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1.
铂族元素和贱金属合金矿物选自西藏南部罗布莎蛇绿岩的豆荚状铬铁矿石中,包括Os-Ir、Os-Ir-Ru、Pt-Fe、Ir-Ni-Fe、Fe-Ni-Cr和Fe-Co,它们都具有成分上的广阔变动。此外还见到少量的金刚石、石墨、SiC和未定名的Cr-C、Fe-Si等合金;自然Fe、Ni、Cr、Cu和Si。这些合金和自然元素矿物是选自于铬铁矿的人工重砂样品中,但是有些矿物呈包裹体或呈连晶与铬尖晶石共生。它们大多为半自形和它形的颗粒状矿物,偶有完好晶体保存,矿物粒径0.05~0.5mm。有些矿物颗粒呈浑圆形,认为是液态乳滴。富Ru的铂族元素合金,Fe-Ni、Fe-Co合金,以及自然铁和自然镍,可以被解释成由铂族硫化物蚀变物。但是Pt-Fe、Os-Ir、Ir-Ni-Fe、FeSi合金、自然Si、FeO(方铁矿)等,认为是来自地幔的外来(捕虏)晶体,是被地幔柱搬运到浅部的,最后被铬铁矿浆捕获并成为其包体。  相似文献
2.
Abstract: Podiform chromite deposits consist of numerous individual accumulations of chromite in the mantle sequences of ophiolites, suggesting formation in separate, mini-magma conduits in the upper mantle. They may show unique nodular and orbicular textures. Simple mixing of two distinct magmas, invoked for chromite deposits in layered intrusions, is inadequate to explain the formation of podiform chromite deposits. More likely, melt/rock interaction triggers the precipitation of chromite by addition of newly-formed droplets of melt to the main body of magma passing through a conduit, a process similar to that of magma mingling but involving a turbulent, moving magma so that newly-formed melt droplets behave like snowballs. These droplets concentrate chromite to form an outer shell and, while the magma is moving upwards, less dense silicate melts are squeezed out of the droplets as the shell collapses to form a nodule. Upon cooling, both orbicular and nodular textures are preserved in the chromitite.  相似文献
3.
  nter Suhr  Paul T. Robinson 《Lithos》1994,31(3-4):81-102
Mineral chemical data have been collected from the 6 km thick mantle section of the Table Mountain massif (Bay of Islands Ophiolite Complex, Newfoundland). The samples chosen represent the geochemical background, i.e. exclude samples from the vicinity of bands, dykes and pods of dunites and pyroxenites within the host harzburgites and (rare) lherzolites. Three large mineral-chemical domains can be distinguished as a function of depth below the crustal gabbros. The intermediate mantle section (2–5 km beneath the gabbros) has a very depleted geochemical pattern with Cr# [100Cr/(Cr + Al)] in spinel > 44, low Ti. The basal kilometer of the mantle section shows a steep geochemical gradient towards less depleted mineral chemistries (Cr# as low as 10). Both the intermediate and basal mantle rocks fit into a progressive partial melting trend. The top of the mantle section (0–2 km below the gabbros) shows Cr# between 30 and 44, but also higher Ti and ferric iron in spinel, and Na in clinopyroxene. Microstructural evidence for melt-related clinopyroxene is locally preserved and, in one area, plagioclase lherzolites occur. The topmost mantle section is considered to have been affected by melt infiltration. The geochemical variation is larger than elsewhere, suggesting that melt-infiltration, or at least the process of trapping of melt, was heterogeneous. In most melt-infiltrated harzburgites, plagioclase is absent. Other peridotites show good microstructural evidence for melt-infiltration but little chemical evidence to substantiate it. Both features are discussed and can be explained by a variety of processes demonstrating the complexity of melt-infiltration.  相似文献
4.
Listwanite from the Luobusa ophiolite,Tibet,forms a narrow,discontinuous band along the eastern part of the southern boundary fault. We undertook a detailed petrographic and geochemical study to understand the mineral transformation processes and the behaviour of major and trace elements during listwanite formation. Three alteration zones characterized by distinct mineral components and texture are recognized and,in order of increasing degree of alteration,these are: zoneIII is rich in serpentine minerals; zoneII is rich in talc and carbonates; and zoneI is mainly composed of carbonates and quartz. Geochemical data for the three alteration zones show significant modification of some major and trace elements in the protolith,although some oxides show linear correlations with Mg O. Gold mineralization is recognized in the Luobusa listwanite and may signify an important target for future mineral exploration. Gold enrichment occurs in both zoneI and zoneIIand is up to 0.91 g/t in one sample from zoneI. We show that CO2-rich hydrothermal fluids can modify both the occurrence and composition of chromite grains,indicating some degree of chromite mobility. Low-Cr anhedral grains are more easily altered than high-Cr varieties. The compositions of chromite and olivine grains in the listwanite suggest a dunite protolith.  相似文献
5.
In recent years diamonds and other exotic minerals have been recovered from mantle peridotites and high-Cr chromitites of a number of ophiolites of different age and different tectonic environments. Here we report a similar collection of minerals from the Sartohay ophiolite of Xinjiang Province,western China,which is characterized by having high-Al chromitites. Several samples of massive podiform chromitite with an aggregate weight of nearly 900 kg yielded diamonds,moissanite and other highly reduced minerals,as well as common crustal minerals. Thus far,more than 20 grains each of diamond and moissanite have been recovered from heavy mineral separates of the chromitites. The diamonds are all 100-200 μm in size and range in color from pale yellow to reddish-orange to colorless. Most of the grains are anhedral to subhedral octahedra,commonly with elongate forms exhibiting well-developed striations. They all display characteristic Raman spectra with shifts between 1325 cm-1 and 1333 cm-1,mostly 1331.51 cm-1 or 1326.96 cm-1. The moissanite grains are light blue to dark blue,broken crystals,50-150 μm across,commonly occurring as small flakes or fragments. Their typical Raman spectra have shifts at 762 cm-1,785 cm-1,and 966 cm-1. This investigation extends the occurrence of diamonds and moissanite to a Paleozoic ophiolite in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and demonstrates that these minerals can also occur in high-Al chromitites. We conclude that diamonds and moissanite are likely to be ubiquitous in ophiolitic mantle peridotites and chromitites.  相似文献
6.
Diamond,moissanite and a variety of other minerals,similar to those reported from ophiolites in Tibet and northern Russia,have recently been discovered in chromitites of the Hegenshan ophiolite of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt,north China. The chromitites are small,podiform and vein-like bodies hosted in dunite,clinopyroxene-bearing peridotite,troctolite and gabbro. All of the analysed chromite grains are relatively Al-rich,with Cr# [100Cr/(Cr+Al)] of about 47–53. Preliminary studies of mainly disseminated chromitite from ore body No. 3756 have identified more than 30 mineral species in addition to diamond and moissanite. These include oxides(mostly hematite,magnetite,rutile,anatase,cassiterite,and quartz),sulfides(pyrite,marcasite and others),silicates(magnesian olivine,enstatite,augite,diopside,uvarovite,pyrope,orthoclase,zircon,sphene,vesuvianite,chlorite and serpentine) and others(e.g.,calcite,monazite,glauberite,iowaite and a range of metallic alloys). This study demonstrates that diamond,moissanite and other exotic minerals can occur in high-Al,as well as high-Cr chromites,and significantly extends the geographic and age range of known diamond-bearing ophiolites.  相似文献
7.
Voluminous platinum-group mineral (PGM) inclusions including erlichmanite (Os,Ru)S2, laurite (Ru,Os)S2, and irarsite (Ir,Os,Ru,Rh)AsS, as well as native osmium Os(Ir) and inclusions of base metal sulphides (BMS), including millerite (NiS), heazlewoodite (Ni3S2), covellite (CuS) and digenite (Cu3S2), accompanied by native iron, have been identified in chromitites of the Zedang ophiolite, Tibet. The PGMs occur as both inclusions in magnesiochromite grains and as small interstitial granules between them; most are less than 10 μm in size and vary in shape from euhedral to anhedral. They occur either as single or composite (biphase or polyphase) grains composed solely of PGM, or PGM associated with silicate grains. Os-, Ir-, and Ru-rich PGMs are the common species and Pt-, Pd-, and Rh-rich varieties have not been identified. Sulfur fugacity and temperature appear to be the main factors that controlled the PGE mineralogy during crystallization of the host chromitite in the upper mantle. If the activity of chalcogenides (such as S, and As) is low, PGE clusters will remain suspended in the silicate melt until they can coalesce to form alloys. Under appropriate conditions of ?S2 and ?O2, PGE alloys might react with the melt to form sulfides-sulfarsenides. Thus, we suggest that the Os, Ir and Ru metallic clusters and alloys in the Zedang chromitites crystallized first under high temperature and low ?S2, followed by crystallization of sulphides of the laurite-erlichmanite, solid-solution series as the magma cooled and ?S2 increased. The abundance of primary BMS in the chromitites suggests that ?S2 reached relatively high values during the final stages of magnesiochromite crystallization. The diversity of the PGE minerals, in combination with differences in the petrological characteristics of the magnesiochromites, suggest different degrees of partial melting, perhaps at different depths in the mantle. The estimated parental magma composition suggests formation in a suprasubduction zone environment, perhaps in a forearc.  相似文献
8.
The basement beneath the Junggar basin has been interpreted either as a micro-continent of Precambrian age or as a fragment of Paleozoic oceanic crust. Elemental and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic compositions and zircon Pb–Pb ages of volcanic rocks from drill cores through the paleo-weathered crust show that the basement is composed mainly of late Paleozoic volcanic rock with minor shale and tuff. The volcanic rocks are mostly subalkaline with some minor low-K rocks in the western Kexia area. Some alkaline lavas occur in the central Luliang uplift and northeastern Wulungu depression. The lavas range in composition from basalts to rhyolites and fractional crystallization played an important role in magma evolution. Except for a few samples from Kexia, the basalts have low La/Nb (<1.4), typical for oceanic crust derived from asthenospheric melts. Zircon Pb–Pb ages indicate that the Kexia andesite, with a volcanic arc affinity, formed in the early Carboniferous (345 Ma), whereas the Luliang rhyolite and the Wucaiwan dacite, with syn-collisional to within-plate affinities, formed in the early Devonian (395 and 405 Ma, respectively). Positive εNd(t) values (up to +7.4) and low initial 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios of the intermediate-silicic rocks suggest that the entire Junggar terrain may be underlain by oceanic crust, an interpretation consistent with the juvenile isotopic signatures of many granitoid plutons in other parts of the Central Asia Orogenic Belt. Variation in zircon ages for the silicic rocks, different Ba, P, Ti, Nb or Th anomalies in the mafic rocks, and variable Nb/Y and La/Nb ratios across the basin, suggest that the basement is compositionally heterogeneous. The heterogeneity is believed to reflect amalgamation of different oceanic blocks representing either different evolution stages within a single terrane or possibly derivation from different terranes.  相似文献
9.
The Emeishan continental flood basalt (ECFB) sequence in Dongchuan, SW China comprises a basal tephrite unit overlain by an upper tholeiitic basalt unit. The upper basalts have high TiO2 contents (3.2–5.2 wt.%), relatively high rare-earth element (REE) concentrations (40 to 60 ppm La, 12.5 to 16.5 ppm Sm, and 3 to 4 ppm Yb), moderate Zr/Nb and Nb/La ratios (9.3–10.2 and 0.6–0.9, respectively) and relatively high Nd (t) values, ranging from − 0.94 to 2.3, and are comparable to the high-Ti ECFB elsewhere. The tephrites have relatively high P2O5 (1.3–2.0 wt.%), low REE concentrations (e.g., 17 to 23 ppm La, 4 to 5.3 ppm Sm, and 2 to 3 ppm Yb), high Nb/La (2.0–3.9) ratios, low Zr/Nb ratios (2.3–4.2), and extremely low Nd (t) values (mostly ranging from − 10.6 to − 11.1). The distinct compositional differences between the tephrites and the overlying tholeiitic basalts cannot be explained by either fractional crystallization or crustal contamination of a common parental magma. The tholeiitic basalts formed by partial melting of the Emeishan plume head at a depth where garnet was stable, perhaps > 80 km. We propose that the tephrites were derived from magmas formed when the base of the previously metasomatized, volatile-mineral bearing subcontinental lithospheric mantle was heated by the upwelling mantle plume.  相似文献
10.
The main hole (MH), and pre-pilot holes PP1, and PP3 of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CCSD) penetrated three different garnet peridotite massifs in the Sulu ultrahigh pressure metamorphic belt, and they are 80m, 120m, and 430m thick, respectively.  相似文献
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