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1.
Globally, landslides cause hundreds of billions of dollars in damage and hundreds of thousands of deaths and injuries each year. A landslide susceptibility map describes areas where landslides are likely to occur in the future by correlating some of the principal factors that contribute to landslides with the past distribution of landslides. A case study is conducted in the mountainous northern Iran. In this study, a landslide susceptibility map of the study area was prepared using bivariate method with the help of the geographic information system. Area density (bivariate) method was used to weight landslide-influencing data layers. An overlay analysis is carried out by evaluating the layers obtained according to their weight and the landslide susceptibility map is produced. The study area was classified into five hazard classes: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. The percentage distribution of landslide susceptibility degrees was calculated. It was found that about 26% of the study area is classified as very high and high hazard classes.  相似文献
2.
Flow and mass transport parameter estimation was done by creating an inverse model of a seawater intrusion system using a genetic algorithm (GA) method as the optimization procedure. Firstly, the SEAWAT code was used for the forward solution part and then a program was written in MATLAB for coupling the forward and inverse processes. The auto-calibration objective function was defined with the root mean square errors (RMSE) between the observed and the simulated values. A simple GA was used to minimize the RMSE criterion. The methodology was applied to a coastal aquifer with heterogeneous formations in a semi-arid area near salty Tashk Lake (electrical conductivity 61,420 µS/cm), Fars province, Iran. In the last two decades, the overexploitation of groundwater has caused a major water level drawdown and, consequently, salt-water intrusion. Firstly, flow and transport parameters (hydraulic conductivity, porosity, specific storage coefficient and longitudinal dispersivity) were estimated simultaneously in steady-state and, secondly, in the developed code, these results were used as initial values of the parameters in transient-state. Results show a good match for observed and simulated data. It can be concluded that GA is a helpful tool for automatic calibration of variable density fluid systems such as seawater intrusion cases.  相似文献
3.
Mechanical Behavior of a Clay Soil Reinforced with Nylon Fibers   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
Soft soils are well known for their low strength and high compressibility. Several techniques, including reinforcement, are commonly used to increase the strength and decrease the deformation of this kind of soil. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the effects of fiber on the consolidation and shear strength behavior of a clay soil reinforced with nylon fibers. A series of one dimensional consolidation and triaxial tests were conducted on samples of unreinforced and reinforced clay with different percentages of randomly distributed nylon fibers. The results show that the preconsolidation pressure decreases and the coefficient of swelling and compression generally increase with increasing the fiber content. Furthermore, the addition of the fiber leads to a significant increase in shear strength and friction angle of the natural soil.  相似文献
4.
Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) application study is undertaken in order to estimate the sediment yield of the Kengir watershed in Iyvan City, Ilam Province, Iran. The runoff factor of MUSLE is computed using the measured values of runoff and peak rate of runoff at outlet of the watershed. Topographic factor (LS) and crop management factor(C) are determined using geographic information system (GIS) and field-based survey of land use/land cover. The conservation practice factor (P) is obtained from the literature. Sediment yield at the outlet of the study watershed is simulated for six storm events spread over the year 2000 and validated with the measured values. The high coefficient of determination value (0.99) indicates that MUSLE model sediment yield predictions are satisfactory for practical purposes.  相似文献
5.
Groundwater is the most important natural resource used for drinking by many people around the world, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. The resource cannot be optimally used and sustained unless the quality of groundwater is assessed. Saveh-Nobaran aquifer in Iran is the most important groundwater aquiferous system in the region which is considered a major source for drinking and irrigation. The main objective of this study is to understand the groundwater quality status of Saveh-Nobaran aquifer, followed by attempts to investigate the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters to identify places with the best quality for drinking consume within the study area. For this purpose, a set of original data, as yet unpublished, is presented. This paper provides an important contribution for understanding relationship between land use and groundwater quality, and also groundwater depth and groundwater quality. This goal has been achieved with the combined use of the Water Quality Index (WQI) and a geographical information system (GIS). A total of 58 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for major cations and anions. Spatial distribution maps of pH, TDS, EC, TH, Cl, HCO, SO4, Ca, Mg, Na and K have been created using the kriging method in a GIS environment. From the WQI assessment, over 65 % of the water samples fall within the ‘‘Poor’’, ‘‘Very poor’’ and “unsuitable for drinking” categories, suggesting that groundwater from the center and north-east of the Saveh-Nobaran aquifer is unsuitable for drinking purposes. This research and its results have shown the great combination use of GIS and WQI in assessing groundwater quality. Having a clear view of the geographic areas of groundwater quality, decision makers can plan better for the operation and maintenance of groundwater resources.  相似文献
6.
Soil dispersion is a phenomenon in which soil particles become afloat when they are exposed to water, and are carried away by the force of seepage. In spite of that soil dispersion is due to its chemical composition, the results obtained from the chemical methods, especially from the most widely used, Sherard method does not match with the results of well-known Pinhole test. This study tries to evaluate and modify the Sherard diagram for determination of dispersion potential of clayey soils. For this purpose, several natural soil samples were collected from different regions of Iran and some artificial soil samples were made by adding different percentages of four chemical agents, including sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and sodium polyphosphate to a natural soil. The physical, chemical and index properties of all samples were determined and for determination of dispersion potential, the commonly used chemical test (Sherard method) and Pinhole test were employed. The results obtained from the tests showed that the Sherard chemical method which is solely based on the amount and type of the existing cations, is not able to determine soil dispersion correctly since the role of some anions, especially chloride is neglected. It was also found that among the existing anions in the soil, the chloride on the contrary to sodium acts as a flocculating factor. The results showed that by converting the vertical axis of the Sherard chart from sodium% to (sodium chloride)%, its conformity to the results of Pinhole tests increases considerably.  相似文献
7.
Soil erosion is considered as the most widespread form of soil degradation which causes serious environmental problems. This study investigates the performance of the maximum entropy (ME) in mapping rill erosion susceptibility in the Golgol watershed, Ilam province, Iran. To this end, ten rill erosion conditioning factors were selected to be employed in the modelling process based on an investigation of the literature. These layers are: elevation, slope percent, aspect, stream power index, topographic wetness index, distance from streams, plan curvature, lithology, land use, and soil. Then, a training dataset of rill erosion locations was used for modelling this phenomenon. The area under receiver operating characteristics curve was used for evaluating the performance of the ME model. In addition, Modified Pacific South-West Inter Agency Committee (MPSIAC) framework was applied and sediment yield was determined for different hydrological units in the study area. At last, Jackknife test was implemented to show the contribution of the factors in the modelling process. The results depicted that area under ROC curve for training and validation datasets were 0.867, and 0.794, respectively. Therefore, this conclusion can be achieved that ME worked well and could be a good tool for generating rill erosion susceptibility maps and its output could be employed for soil conservation in similar areas.  相似文献
8.
In order to study the function, hydrodynamic behavior, and hydraulic properties of the karst aquifers in Izeh, southwest Iran, time series analysis was applied to the precipitation, spring discharge, and piezometric head data of two representative karst systems of Zagros (Ilam-Sarvak and Asmari Formations). Time series analysis was applied to two karst aquifers, those of Asmari and Ilam-Sarvak Formations. The daily precipitations of anticlines were estimated based on the precipitation–elevation function which was applied on digital elevation model (DEM) of the area. The mean estimated daily precipitations were considered in bivariate time series analysis as input data of each karst system. The total length of time series was about 2.7 years, extending from May 2007 to December 2009. During the research, several one-parameter probe data loggers were installed, which daily measure the water surfaces in karst aquifers. Time series analysis was applied for describing Izeh karst aquifers with a focus on both univariate (autocorrelation and spectral analysis) and bivariate (cross-correlation, gain function, and coherency function) methods. The results show that Asmari karst aquifer in Kamarderaz Anticline has a large storage capacity. Because of lacking a well-organized karst network, in the Asmari karst aquifer, baseflow dominates with low contribution of quick-flow. In the Ilam-Sarvak karst aquifer (Shavish and Tanush Anticlines), the karstification occurred in fractures and small diameter conduits, which caused to quick-flow between dense limestone. The Ilam-Sarvak karst aquifer could be regarded as a transition between two extreme types of karst, e.g., highly karstified system and in the opposite, extremely diffused one. The analysis of well hydrograph in Ilam-Sarvak karst aquifer shows that the karst aquifer has a low storage capacity. Unlike Asmari karst aquifer, the fractures and small diameter conduits in Ilam-Sarvak karst aquifer are more enhanced, producing a better developed karst network. Contrary to the typical karst systems, however, diffuse flow and conduit flow coexist in the Asmari Formation.  相似文献
9.
Groundwater quantity and quality modeling is one approach for optimal use of available water resources in arid and semiarid regions. This study was conducted to simulate flow treatment and nitrate transport on Shahrekord aquifer using three-dimensional solute transport model and geographical information system. Hydraulic conductivity, specific yield and recharge values in flow simulation process and effect molecular diffusion coefficient, longitudinal dispersivity and distribution coefficient in quality model were calibrated. 120 water samples during July 2007 to June 2008 were collected monthly from 10 wells and measurements of nitrate were carried out. The results show that the developed model is successfully used to simulate flow path and nitrate transport in saturated porous media. The highest values of nitrate occur along Bahram–Abad village and the surroundings. The groundwater quality in the area represents a complex system, which is affected by different factors of pollution, such as urban wastewater and leaching of agricultural lands.  相似文献
10.
Several media have been used in treatment plants, however, their efficiency for turbidity removal, which is determined by qualitative indices, has been considered. Current qualitative indices such as turbidity and escaping particle number could not completely measure the efficiency of the filtration system; therefore defining new qualitative indices is essential. In this study, the efficiency of two different dual media filters in turbidity removal was compared in different operating condition using qualitative indices. The pilot consisted of a filter column (1-m depth) in which the filter-1 was consisted of a layer of anthracite (450-mm depth) and a layer of silica sand (350-mm depth); and filter-2 had the same media characteristics except for the first layer that was light expanded clay aggregates (LECA). Turbidities of 10, 20, and 30 NTU, coagulant concentrations of 4, 8, and 12?ppm and filtration rates of 10, 15, and 20?m/h were considered as variables. Results showed that the media of filter-2 is a suitable substitute for the media of filter-1 (P value?<?0.05). Turbidity removal efficiencies in different condition were 79.97?±?1.79 to 91.37?±?1.23% for the filter-2 and 75.12?±?2.75 to 86.82?±?1.3% for the filter-1. The LECA layer efficiency in turbidity removal was independent of filtration rates and due to its low head loss; LECA can be used as a proper medium. Results also showed that the particle index was a suitable index as a substitute for turbidity and escaping particle number as indices.  相似文献
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