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1.
The Middle Jurassic Mirdita Ophiolite in northern Albania is part of an ophiolite belt occurring between the Apulian and Pelagonian subcontinents in the Balkan Peninsula. The upper mantle and crustal units of the Mirdita Ophiolite show major changes in thickness, rock types, and chemical compositions from west to east as a result of its complex evolution in a suprasubduction zone (SSZ) environment. The  3–4-km-thick Western Mirdita Ophiolite (WMO) includes lherzolite–harzburgite, plagioclase–lherzolite, plagioclase–dunite in its upper mantle units and a plutonic complex composed of olivine gabbro, troctolite, ferrogabbro, and gabbro. These peridotites and gabbroic rocks are overlain directly by a  600-m-thick extrusive sequence containing basaltic pillow lavas and hyaloclastites. Sheeted dikes are rare in the WMO. The  12-km-thick Eastern Mirdita Ophiolite (EMO) includes tectonized harzburgite and dunite with extensive chromite deposits, as well as ultramafic cumulates including olivine clinopyroxenite, wehrlite, olivine websterite, and dunite forming a transitional Moho with the overlying lower crustal section. The plutonic rocks are made of pyroxenite, gabbronorite, gabbro, amphibole gabbro, diorite, quartz diorite, and plagiogranite. A well-developed sheeted dike complex has mutually intrusive relations with the underlying isotropic gabbros and plagiogranites and feeds into the overlying pillow lavas. Dike compositions change from older basalt to basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, quartz diorite, to late-stage andesitic and boninitic dikes as constrained by crosscutting relations. The  1.1-km-thick extrusive sequence comprises basaltic and basaltic andesitic pillow lavas in the lower 700 m, and andesitic, dacitic and rhyodacitic massive sheet flows in the upper 400 m. Rare boninitic dikes and lavas occur as the youngest igneous products within the EMO. The basaltic and basaltic andesitic rocks of the WMO extrusive sequence display MORB affinities with Ti and Zr contents decreasing upsection (TiO2 = 3.5–0.5%, Zr = 300–50 ppm), while Nd(T) (+ 8 to + 6.5) varies little. These magmas were derived from partial melting of fertile MORB-type mantle. Fractional crystallization was important in the evolution of WMO magmas. The low Ti and HREE abundances and Cs and Ba enrichments in the uppermost basaltic andesites may indicate an increased subduction influence in the evolution of the late-stage WMO magmas. Basaltic andesites in the lower 700 m of the EMO volcanic sequence have lower TiO2 ( 0.5%) and Zr ( 50 ppm) contents but Nd(T) values (+ 7 to + 6.5) are similar to those of the WMO lavas. These rocks show variable enrichment in subduction-enriched incompatible elements (Cs, Ba, Th, U, LREE). The basaltic andesites through dacites and boninites within the upper 400 meters of EMO lavas show low TiO2 ( 0.8–0.3%) and Nd(T) (+ 6.5 to + 3.0). The mantle source of these rocks was variably enriched in Th by melts derived from subducted sediments as indicated by the large variations in Ba, K, and Pb contents. EMO boninitic dikes and lavas and some gabbroic intrusions with negative Nd (T) values (− 1.4 and − 4.0, respectively) suggest that these magmas were produced from partial melting of previously depleted, ultra-refractory mantle. The MORB to SSZ transition (from west to east and stratigraphically upwards in the Mirdita Ophiolite and the progression of the Nd(T) values from + 8.0 to − 4.0 towards the east resulted from an eastward shift in protoarc–forearc magmatism, keeping pace with slab rollback in this direction. The mantle flow above the retreating slab and in the arc-wedge corner played a major role in the evolution of the melting column, in which melt generation, aggregation/mixing and differentiation occurred at all levels of the sub-arc/forearc mantle. The SSZ Mirdita Ophiolite evolved during the intra-oceanic collapse and closure of the Pindos marginal basin, which had a protracted tectonic history involving seafloor spreading, protoarc rifting, and trench-continent collision.  相似文献
2.
The Transcaucasian Massif (TCM) in the Republic of Georgia includes Neoproterozoic–Early Cambrian ophiolites and magmatic arc assemblages that are reminiscent of the coeval island arc terranes in the Arabian–Nubian Shield (ANS) and provides essential evidence for Pan-African crustal evolution in Western Gondwana. The metabasite–plagiogneiss–migmatite association in the Oldest Basement Unit (OBU) of TCM represents a Neoproterozoic oceanic lithosphere intruded by gabbro–diorite–quartz diorite plutons of the Gray Granite Basement Complex (GGBC) that constitute the plutonic foundation of an island arc terrane. The Tectonic Mélange Zone (TMZ) within the Middle-Late Carboniferous Microcline Granite Basement Complex includes thrust sheets composed of various lithologies derived from this arc-ophiolite assemblage. The serpentinized peridotites in the OBU and the TMZ have geochemical features and primary spinel composition (0.35) typical of mid-ocean ridge (MOR)-type, cpx-bearing spinel harzburgites. The metabasic rocks from these two tectonic units are characterized by low-K, moderate-to high-Ti, olivine-hypersthene-normative, tholeiitic basalts representing N-MORB to transitional to E-MORB series. The analyzed peridotites and volcanic rocks display a typical melt-residua genetic relationship of MOR-type oceanic lithosphere. The whole-rock Sm–Nd isotopic data from these metabasic rocks define a regression line corresponding to a maximum age limit of 804 ± 100 Ma and εNdint = 7.37 ± 0.55. Mafic to intermediate plutonic rocks of GGBC show tholeiitic to calc-alkaline evolutionary trends with LILE and LREE enrichment patterns, Y and HREE depletion, and moderately negative anomalies of Ta, Nb, and Ti, characteristic of suprasubduction zone originated magmas. U–Pb zircon dates, Rb–Sr whole-rock isochron, and Sm–Nd mineral isochron ages of these plutonic rocks range between  750 Ma and 540 Ma, constraining the timing of island arc construction as the Neoproterozoic–Early Cambrian. The Nd and Sr isotopic ratios and the model and emplacement ages of massive quartz diorites in GGBC suggest that pre-Pan African continental crust was involved in the evolution of the island arc terrane. This in turn indicates that the ANS may not be made entirely of juvenile continental crust of Neoproterozoic age. Following its separation from ANS in the Early Paleozoic, TCM underwent a period of extensive crustal growth during 330–280 Ma through the emplacement of microcline granite plutons as part of a magmatic arc system above a Paleo-Tethyan subduction zone dipping beneath the southern margin of Eurasia. TCM and other peri-Gondwanan terranes exposed in a series of basement culminations within the Alpine orogenic belt provide essential information on the Pan-African history of Gondwana and the rift-drift stages of the tectonic evolution of Paleo-Tethys as a back-arc basin between Gondwana and Eurasia.  相似文献
3.
The Kiziltepe ophiolitic thrust sheet in the Bolkar Mountains of Turkey occurs between two subparallel ophiolite belts bounding the Tauride carbonate platform and represents a remnant of the Cretaceous Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. It is underlain by foliated amphibolite that represents a metamorphic sole developed at the inception of an intra-oceanic subduction zone in the Neo-Tethys 92-90 Ma. Blueschist-facies overprinting of the amphibolite indicates that the metamorphic sole was dragged deeper into the subduction zone where it experienced increasing P/T with cooling. Regional tectonic constraints suggest a Maastrichtian age for the timing of this blueschist-facies metamorphism. Sodic amphibole-rich veins and crossite/Mg-riebeckite rims on hornblende suggest that growth of blueschist-facies minerals was facilitated by infiltration of fluid along fractures and grain boundaries. We infer a counterclockwise P-T-t trajectory during which metamorphism was accompanied/succeeded by rapid uplift along the northern edge of the Tauride belt in Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary time.  相似文献
4.
We present the whole-rock and the mineral chemical data for upper mantle peridotites from the Harmanc?k region in NW Turkey and discuss their petrogenetic–tectonic origin. These peridotites are part of a Tethyan ophiolite belt occurring along the ?zmir-Ankara-Ercincan suture zone in northern Turkey, and include depleted lherzolites and refractory harzburgites. The Al2O3 contents in orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene from the depleted lherzolite are high, and the Cr-number in the coexisting spinel is low falling within the abyssal field. However, the orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in the harzburgites have lower Al2O3 contents for a given Cr-number of spinel, and plot within the lower end of the abyssal field. The whole-rock geochemical and the mineral chemistry data imply that the Harmanc?k peridotites formed by different degrees of partial melting (~%10–27) of the mantle. The depleted lherzolite samples have higher MREE and HREE abundances than the harzburgitic peridotites, showing convex-downward patterns. These peridotites represent up to ~16 % melting residue that formed during the initial seafloor spreading stage of the Northern Neotethys. On the other hand, the more refractory harzburgites represent residues after ~4–11 % hydrous partial melting of the previously depleted MOR mantle, which was metasomatized by slab-derived fluids during the early stages of subduction. The Harmanc?k peridotites, hence, represent the fragments of upper mantle rocks that formed during different stages of the tectonic evolution of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere in Northern Neotethys. We infer that the multi-stage melting history of the Harmanc?k peridotites reflect the geochemically heterogeneous character of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere currently exposed along the ?zmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone.  相似文献
5.
We combine a geological, geochemical and tectonic dataset from 118 ophiolite complexes of the major global Phanerozoic orogenic belts with similar datasets of ophiolites from 111 Precambrian greenstone belts to construct an overview of oceanic crust generation over 4 billion years. Geochemical discrimi- nation systematics built on immobile trace elements reveal that the basaltic units of the Phanerozoic ophiolites are dominantly subduction-related (75%), linked to backarc processes and characterized by a strong MORB component, similar to ophiolites in Precambrian greenstone sequences (85%). The remaining 25% Phanerozoic subduction-unrelated ophiolites are mainly (74%) of Mid-Ocean-Ridge type (MORB type), in contrast to the equal proportion of RiftlContinental Margin, Plume, and MORB type ophiolites in the Precambrian greenstone belts. Throughout the Phanerozoic there are large geochemical variations in major and trace elements, but for average element values calculated in 5 bins of 100 million year intervals there are no obvious secular trends. By contrast, basaltic units in the ophiolites of the Precambrian greenstones (calculated in 12 bins of 250 million years intervals), starting in late Paleo- to early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 2.0-1.8 Ga), exhibit an apparent decrease in the average values of incom- patible elements such as Ti, P, Zr, Y and Nb, and an increase in the compatible elements Ni and Cr with deeper time to the end of the Archean and into the Hadean. These changes can be attributed to decreasing degrees of partial melting of the upper mantle from HadeanJArchean to Present. The onset of geochemical changes coincide with the timing of detectible changes in the structural architecture of the ophiolites such as greater volumes of gabbro and more common sheeted dyke complexes, and lesser occurrences of ocelli (varioles) in the pillow lavas in ophiolites younger than 2 Ga. The global data from the Precambrian ophiolites, representative of nearly 50% of all known worldwide greenston  相似文献
6.
The Late Ordovician Solund-Stavfjord ophiolite in western Norway represents a remnant of the Iapetus oceanic lithosphere that developed in a Caledonian marginal basin. The ophiolite contains three structural domains that display distinctively different crustal architecture that reflects the mode and nature of magmatic and tectonic processes operated during the multi-stage seafloor spreading evolution of this marginal basin. Domain I includes, from top to bottom, an extensive extrusive sequence, a transition zone consisting of dike swarms with screens of pillow breccias, a sheeted dike complex, and plutonic rocks composed mainly of isotropic gabbro and microgabbro. Extrusive rocks include pillow lavas, pillow breccias, and massive sheet flows and are locally sheared and mineralized, containing epidosites, sulfide-sulfate deposits, Fe-oxides, and anhydrite veins, reminiscent of hydrothermal alteration zones on the seafloor along modern mid-ocean ridges. A fossil lava lake in the northern part of the ophiolite consists of a >65-m-thick volcanic sequence composed of a number of separate massive lava units interlayered with pillow lavas and pillow breccia horizons. The NE-trending sheeted dike complex contains multiple intrusions of metabasaltic dikes with one- and two-sided chilled margins and displays a network of both dike-parallel normal and dike-perpendicular oblique-slip faults of oceanic origin. The dike-gabbro boundary is mutually intrusive and represents the root zone of the sheeted dike complex. The internal architecture and rock types of Domain I are analogous to those of intermediate-spreading oceanic crust at modern mid-ocean ridge environments. The ophiolitic units in Domain II include mainly sheeted dikes and plutonic rocks with a general NW structural grain and are commonly faulted against each other, although primary intrusive relations between the sheeted dikes and the gabbros are locally well preserved. The exposures of this domain occur only in the northern and southern parts of the ophiolite complex and are separated by the ENE-trending Domain III, in which isotropic to pegmatitic gabbros and dike swarms are plastically deformed along ENE-striking sinistral shear zones. These shear zones, which locally include fault slivers of serpentinite intrusions, are crosscut by N20°E-striking undeformed basaltic dike swarms that contain xenoliths of gabbroic material. The NW-trending sheeted dike complex in the northern part of Domain II curves into an ENE orientation approaching Domain III in the south. The anomalous nature of deformed crust in Domain III is interpreted to have developed within an oceanic fracture zone or transform fault boundary.REE chemistry of representative extrusive and dike rocks from all three domains indicates N- to E-MORB affinities of their magmas with high Th/Ta ratios that are characteristic of subduction zone environments. The magmatic evolution of Domain I encompasses closed-system fractional crystallization of high-Mg basaltic magmas in small ephemeral chambers, which gradually interconnected to form large chambers in which mixing of primary magmas with more evolved and fractionated magma caused resetting of magma compositions through time. The compositional range from high-Mg basalts to ferrobasalts within Domain I is reminiscent of modern propagating rift basalts. We interpret the NE-trending Domain I as a remnant of an intermediate-spread rift system that propagated northeastwards (in present coordinate system) into a pre-existing oceanic crust, which was developed along the NW-trending doomed rift (Domain II) in the marginal basin. The N20°E dikes laterally intruding into the anomalous oceanic crust in Domain III represent the tip of the rift propagator. The inferred propagating rift tectonics of the Solund-Stavfjord ophiolite is similar to the evolutionary history of the modern Lau back-arc basin in the SW Pacific and suggests a complex magmatic evolution of the Caledonian marginal basin via multi-stage seafloor spreading tectonics.  相似文献
7.
8.
The Zedong ophiolites in the eastern Yarlung–Zangbo suture zone of Tibet represent a mantle slice of more than 45 km~2. This massif consists mainly of mantle peridotites, with lesser gabbros, diabases and volcanic rocks. The mantle peridotites are mostly harzburgite, lherzolite; a few dike-like bodies of dunite are also present. Mineral structures show that the peridotites experienced plastic deformation and partial melting. Olivine(Fo89.7–91.2), orthopyroxene(En_(88–92)), clinopyroxene(En_(45–49) Wo_(47–51) Fs_(2–4)) and spinel [Mg~#=100×Mg/(Mg+Fe)]=49.1–70.7; Cr~#=(100×Cr/(Cr+Al)=18.8–76.5] are the major minerals. The degree of partial melting of mantle peridotites is 10%–40%, indicating that the Zedong mantle peridotites may experience a multi–stage process. The peridotites are characterized by depleted major element compositions and low REE content(0.08–0.62 ppm). Their "spoon–shaped" primitive–mantle normalized REE patterns with(La/Sm)_N being 0.50–6.00 indicate that the Zedong ultramafic rocks belong to depleted residual mantle rocks. The PGE content of Zedong peridotites(18.19–50.74 ppb) is similar with primary mantle with Pd/Ir being 0.54–0.60 and Pt/Pd being 1.09–1.66. The Zedong peridotites have variable, unradiogenic Os isotopic compositions with ~(187)Os/~(188)Os=0.1228 to 0.1282. A corollary to this interpretation is that the convecting upper mantle is heterogeneous in Os isotopes. All data of the Zedong peridotites suggest that they formed originally at a mid-ocean ridge(MOR) and were later modified in supra–subduction zone(SSZ) environment.  相似文献
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