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1.
Contamination of heavy metals represents one of the most pressing threats to water and soil resources, as well as human health. Phytoremediation can be potentially used to remediate metal contaminated sites. In this study, concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, and magnesium accumulated by native plant species were determined in field conditions of Hame Kasi iron and copper mine in the central part of Iran in Hamadan province. The results showed that metal accumulation by plants differed among species and tissue bodies. Species grown in substrata with elevated metals contained significantly higher metals in plants. Metals accumulated by plants were mostly distributed in root tissues, suggesting that an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance exists widely amongst them. The mentioned species could accumulate relatively higher metal concentrations far above the toxic concentration in the plant shoots. With high translocation factor, metal concentration ratio of plant shoots to roots indicates internal detoxification metal tolerance mechanism; thus, they have potential for phytoextraction. The factors affecting metal accumulation by plant species including metal concentrations, pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient status in substrata were measured. Mostly, concentrations of zinc and copper in both aboveground and underground tissues of the plants were significantly, positively related to their total in substrata, while iron, zinc, and copper were negatively correlated to soil phosphorus.  相似文献
2.
Without a doubt, landslide is one of the most disastrous natural hazards and landslide susceptibility maps (LSMs) in regional scale are the useful guide to future development planning. Therefore, the importance of generating LSMs through different methods is popular in the international literature. The goal of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of the occurrence of landslides in Zonouz Plain, located in North-West of Iran. For this purpose, a landslide inventory map was constructed using field survey, air photo/satellite image interpretation, and literature search for historical landslide records. Then, seven landslide-conditioning factors such as lithology, slope, aspect, elevation, land cover, distance to stream, and distance to road were utilized for generation LSMs by various models: frequency ratio (FR), logistic regression (LR), artificial neural network (ANN), and genetic programming (GP) methods in geographic information system (GIS). Finally, total four LSMs were obtained by using these four methods. For verification, the results of LSM analyses were confirmed using the landslide inventory map containing 190 active landslide zones. The validation process showed that the prediction accuracy of LSMs, produced by the FR, LR, ANN, and GP, was 87.57, 89.42, 92.37, and 93.27 %, respectively. The obtained results indicated that the use of GP for generating LSMs provides more accurate prediction in comparison with FR, LR, and ANN. Furthermore; GP model is superior to the ANN model because it can present an explicit formulation instead of weights and biases matrices.  相似文献
3.
Flooding is one of the most destructive natural hazards that cause damage to both life and property every year, and therefore the development of flood model to determine inundation area in watersheds is important for decision makers. In recent years, data mining approaches such as artificial neural network (ANN) techniques are being increasingly used for flood modeling. Previously, this ANN method was frequently used for hydrological and flood modeling by taking rainfall as input and runoff data as output, usually without taking into consideration of other flood causative factors. The specific objective of this study is to develop a flood model using various flood causative factors using ANN techniques and geographic information system (GIS) to modeling and simulate flood-prone areas in the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The ANN model for this study was developed in MATLAB using seven flood causative factors. Relevant thematic layers (including rainfall, slope, elevation, flow accumulation, soil, land use, and geology) are generated using GIS, remote sensing data, and field surveys. In the context of objective weight assignments, the ANN is used to directly produce water levels and then the flood map is constructed in GIS. To measure the performance of the model, four criteria performances, including a coefficient of determination (R 2), the sum squared error, the mean square error, and the root mean square error are used. The verification results showed satisfactory agreement between the predicted and the real hydrological records. The results of this study could be used to help local and national government plan for the future and develop appropriate (to the local environmental conditions) new infrastructure to protect the lives and property of the people of Johor.  相似文献
4.
Removal of Congo red from textile wastewater by ozonation   总被引:6,自引:6,他引:1  
Congo red, which has a complex molecular structure with various diazo aromatic groups, is widely used in textile industry as an anionic dye. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degradation of Congo red in laboratory solution which had the chemical properties of the rinse waters of textile manufacturing dye-houses and the samples with Congo red alone wastewater by ozonation and to optimize the reaction parameters such as pH and time which influence the efficiencies of total organic carbon, total kjeldahl nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand removal. Ozonation of Congo red dye were carried out in a semi-batch reactor with constant ozone flow rate and concentration of 23 mL/sec and 13.6 mg/L, respectively. Decolorization was complete within a few minutes of ozonation possibly due to the cleavage of chromophore groups. It was observed that its structural destruction occurs predominantly at higher pHs. The reduction of chemical oxygen demand and destruction of the dye was more than 60 % and 42 %, respectively. Total kjeldahl nitrogen removal was accompanied by slight changes in nitrogen oxides. It can be deduced from the experimental results that: (a) the mineralization is very weak; (b) the reaction follows the indirect mechanism; i.e., the interaction of hydroxyl radicals with the dye and (c) the nitrification is rather predominant. Biological oxygen demand is declined in simulated alkalic and neutral samples respectively. At 13.6 mg O3/L, the biological oxygen demand levels were significantly enhanced. This might be attributable to the enhancement of its biodegradation at alkaline pHs.  相似文献
5.
The purpose of current study is to produce groundwater qanat potential map using frequency ratio (FR) and Shannon's entropy (SE) models in the Moghan watershed, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The qanat is basically a horizontal, interconnected series of underground tunnels that accumulate and deliver groundwater from a mountainous source district, along a water- bearing formation (aquifer), and to a settlement. A qanat locations map was prepared for study area in 2013 based on a topographical map at a 1:50,000-scale and extensive field surveys. 53 qanat locations were detected in the field surveys. 70 % (38 locations) of the qanat locations were used for groundwater potential mapping and 30 % (15 locations) were used for validation. Fourteen effective factors were considered in this investigation such as slope degree, slope aspect, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), slope length (LS), plan curvature, profile curvature, distance to rivers, distance to faults, lithology, land use, drainage density, and fault density. Using the above conditioning factors, groundwater qanat potential map was generated implementing FR and SE models, and the results were plotted in ArcGIS. The predictive capability of frequency ratio and Shannon's entropy models were determined by the area under the relative operating characteristic curve. The area under the curve (AUC) for frequency ratio model was calculated as 0.8848. Also AUC for Shannon's entropy model was 0.9121, which depicts the excellence of this model in qanat occurrence potential estimation in the study area. So the Shannon's entropy model has higher AUC than the frequency ratio model. The produced groundwater qanat potential maps can assist planners and engineers in groundwater development plans and land use planning.  相似文献
6.
Three statistical models—frequency ratio (FR), weights-of-evidence (WofE) and logistic regression (LR)—produced groundwater-spring potential maps for the Birjand Township, southern Khorasan Province, Iran. In total, 304 springs were identified in a field survey and mapped in a geographic information system (GIS), out of which 212 spring locations were randomly selected to be modeled and the remaining 92 were used for the model evaluation. The effective factors—slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), slope length (LS), plan curvature, lithology, land use, and distance to river, road, fault—were derived from the spatial database. Using these effective factors, groundwater spring potential was calculated using the three models, and the results were plotted in ArcGIS. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn for spring potential maps and the area under the curve (AUC) was computed. The final results indicated that the FR model (AUC?=?79.38 %) performed better than the WofE (AUC?=?75.69 %) and LR (AUC?=?63.71 %) models. Sensitivity and factor analyses concluded that the bivariate statistical index model (i.e. FR) can be used as a simple tool in the assessment of groundwater spring potential when a sufficient number of data are obtained.  相似文献
7.
Role of metal species in flocculation rate during estuarine mixing   总被引:4,自引:4,他引:0  
Flocculation can be considered as an effective mechanism in self-purification of metals during estuarine mixing. In the present investigation, flocculation of metals during mixing of Minab River water with the Strait of Hormuz (The Persian Gulf) water is studied for the first time. Flocculation behavior of metals (except for Pb) is governed by dissolved organic carbon. The source of dissolved organic carbon is terrigenous in the estuarine waters of study area. The general pattern of flocculation of studied metals is manganese (180 μg/L) > zinc (88 μg/L)> nickle (73 μg/L)> copper (30 μg/L)> lead (19 μg/L). The results of present study show that metal species are a very important factor in overall flocculation rate. It is found that solids and oxides have the highest and lowest flocculation levels, respectively. Eh-pH diagram indicated that lead is present as lead oxide in Minab River water and the least flocculation rate is attributed to this element. The results also showed that flocculation rate of metal species could be as solids > free ions ≈ hydroxides > oxides. The amount of metal flocculation is about 30.5, 6.6, 25.3, 10.4 and 62.5 ton/y for zinc, Pb, Ni, Cu and Mn, respectively.  相似文献
8.
Granular activated carbon produced from palm kernel shell was used as adsorbent to remove copper, nickel and lead ions from a synthesized industrial wastewater.Laboratory experimental investigation was carried out to identify the effect of pH and contact time on adsorption of lead, copper and nickel from the mixed metals solution. Equilibrium adsorption experiments at ambient room temperature were carried out and fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models. Results showed that pH 5 was the most suitable, while the maximum adsorbent capacity was at a dosage of 1 g/L, recording a sorption capacity of 1.337 mg/g for lead, 1.581 mg/g for copper and 0.130 mg/g for nickel. The percentage metal removal approached equilibrium within 30 min for lead, 75 min for copper and nickel, with lead recording 100 %, copper 97 % and nickel 55 % removal, having a trend of Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Ni2+. Langmuir model had higher R2 values of 0.977, 0.817 and 0.978 for copper, nickel and lead respectively, which fitted the equilibrium adsorption process more than Freundlich model for the three metals.  相似文献
9.
Nitrate represents one of the major pollutants of groundwater in the Gaza Strip. Several cases of blue babies disease were reported in the last couple of years. The present study is an investigation of the seasonal variations in nitrate concentration to better understand the mechanisms and parameters controlling this perilous pollutant. Nitrate was analysed in 100 wells (47 agricultural and 53 domestic) in five governorates. The results showed that 90% of the tested wells have nitrate far beyond the allowed values set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The average concentration of nitrate in domestic wells is 128 mg/L in June-July and 118 mg/L in Jan-Feb, and for the agricultural wells, the average is 100 mg/L in June-July, and 96 mg/L for Jan-Feb. The results suggest that the seasonal differences in nitrate concentrations of the domestic wells are slightly more observable than those of the agricultural wells. The environmental factors that control nitrate in groundwater are: a partially-confined aquifer, lack of a sewage system, population density, the presence of refugee camps, the presence of fertilizers and the annual rain. The variations in nitrate concentration of the domestic wells are not of considerable values. It is suggested that concrete policies in pollution control and/or prevention measures could be formulated upon better understanding of the environmental factors.  相似文献
10.
Shear Strength Parameters of Improved Peat by Chemical Stabilizer   总被引:4,自引:2,他引:2  
The present research aimed to discuss the applicability of cationic grouts in geotechnical engineering. The effects of several cationic stabilizers such as monovalent (sodium silicate), divalent (calcium oxide and calcium chloride), and trivalent (aluminum hydroxide) were investigated on shear strength improvement of tropical peat samples. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were performed after the time frame of 7, 21, and 30 days as curing time, respectively. Apart from the physicochemical characteristics of the stabilized peat, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy tests were also carried out to study the ongoing microstructural changes. It is to be noted that the shear strength values for peat samples rose to 8, 6, 6, and 4 % of sodium silicate, calcium oxide, calcium chloride, and aluminum hydroxide, respectively. The highest observed UCS outcome is the one taken from the calcium oxide where the UCS of treated peat after 30-day curing time increased to 76 kPa. The strength changes resulted from the various cationic stabilizers can best be explained via the consideration within the mineralogical composition as well as those physicochemical changes happening in the peat.  相似文献
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