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1.
The Bengal Basin originated during the collision of India with Eurasia and Burma. The provenance analysis of the Chittagong Tripura Fold Belt (CTFB), which is the folded eastern flank of the Bengal Basin as well as the Neogene belt of the Indo-Burman Ranges (IBR) is key to better understand the possible sources of sediment input from the complex interplay of the Indian, Eurasian and Burma plates. We report new whole rock geochemical and detrital zircon U–Pb data from the upper Neogene sandstones of Tipam-Dupi Tila formations (Pliocene to Plio-Plestocene succession) from the CTFB. Detrital zircon U–Pb age spectra show three predominant peaks at <200 Ma, 480–650, ∼800–1000 Ma. The geochemical discriminations and elemental ratios of Eu/Eu* (∼0.70), La/Sc (∼16.13), La/Co (∼15.76), Th/Sc (∼2.95), La/Th (∼5.67), Th/Co (∼2.87), Cr/Th (∼4.63) as well as Chondrite-normalized REE patterns with flat HREE, LREE enrichment, and negative Eu anomalies for the Tipam and Dupi Tila formations are suggestive of a dominantly felsic source area experiencing moderate to intensive chemical weathering (Chemical index of alteration, CIA - 57 to 81) and have a recycled provenance orogen related to active continental or passive margin settings. Integrated geochemical and zircon U–Pb studies reveal that the main sediment input might have been from the Himalayan orogen with significant arc-derived detritus, possibly from the Gangdese arc as well as from the Burma magmatic arc.  相似文献   
2.
The Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the northwestern Sichuan Basin, China, is a typical tight gas sandstone reservoir that contains natural fractures and has an average porosity of 1.10% and air permeability less than 0.1 md because of compaction and cementation. According to outcrops, cores and image logs, three types of natural fractures, namely, tectonic, diagenetic and overpressure-related fractures, have developed in the tight gas sandstones. The tectonic fractures include small faults, intraformational shear fractures and horizontal shear fractures, whereas the diagenetic fractures mainly include bed-parallel fractures. According to thin sections, the microfractures also include tectonic, diagenetic and overpressure-related microfractures. The diagenetic microfractures consist of transgranular, intragranular and grain-boundary fractures. Among these fractures, intraformational shear fractures, horizontal shear fractures and small faults are predominant and significant for fluid movement. Based on the Monte Carlo method, these intraformational shear fractures and horizontal shear fractures improve the reservoir porosity and permeability, thus serving as an important storage space and primary fluid-flow channels in the tight sandstones. The small faults may provide seepage channels in adjacent layers by cutting through layers. In addition, these intragranular and grain-boundary fractures increase the connectivity of the tight gas sandstones by linking tiny pores. The tectonic microfractures improve the seepage capability of the tight gas sandstones to some extent. Low-dip angle fractures are more abundant in the T3X3 member than in the T3X2 and T3X4 members. The fracture intensities of the sandstones in the T3X3 member are greater than those in the T3X2 and T3X4 members. The fracture intensities do not always decrease with increasing bed thickness for the tight sandstones. When the bed thickness of the tight sandstones is less than 1.0 m, the fracture intensities increase with increasing bed thickness in the T3X3 member. Fluid inclusion evidence and burial history analysis indicate that the tectonic fractures developed over three periods. The first period was at the end of the Triassic to the Early Jurassic. The tectonic fractures developed during oil generation but before the matrix's porosity and permeability reduced, which suggests that these tectonic fractures could provide seepage channels for oil migration and accumulation. The second period was at the end of the Cretaceous after the matrix's porosity and permeability reduced but during peak gas generation, which indicates that gas mainly migrated and accumulated in the tectonic fractures. The third period was at the end of the Eogene to the Early Neogene. The tectonic fractures could provide seepage channels for secondary gas migration and accumulation from the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation into the overlying Jurassic Formation.  相似文献   
3.
As worldwide hydrocarbon exploration has extended from shallowly to deeply buried strata, reservoir quality has attracted substantial and persistent interest in petroleum geology. In particular, deeply buried strata (>5500 m) in the Tarim Basin have attracted considerable attention because carbonate reservoirs that have experienced fracture or dissolution have also been shown to demonstrate considerable hydrocarbon potential. Therefore, it is necessary to determine how these reservoirs are developed and distributed in detail from both scientific and practical standpoints.In this paper, we address this issue using a case study in the southern Tahe area, which is contained within the largest Palaeozoic marine oilfield in China. In the northern Tahe area, mega-paleokarst systems developed in the Ordovician strata; however, the reservoir quality in the southern part of the Tahe area is relatively poor because it is covered by insoluble formations during karstification. Observations of cores and analyses of images of well logging demonstrate that these reservoirs are dominated by caves, vugs and fractures that have developed near faults. We speculate that the faults penetrating insoluble formations represent the main dissolution passages that originally developed these karstic fault systems. Additionally, we analyse a series of outcrops, seismic data, and structures to characterize the spatial geometry of these major faults and their surrounding fractures in detail. Most of these are strike-slip faults, and their subsequent reservoirs can be divided into three categories based on their development, including dendritic, sandwich and slab reservoirs. Recent studies demonstrate that karstic fault reservoirs are most common traps in the study area. Although various types of carbonate karstic fault reservoirs are represented in this region, the dendritic karstic fault reservoir is the most hydrocarbon-rich.Guided by these initial results, 108 wells were drilled from 2013 to 2014, producing 485 thousand tons of oil and yielding success ratios greater than 89%. The average production of dendritic reservoirs is 37.4 tons per day (t/d), while those of sandwich and slab types are 20.2 t/d and 14.0 t/d, respectively. These results represent significant references for future hydrocarbon exploration and the development of similar deeply buried karstic fault reservoirs in the Tarim Basin and elsewhere.  相似文献   
4.
Natural gas samples from two gas fields located in Eastern Kopeh-Dagh area were analyzed for molecular and stable isotope compositions. The gaseous hydrocarbons in both Lower Cretaceous clastic reservoir and Upper Jurassic carbonate reservoir are coal-type gases mainly derived from type III kerogen, however enriched δD values of methane implies presence of type II kerogen related material in the source rock. In comparison Upper Jurassic carbonate reservoir gases show higher dryness coefficient resulted through TSR, while presence of C1C5 gases in Lower Cretaceous clastic reservoir exhibit no TSR phenomenon. Carbon isotopic values indicate gas to gas cracking and TSR occurrence in the Upper Jurassic carbonate reservoir, as the result of elevated temperature experienced, prior to the following uplifts in last 33–37 million years. The δ13C of carbon dioxide and δ34S of hydrogen sulfide in Upper Jurassic carbonate reservoir do not primarily reflect TSR, as uplift related carbonate rock dissolution by acidic gases and reaction/precipitation of light H2S have changed these values severely. Gaseous hydrocarbons in both reservoirs exhibit enrichment in C2 gas member, with the carbonate reservoir having higher values resulted through mixing with highly-mature-completely-reversed shale gases. It is likely that the uplifts have lifted off the pressure on shale gases, therefore facilitated the migration of the gases into overlying horizons. However it appears that the released gases during the first major uplift (33–37 million years ago) have migrated to both reservoirs, while the second migrated gases have only mixed with Upper Jurassic carbonate reservoir gases. The studied data suggesting that economic accumulations of natural gas/shale gases deeper than Upper Jurassic carbonate reservoir would be unlikely.  相似文献   
5.
6.
Sediment samples (213 sites) collected from the tectonic-active continental margin, offshore southwestern Taiwan were analyzed for grain sizes, organic carbon, nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition to obtain mass accumulation rate of terrestrial organic carbon and carbon budget to evaluate fate of terrestrial organic carbon from small mountainous rivers on the continental margin offshore southwestern Taiwan. Terrestrial organic carbon accumulation rates range from 0.29 to 45.6 g C m−2 yr−1 with a total accumulation budget of 0.063 Mt yr−1, which accounts for less than 13% of total river particulate organic carbon loads exported from the adjacent rivers, the Gaoping (a.k.a., Kaoping), Erhjen and Tsengwen rivers. This low burial efficiency of terrestrial organic carbon demonstrated that a majority of river-borne particles together with organic materials was moved away from the study area.For the river-borne particles from the Gaoping river, a pair of depocenters in the upper slope flanking the Gaoping submarine canyon are the locations where the maximum TCorg accumulation rate were observed which hold up to 45% (0.016 Mt yr−1) of the calculated accumulation found in the study region. On the other hand, the occurrence of higher-fraction terrestrial organic carbon in the upper and middle Gaoping submarine canyon suggests that a majority of particulate organic carbon of the Gaoping river was transported directly into the deep-sea basin through the Gaoping submarine canyon. Our results demonstrated that active margin with narrow shelf and slope is not an efficient sink for the large amount of terrigenous organic carbon supplied by the small rivers, but, a transient environment for these river derived particles.  相似文献   
7.
We explore the variations of Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity beneath the East China Sea in a broad period range (5–200 s). Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves are measured by the two-station technique for a total of 373 interstation paths using vertical-component broad-band waveforms at 32 seismic stations around the East China Sea from 6891 global earthquakes.The resulting maps of Rayleigh-wave phase velocity and azimuthal anisotropy provide a high resolution model of the lithospheric mantle beneath the East China Sea. The model exhibits four regions with different isotropic and anisotropic patterns: the Bohai Sea, belonging to the North China Craton, displays a continental signature with fast velocities at short periods; the Yellow Sea, very stable unit associated with low deformation, exhibits fast velocities and limited anisotropy; the southern part of the East China Sea, with high deformation and many fractures and faults, is related to slow velocities and high anisotropic signature; and the Ryukyu Trench shows high-velocity perturbations and slab parallel anisotropy.  相似文献   
8.
A stable isotopic study, focused on calcite cements, vein-fill calcite and various bioclasts was conducted on variably deformed and thrusted Lower and Middle Permian carbonates of the Saraburi Group. Samples were collected in quarry faces across 3 areas in the Saraburi–Lopburi region of central Thailand. Stable isotope crossplots (carbon and oxygen), using texture-aware isotope samples, defined variable, but related, fluid-cement histories, which are tied to regional burial and then orogenic overprints driven by the Indosinian (Triassic) orogeny. This was followed by telogenetic overprints, driven by late Cenozoic uplift. The studied carbonates were deposited along the western margin of the Indochina Block, where they were deposited as isolated calcareous algal, sponge and fusilinid-rimmed platforms on highs bound by extensional faults. The platform areas passed laterally and vertically into more siliciclastic dominated sequences, deposited in somewhat deeper waters within probable fault-bound lows. Regional post-depositional mesogenetic fluid-rock re-equilibration of the isotope values in ongoing calcite precipitates occurred until the matrix permeability was occluded via compaction and pressure solution. This regional burial regime was followed by collision of the Indochina and Sibumasu blocks during the Indosinian (Triassic) blocks, which drove a set of structurally focused (thrust-plane related) increasingly warmer set of fluids through the studied sequences. The final diagenetic overprint seen in the isotopic values of the latest calcite cements occurs in a telogenetic (uplift) setting driven by Cenozoic tectonics and isostatic uplift. Integration of isotope data with its structural setting establishes a clear separation in fluid events related to two time-separate tectonic episodes; its fluid chemistry defines the Permo-Triassic closure of the Paleotethys and its subsequent reactivation during the Tertiary collision of India and Asia. The C–O covariant plot fields in the Permian carbonates of central Thailand are so distinct that it is possible to use their signatures to separate burial from meteoric cements in drill cuttings and hence recognise equivalent subsurface unconformities and likely zone of porosity development in possible “buried hill plays in Thailand.  相似文献   
9.
Three bitumen fractions were obtained and systematically analysed for the terpane and sterane composition from 30 Paleozoic source rocks and 64 bitumen-containing reservoir rocks within the Upper Sinian, Lower Cambrian, Lower Silurian, Middle Carboniferous, Upper Permian and Lower Triassic strata in the Sichuan Basin and neighbouring areas, China. These bitumen fractions include extractable oils (bitumen I), oil-bearing fluid inclusions and/or closely associated components with the kerogen or pyrobitumen/mineral matrix, released during kerogen or pyrobitumen isolation and demineralization (bitumen II), and bound compounds within the kerogen or pyrobitumen released by confined pyrolysis (bitumen III). In addition, atomic H/C and O/C ratios and carbon isotopic compositions of kerogen and pyrobitumen from some of the samples were measured. Geochemical results and geological information suggest that: (1) in the Central Sichuan Basin, hydrocarbon gases in reservoirs within the fourth section of the Upper Sinian Dengying Formation were derived from both the Lower Cambrian and Upper Sinian source rocks; and (2) in the Eastern Sichuan Basin, hydrocarbon gases in Middle Carboniferous Huanglong Formation reservoirs were mainly derived from Lower Silurian source rocks, while those in Upper Permian and Lower Triassic reservoirs were mainly derived from both Upper Permian and Lower Silurian marine source rocks. For both the source and reservoir rocks, bitumen III fractions generally show relatively lower maturity near the peak oil generation stage, while the other two bitumen fractions show very high maturities based on terpane and sterane distributions. Tricyclic terpanes evolved from the distribution pattern C20 < C21 < C23, through C20 < C21 > C23, finally to C20 > C21 > C23 during severe thermal stress. The concentration of C30 diahopane in bitumen III (the bound components released from confined pyrolysis) is substantially lower than in the other two bitumen fractions for four terrigenous Upper Permian source rocks, demonstrating that this compound originated from free hopanoid precursors, rather than hopanoids bound to the kerogen.  相似文献   
10.
The coastal Changle-Nan’ao tectonic zone of SE China contains important geological records of the Late Mesozoic orogeny and post-orogenic extension in this part of the Asian continent. The folded and metamorphosed T3–J1 sedimentary rocks are unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks or occur as amphibolite facies enclaves in late Jurassic to early Cretaceous gneissic granites. Moreover, all the metamorphic and/or deformed rocks are intruded by Cretaceous fine-grained granitic plutons or dykes. In order to understand the orogenic development, we undertook a comprehensive zircon U–Pb geochronology on a variety of rock types, including paragneiss, migmatitic gneiss, gneissic granite, leucogranite, and fine-grained granitoids. Zircon U–Pb dating on gneissic granites, migmatitic gneisses, and leucogranite dyke yielded a similar age range of 147–135 Ma. Meanwhile, protoliths of some gneissic granites and migmatitic gneisses are found to be late Jurassic magmatic rocks (ca. 165–150 Ma). The little deformed and unmetamorphosed Cretaceous plutons or dykes were dated at 132–117 Ma. These new age data indicate that the orogeny lasted from late Jurassic (ca. 165 Ma) to early Cretaceous (ca. 135 Ma). The tectonic transition from the syn-kinematic magmatism and migmatization (147–136 Ma) to the post-kinematic plutonism (132–117 Ma) occurred at 136–132 Ma.  相似文献   
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