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The Mengyin komatiites are located at the base of the Taishan Complex ( 2.7 Ga), in the western Shandong greenstone belt of the eastern block of North China craton. The Mengyin komatiites have high-magnesian, low-titanium, and aluminum-undepleted chemical characteristics. Although the ultramafic rocks underwent amphibolite to greenschist facies metamorphism, they preserve remnant igneous spinifex textures. Some komatiite samples even preserve rare fresh olivine. According to the mass equilibrium between the olivine and melt, the potential eruption temperature of the Mengyin komatiites at 1 atm is about 1270 °C which might indicate a plume tectonic setting. It is inferred that komatiites in Mengyin, west Shandong may be part of a plume-related global magmatic event related to the break-up of a supercontinent that included the eastern block of the North China craton.  相似文献
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The Gushan deposit is one of the typical magnetite–apatite deposits associated with dioritic porphyries in the Lower Yangtze River Valley belt of the eastern Yangtze craton. The origin of this deposit is still uncertain and remains a controversial issue. Divergent opinions are centered on whether the iron deposits are magmatic or hydrothermal in origin. However, our field observations and mineralogical studies, combined with previous published petrological and geochemical features strongly suggest that the main ore bodies in the Gushan magnetite–apatite deposit are magmatic. Specific evidence includes the existence of gas bubbles, tubes, and miarolitic and amygdaloidal structures, melt flow banding structure and the presence of “ore breccia”. New electron microprobe analyses of the pyroxene phenocrysts of the dioritic porphyry genetically associated with the Gushan magnetite–apatite deposit show that the Fe contents in the evolving magma dramatically decrease, and then gradually increase. Because there is no evidence of mafic magma recharge, this scenario (decreasing Fe) could be plausibly interpreted by Fe-rich melts separated from Fe-poor silicate melts, i.e., liquid immiscibility was triggered by minor addition of phosphorus by crustal contamination. The occurrence of massive iron ore bodies can be satisfactorily explained by the immiscible Fe-rich melt with enormous volatile contents was driven to the top of the magma chamber due to the low density. The hot and volatile-rich iron ore magma was injected along fractures and spaces between the dioritic intrusions and wall-rocks, and led to an explosion near the surface, resulting in the immediate fragmentation of the roof of the intrusion and wall-rocks, forming brecciated ores. Moreover, other types of ores can be considered as a result of post-magmatic hydrothermal activities. Our proposed metallogenic model involving the Kiruna-type mineralization is consistent with the observed phenomenon in the Gushan deposit.  相似文献
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Based on published data, we reappraise the classification of high-Ti and low-Ti basalt from the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) and the correlations between basalts and mafic–ultramafic intrusions. Because of the lack of clear spatial and temporal variations of different types of basalts, we suggest that the basalts in the ELIP cannot be classified into high-Ti and low-Ti groups, by TiO2 contents and/or Ti/Y ratios. The distinctive characteristics of these high-Ti and low-Ti lavas probably result largely from the different fractionating assemblages. Whether or not fractional crystallization of the Fe–Ti oxides occurred probably is the key factor that controls the Ti abundances and Ti/Y ratios in the residual melts, e.g., lavas, although the nature of the mantle sources, variable degrees of partial melting of mantle and crustal contamination also influence the geochemical signatures of the lavas. Therefore, neither Ti abundance nor Ti/Y ratios in basalts can reflect the nature of their mantle source. Moreover, the different types of mafic–ultramafic intrusions in the ELIP cannot simply be attributed to be genetically related special types of basalts, either high-Ti or low-Ti basalts. It is likely that they are merely the cumulus phases, i.e. chamber or conduit of the basaltic lavas. Hence, caution should be exercised in the use of high-Ti or low-Ti basalts as prospecting vectors for ore deposits in the region. Potential implications are proposed that both the Fe–V–Ti oxide and Cu–Ni–(PGE) sulfide mineralization in the ELIP intrusions is largely due to the variable differentiation and crustal contamination during magmatic processes.  相似文献
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The Neoproterozoic Wadi Kid metamorphic belt in southeastern Sinai in Egypt represents a structurally and metamorphically complex assemblage of metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks folded into a series of ENE–WSW-trending antiforms and synforms. Geological mapping in this region is challenging, primarily due to difficult access, complexity of structures, and lack of resolution and areal integrity of lithological differentiation using conventional mapping techniques. Spectral ratioing of selected bands of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data of the area, in synergy with geological field observation, proved effective in resolving geological mapping problems in the region. A new ASTER band-ratio image 4/7-4/6-4/10 is applied successfully for lithological mapping in the Wadi Kid area, showing improvement over previous techniques in detailing the main rock units. These are gneiss and migmatite, amphibolite, volcanogenic sediments with banded iron formation, meta-pelites, talc schist, meta-psammites, meta-acidic volcanics, meta-pyroclastics volcaniclastics, albitites and granitic rocks. Validating the use of the new ASTER band-ratio image relied on both calculating statistical optimum index factor (OIF) and matching interpreted lithological boundaries to field data and previously published geologic maps. The adopted ASTER band-ratio image demonstrates the benefit of using ASTER remote sensing data in lithological mapping of the Wadi Kid area and therefore for lithological mapping in the Arabian–Nubian shield and other arid areas.  相似文献
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The Songliao basin is a complex successor basin that was initiated in the Mesozoic and experienced multiple periods of reactivation. Based on seismic and drilling data, as well as regional geologic research, we suggest that the Songliao basin contains several different successor basins resting on top of Carboniferous-Permian folded strata forming the basement to the Songliao basin. These basins include the Triassic-Mid Jurassic Paleo-foreland basin, the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous downfaulted basin, and an early Cretaceous depressed basin (since the Denglouku Group). This paper presents a systematic study of the basin-mountain interactions, and reveals that there are different types of prototype basin at different geologic times. These prototype basins sequentially superimposed and formed the large Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin fills a Triassic-early Middle Jurassic gap in the geologic history of the Songliao basin. The paleo- foreland basin, downfaulted basin, and depressed thermal subsidence basin all together represent the whole Mesozoic-Cenozoic geologic history and deformation of the Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin plays an important role both for deep natural gas exploration and the study of basin-mountain coupling in north China and eastern China in general. This example gives dramatic evidence that we should give much more attention to the polyphase tectonic evolution of related basins for the next phase of exploration and study.  相似文献
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Evidence is presented for a previously unrecognized late Paleozoic orogeny in two parts of Alaska's Farewell terrane, an event that has not entered into published scenarios for the assembly of Alaska. The Farewell terrane was long regarded as a piece of the early Paleozoic passive margin of western Canada, but is now thought, instead, to have lain between the Siberian and Laurentian (North American) cratons during the early Paleozoic. Evidence for a late Paleozoic orogeny comes from two belts located 100–200 km apart. In the northern belt, metamorphic rocks dated at 284–285 Ma (three 40Ar/39Ar white-mica plateau ages) provide the main evidence for orogeny. The metamorphic rocks are interpreted as part of the hinterland of a late Paleozoic mountain belt, which we name the Browns Fork orogen. In the southern belt, thick accumulations of Pennsylvanian-Permian conglomerate and sandstone provide the main evidence for orogeny. These strata are interpreted as the eroded and deformed remnants of a late Paleozoic foreland basin, which we name the Dall Basin. We suggest that the Browns Fork orogen and Dall Basin comprise a matched pair formed during collision between the Farewell terrane and rocks to the west. The colliding object is largely buried beneath Late Cretaceous flysch to the west of the Farewell terrane, but may have included parts of the so-called Innoko terrane. The late Paleozoic convergent plate boundary represented by the Browns Fork orogen likely connected with other zones of plate convergence now located in Russia, elsewhere in Alaska, and in western Canada.  相似文献
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The Archean North China craton is divided into the Western and Eastern blocks along the Central Orogenic belt. A 1600 km long Archean foreland basin and thrust belt fringes the eastern side of the Central Orogenic belt. Rocks in the orogen form tectonically-stacked east-vergent fold and thrust sheets including foreland basin sediments, 2.50 Ga ophiolitic mélange, and an island arc complex. Foreland basin sediments overlie a passive margin sequence, and include a 2.50 Ga deep-water turbidite sequence that grades upward and westward into shallow-water molasse, now disposed in structurally imbricated east-verging thrusts and asymmetric folds that gradually migrated craton-ward with deformation, uplift, and erosion of the orogen. There is a strong linked relationship of the formation of the foreland basin to collision of the east and west blocks of the North China craton along the Central Orogenic belt at 2.50 Ga. The Qinglong foreland basin and Central Orogenic belt of the North China craton represents one of the best-preserved Archean orogen-to-craton transitions in the world. Its classic internal to external zonation, and flexural response to loading, demonstrate that convergent tectonics in the Archean were broadly similar to Phanerozoic convergent margin processes.  相似文献
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