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1.
The Middle Jurassic Mirdita Ophiolite in northern Albania is part of an ophiolite belt occurring between the Apulian and Pelagonian subcontinents in the Balkan Peninsula. The upper mantle and crustal units of the Mirdita Ophiolite show major changes in thickness, rock types, and chemical compositions from west to east as a result of its complex evolution in a suprasubduction zone (SSZ) environment. The  3–4-km-thick Western Mirdita Ophiolite (WMO) includes lherzolite–harzburgite, plagioclase–lherzolite, plagioclase–dunite in its upper mantle units and a plutonic complex composed of olivine gabbro, troctolite, ferrogabbro, and gabbro. These peridotites and gabbroic rocks are overlain directly by a  600-m-thick extrusive sequence containing basaltic pillow lavas and hyaloclastites. Sheeted dikes are rare in the WMO. The  12-km-thick Eastern Mirdita Ophiolite (EMO) includes tectonized harzburgite and dunite with extensive chromite deposits, as well as ultramafic cumulates including olivine clinopyroxenite, wehrlite, olivine websterite, and dunite forming a transitional Moho with the overlying lower crustal section. The plutonic rocks are made of pyroxenite, gabbronorite, gabbro, amphibole gabbro, diorite, quartz diorite, and plagiogranite. A well-developed sheeted dike complex has mutually intrusive relations with the underlying isotropic gabbros and plagiogranites and feeds into the overlying pillow lavas. Dike compositions change from older basalt to basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, quartz diorite, to late-stage andesitic and boninitic dikes as constrained by crosscutting relations. The  1.1-km-thick extrusive sequence comprises basaltic and basaltic andesitic pillow lavas in the lower 700 m, and andesitic, dacitic and rhyodacitic massive sheet flows in the upper 400 m. Rare boninitic dikes and lavas occur as the youngest igneous products within the EMO. The basaltic and basaltic andesitic rocks of the WMO extrusive sequence display MORB affinities with Ti and Zr contents decreasing upsection (TiO2 = 3.5–0.5%, Zr = 300–50 ppm), while Nd(T) (+ 8 to + 6.5) varies little. These magmas were derived from partial melting of fertile MORB-type mantle. Fractional crystallization was important in the evolution of WMO magmas. The low Ti and HREE abundances and Cs and Ba enrichments in the uppermost basaltic andesites may indicate an increased subduction influence in the evolution of the late-stage WMO magmas. Basaltic andesites in the lower 700 m of the EMO volcanic sequence have lower TiO2 ( 0.5%) and Zr ( 50 ppm) contents but Nd(T) values (+ 7 to + 6.5) are similar to those of the WMO lavas. These rocks show variable enrichment in subduction-enriched incompatible elements (Cs, Ba, Th, U, LREE). The basaltic andesites through dacites and boninites within the upper 400 meters of EMO lavas show low TiO2 ( 0.8–0.3%) and Nd(T) (+ 6.5 to + 3.0). The mantle source of these rocks was variably enriched in Th by melts derived from subducted sediments as indicated by the large variations in Ba, K, and Pb contents. EMO boninitic dikes and lavas and some gabbroic intrusions with negative Nd (T) values (− 1.4 and − 4.0, respectively) suggest that these magmas were produced from partial melting of previously depleted, ultra-refractory mantle. The MORB to SSZ transition (from west to east and stratigraphically upwards in the Mirdita Ophiolite and the progression of the Nd(T) values from + 8.0 to − 4.0 towards the east resulted from an eastward shift in protoarc–forearc magmatism, keeping pace with slab rollback in this direction. The mantle flow above the retreating slab and in the arc-wedge corner played a major role in the evolution of the melting column, in which melt generation, aggregation/mixing and differentiation occurred at all levels of the sub-arc/forearc mantle. The SSZ Mirdita Ophiolite evolved during the intra-oceanic collapse and closure of the Pindos marginal basin, which had a protracted tectonic history involving seafloor spreading, protoarc rifting, and trench-continent collision.  相似文献
2.
We combine a geological, geochemical and tectonic dataset from 118 ophiolite complexes of the major global Phanerozoic orogenic belts with similar datasets of ophiolites from 111 Precambrian greenstone belts to construct an overview of oceanic crust generation over 4 billion years. Geochemical discrimi- nation systematics built on immobile trace elements reveal that the basaltic units of the Phanerozoic ophiolites are dominantly subduction-related (75%), linked to backarc processes and characterized by a strong MORB component, similar to ophiolites in Precambrian greenstone sequences (85%). The remaining 25% Phanerozoic subduction-unrelated ophiolites are mainly (74%) of Mid-Ocean-Ridge type (MORB type), in contrast to the equal proportion of RiftlContinental Margin, Plume, and MORB type ophiolites in the Precambrian greenstone belts. Throughout the Phanerozoic there are large geochemical variations in major and trace elements, but for average element values calculated in 5 bins of 100 million year intervals there are no obvious secular trends. By contrast, basaltic units in the ophiolites of the Precambrian greenstones (calculated in 12 bins of 250 million years intervals), starting in late Paleo- to early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 2.0-1.8 Ga), exhibit an apparent decrease in the average values of incom- patible elements such as Ti, P, Zr, Y and Nb, and an increase in the compatible elements Ni and Cr with deeper time to the end of the Archean and into the Hadean. These changes can be attributed to decreasing degrees of partial melting of the upper mantle from HadeanJArchean to Present. The onset of geochemical changes coincide with the timing of detectible changes in the structural architecture of the ophiolites such as greater volumes of gabbro and more common sheeted dyke complexes, and lesser occurrences of ocelli (varioles) in the pillow lavas in ophiolites younger than 2 Ga. The global data from the Precambrian ophiolites, representative of nearly 50% of all known worldwide greenston  相似文献
3.
We present a compilation of published data(field,petrography,ages and geochemistry)from 73 ophiolitic complexes of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt.The ophiolitic complexes,ranging in age from Neoproterozoic to Triassic.have been geochemically classified as subduction-related and subductionunrelated categories applying recent,well-established discrimination diagrams.The subductionunrelated category is further subdivided into Mid-Ocean Ridge type(MOR),a common rift-drift stage and Plume type,and the subduction-related category is subdivided into Backarc(BA),Forearc(FA).Backarc to Forearc(BA-FA)and Volcanic Arc(VA)types.The four subduction-related types define highly different geochemical features,with the BA and FA types defining end members showing subduction influence of 10%-100%and 90%-100%subduction influence,respectively,and the two other types(BAFA and VA)define values between the two end members.The subduction-related category comprises79%of the examined ophiolites,of which the BA type ophiolites is by far the dominant group,followed by the BA-FA type,and with FA and VA types as subordinate groups.The Neoproterozoic and Ordovician complexes exhibit the highest,whereas those of Silurian age exhibit the lowest subduction-influence.Of the remaining 21% subduction-unrelated ophiolites,the MOR type dominates.Both the subductionrelated and subduction-unrelated types,in particular the latter,are commonly associated with alkaline basalts taken to represent ocean island magmatism.Harzburgite,dunite,gabbro and basalt are the common lithologies in all ophiolite types,whereas the BA-FA,FA and VA types generally contain intermediate to felsic rocks,and in the FA type boninites occur.The subduction-related ophiolites types generally show low metamorphic grade,whereas greenschist.amphibolite and blueschist grades occur in the subduction-unrelated and BA types.The highly different subduction contribution(from 0 to 100% in the MOR and FA,respectively),attest to variable dips of the subducting slab,as well as variable flux of subduction-related elements into the mantle above subducting slabs,from where the ophiolite magmas got their geochemical fingerprints.As most MOR ophiolites get subducted to the deep mantle,the subduction-related ophiolites have become a dominant ophiolitic type on Earth's surface through all times supporting the idea about the early start of Plate Tectonics.  相似文献
4.
The Lyngen gabbro (LG), defining the major part of the Lyngen magmatic complex, is characterised by layered gabbros of N-MORB affinity (western suite) and layered gabbronorites, quartz-bearing gabbros and diorites/quartz-diorites of IAT (island-arc tholeiite) to boninitic affinity (eastern suite). The boundary between the eastern and western suites is generally defined by a large-scale ductile shear zone of suboceanic origin, the Rypdalen shear zone (RSZ). Tonalites occur within the RSZ and in the eastern suite of the LG. Variations in field occurrence and chemical composition of the tonalites suggest that they represent two petrologically different groups. Tonalite intrusion (the Vakkas pluton) up to 5 km2 large occur in the eastern suite of the LG, and are characterised by high Y contents (average 26 ppm) and high K2O/Rb ratios (average 0.062) compared to tonalites on the RSZ. The Vakkas pluton has lightly concave REE (rare earth element) patterns with negative Eu-anomalies, and positive ND-values (+3.7 to +3.9). Geochemical modelling based on the REE and field evidence suggests that these tonalites may have formed by fractional crystallization from a boninitic parental magma. Tonalites related to the RSZ form irregular veins and dikes that net vein the shear zone. They are characterised by low Y contents (average 6 ppm), low K2O/Rb ratios (average 0.025), and highly variable contents of Na2O, K2O, Sr and Ba, compared to the Vakkas pluton. Tonalites related to the RSZ show substantial variation in the content of the LREEs. They possess low abundances of the HREEs, and absence of, or slightly positive Eu-anomalies. The tonalites have highly variable ND-values (−0.6 to −9.4), probably resulting from enrichment of Nd from an external source. Geochemical modelling suggests that the LREE-rich tonalites formed by H2O-rich partial melting of differentiated products from the eastern suite of the LG. The presence of B in the fluid phase is suggested by the presence of tourmaline-bearing tonalite pegmatites. Thus, the anatectic tonalites of this group could have been formed by water-excess melting of a variety of gabbroic cumulates of the LG. In the LG, LREE-depleted tonalites (ND-values +5.1) also occur, and these are best explained in terms of partial melting of gabbroic cumulates from the transition zone between the eastern and the western suites of the LG.  相似文献
5.
The Late Ordovician Solund-Stavfjord ophiolite in western Norway represents a remnant of the Iapetus oceanic lithosphere that developed in a Caledonian marginal basin. The ophiolite contains three structural domains that display distinctively different crustal architecture that reflects the mode and nature of magmatic and tectonic processes operated during the multi-stage seafloor spreading evolution of this marginal basin. Domain I includes, from top to bottom, an extensive extrusive sequence, a transition zone consisting of dike swarms with screens of pillow breccias, a sheeted dike complex, and plutonic rocks composed mainly of isotropic gabbro and microgabbro. Extrusive rocks include pillow lavas, pillow breccias, and massive sheet flows and are locally sheared and mineralized, containing epidosites, sulfide-sulfate deposits, Fe-oxides, and anhydrite veins, reminiscent of hydrothermal alteration zones on the seafloor along modern mid-ocean ridges. A fossil lava lake in the northern part of the ophiolite consists of a >65-m-thick volcanic sequence composed of a number of separate massive lava units interlayered with pillow lavas and pillow breccia horizons. The NE-trending sheeted dike complex contains multiple intrusions of metabasaltic dikes with one- and two-sided chilled margins and displays a network of both dike-parallel normal and dike-perpendicular oblique-slip faults of oceanic origin. The dike-gabbro boundary is mutually intrusive and represents the root zone of the sheeted dike complex. The internal architecture and rock types of Domain I are analogous to those of intermediate-spreading oceanic crust at modern mid-ocean ridge environments. The ophiolitic units in Domain II include mainly sheeted dikes and plutonic rocks with a general NW structural grain and are commonly faulted against each other, although primary intrusive relations between the sheeted dikes and the gabbros are locally well preserved. The exposures of this domain occur only in the northern and southern parts of the ophiolite complex and are separated by the ENE-trending Domain III, in which isotropic to pegmatitic gabbros and dike swarms are plastically deformed along ENE-striking sinistral shear zones. These shear zones, which locally include fault slivers of serpentinite intrusions, are crosscut by N20°E-striking undeformed basaltic dike swarms that contain xenoliths of gabbroic material. The NW-trending sheeted dike complex in the northern part of Domain II curves into an ENE orientation approaching Domain III in the south. The anomalous nature of deformed crust in Domain III is interpreted to have developed within an oceanic fracture zone or transform fault boundary.REE chemistry of representative extrusive and dike rocks from all three domains indicates N- to E-MORB affinities of their magmas with high Th/Ta ratios that are characteristic of subduction zone environments. The magmatic evolution of Domain I encompasses closed-system fractional crystallization of high-Mg basaltic magmas in small ephemeral chambers, which gradually interconnected to form large chambers in which mixing of primary magmas with more evolved and fractionated magma caused resetting of magma compositions through time. The compositional range from high-Mg basalts to ferrobasalts within Domain I is reminiscent of modern propagating rift basalts. We interpret the NE-trending Domain I as a remnant of an intermediate-spread rift system that propagated northeastwards (in present coordinate system) into a pre-existing oceanic crust, which was developed along the NW-trending doomed rift (Domain II) in the marginal basin. The N20°E dikes laterally intruding into the anomalous oceanic crust in Domain III represent the tip of the rift propagator. The inferred propagating rift tectonics of the Solund-Stavfjord ophiolite is similar to the evolutionary history of the modern Lau back-arc basin in the SW Pacific and suggests a complex magmatic evolution of the Caledonian marginal basin via multi-stage seafloor spreading tectonics.  相似文献
6.
Major and trace elements of lavas, dykes and plutonic rocks of the late Proterozoic orogenic sequence in SE Sinai, the Kid Group, have been analysed. The dykes and lavas of the southermost sequences, the Tarr Complex and Heib Formation, are calc-alkaline, whereas the lavas of the Malhak Formation and the Sharira Gabbro (to the north of the Heib Formation) show both calc-alkaline and tholeiitic trends. The trace element characteristics of the Tarr Complex and the Heib and Malhak Formations, despite between-sequence variations, are all comparable with ensialic island arc magmatism, whereas the Sharira Gabbro shows some MORB characteristics in addition to the island arc imprints. The Sharira Gabbro and the lavas of the Malhak Formation possibly formed in a developing back-arc basin behind a continental-marginal ensialic island arc (the Tarr Complex and Heib Formation). During the Pan-African orogeny, the constituent units of the Kid Group were mutually juxtaposed along major ductile shear zones of thrust-fault character. This plate-convergence regime involved initial magmatic arc development following northward subduction, and subsequent collision between the arc complex and the Proterozoic continental margin.  相似文献
7.
A bed of volcanic ash up to 23 cm thick is found in lacustrine and marine sediments in western Norway. It is formally mamed the Vedde Ash Bed, and its age is approximately 10,600 yr B.P., i.e., mid-Younger Dryas. The bed consits of pure glass having a bimodal basaltic and rhyolitic somposition. The geochemistry of the glass shards suggests an Icelandic source. By means of stratigraphic position and geochemistry, the ash is correlated with ash zones found in cores from the continental shelf, the Norwegian Sea, and the North Atlatic.  相似文献
8.
Major and trace element analyses of metabasalts from five of the Lower Palaeozoic Caledonian ophiolite fragments along a strike distance of some 800 km of the west Norwegian coast are presented. Characteristically the REE patterns show depletion of both LREE and HREE relative to intermediate REE, giving an upward convex shape, but nearly flat, LREE depleted or enriched patterns occur. The REE patterns of the metabasalts from three of these sequences, i.e. the Lykling, Solund and Stavfjorden ophiolite fragments show little within-sequence but large between-sequence variation. The REE patterns of the metabasalts from the Gullfjellet (Major Bergen Arc) and Skålvær ophiolite fragments, however, show significant within-sequence variations, indicative of local source heterogeneties.When incompatible trace elements such as Ta, Nb, Ce, P, Zr, Hf, Sm, Ti, Y and Yb are normalized against average MORB, the metabasalts can be subdivided into two major groups. One group, geographically comprising the ophiolite fragments north of Bergen (i.e. Solund, Stavfjorden og Skålvær) show trace element ratios similar to average MORB, whereas the other group, defined by the Gullfjellet and Lykling ophiolite fragments (from Bergen southwards) differ significantly with respect to Yb/Y, Ti/Y and Nb/Ce ratios. These features are discussed in terms of trace element patterns in basalts from oceanic islands, island arcs and back-arc basins, and it is tentatively concluded that they reflect partial melts from a mid-oceanic mantle, or probably a back-arc basin mantle, which differed chemically from that of the northwestern Norwegian ophiolite fragments.  相似文献
9.
The rate of palagonitization of three chemically different types of basaltic glasses has been determined experimentally as a function of temperature (20–90 ° C) and time (3.5–14 months) in both fresh and saline water. Between ca. 40 ° C and 70 ° C there is a marked increase in the rate of transformation of the glasses, especially those of alkali basalt composition. The alteration process also accelerates after ca. 10 months at temperature higher than 70 ° C. These phenomena are possibly related to stepwise losses of the major elements, and minimum activation temperatures for the oxide/ion—water metasomatism.  相似文献
10.
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