assembled by placing a MgF2 disk against a disk of quartzite, which was placed against a disk of quartzite that contained fayalite (Fe2SiO4) ‘detector particles.’ During diffusion experiments, Mg diffused along the grain boundaries of the central quartzite toward the fayalite quartzite where it was incorporated into fayalite detector particles. The only pathway for transport from the diffusant source to fayalite detector particles was through the grain boundaries in the central quartzite. The cross-sectional area of the grain boundaries that delivered Mg to the fayalite detector particles was determined from scanning electron microscope images. The Mg contents of the fayalite detector particles were used to calculate the mass of Mg that fluxed through the grain boundaries. During the diffusion experiments, pyroxene crystallites nucleated and grew in the central quartzites from Mg and Fe that was transported along quartz grain boundaries. The Mg contents of the crystallites vary linearly throughout the quartzites, suggesting that steady-state transport conditions were rapidly established in the quartz grain boundaries. Magnesium concentrations in the pyroxene crystallites are proportional to concentration gradients in the grain boundaries of the central quartzite. Grain-boundary fluxes and linear concentration gradients were used to calculate diffusion of Mg in grain boundaries of the central quartzite component in the diffusion couples.  相似文献
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The West Development Program, initiated in 2000 by the central government of China, has attracted huge investments in the arid and semiarid regions of northwest China. As a consequence of this development, environmental pollution and ecological degradation have been widely reported. The Silk Road economic belt proposed by China promotes further economic development in the regions, but rational planning and regular monitoring are essential to minimize any additional negative impacts of the anthropogenic activities. This article reports an investigation on the distribution, enrichment and sources of trace metals in the topsoil in and around the Ningxia Hengli Steel Wire Plant (HSWP) situated along the Silk Road economic belt. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, V and Co in the surface soils of the study area vary, respectively, in the following ranges: 0.083–18.600, 21.9–2681.0, 58.0–100.0, 14.6–169.9, 59.0–4207.3, 19.3–40.8, 411–711, 55.2–76.6 and 7.46–25.21 mg/kg. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Co are significantly higher than their local background values. Pollution levels of these trace metals in the surface soils were assessed using contamination index (C f i ), geo-accumulation index (I geo), modified contamination degree (mC d) and pollution load index. The potential ecological risks caused by the metal pollution were assessed by means of potential ecological risk factor (E f i ) and potential ecological risk index. The Spearman correlation and cluster analysis were applied to determine the contamination sources. The HSWP zone, associated with very high potential ecological risk caused by Pb and Cd, is more seriously contaminated by trace metals than the residential zone. This study indicates that Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Co mainly originate from industrial pollution, whereas Cr, Mn, Ni and V result from both industrial activities and natural processes.  相似文献
3.
Multiple-point statistics are used to model facies heterogeneities in the vadose zone of the Komadugu-Yobe River valley (southeastern Niger) which is presently submitted to an undergoing intensive agricultural development; therefore, increasing quantitative and qualitative pressures are exerted on groundwater resources. The sand–clay heterogeneities are analyzed by means of a Landsat image acquired during a high flow period over a 160 km stretch in the downstream part of the valley and a set of 50 boreholes drilled near the town of Diffa (4 km×4 km area). The horizontal variograms of heterogeneities are characterized by a noticeably constant length scale of 380 m and clayey objects are shown to be randomly distributed in space according to a Poisson process. A set of two-dimensional vertical images is built based on a Boolean procedure and the Snesim algorithm is used to simulate synthetic three-dimensional media. When the vertical correlation length is fitted, the three-dimensional model satisfactorily reproduces the second order statistics of heterogeneities and the specific facies patterns.  相似文献
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