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1.
This study was focused on nettle ash as an alternative adsorbent for the removal of nickel (II) and cadmium (II) from wastewater. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the factors affecting adsorption of nickel (II) and cadmium (II). The adsorption process is affected by various parameters such as contact time, solution pH and adsorbent dose. The optimum pH required for maximum adsorption was found to be 6. The experimental data were tested using Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin equations. The data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm with monolayer adsorption capacity of 192.3 and 142.8 mg/g for nickel and cadmium, respectively. The adsorption kinetics were best described by the pseudo second order model. The cost of removal is expected to be quite low, as the adsorbent is cheap and easily available in large quantities. The present study showed that nettle ash was capable of removing nickel and cadmium ions from aqueous solution.  相似文献
2.
Fractionation of heavy metals (HMs) in amended soils is needed to predict elemental mobility in soil and phytoavailability to plants. A study was conducted to determine the effects of different amendments on HMs availability and their redistribution among soil fractions. A contaminated soil was selected from around a Zn mine and amended with 0, 2, 4, and 6 g kg−1 of vermicompost (VC), zeolite (ZE), and di-ammonium phosphate (DP) and incubated at field moisture. The amounts of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu were determined from the soil after 6 months of incubation time using DTPA and sequential extraction procedures. The total concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu were 41, 3,099, 1,997, and 83 mg kg−1 of soil, respectively. All amendments decreased significantly [probability (p) ≤ 0.05] DTPA-extractable Cd, Pb, and Cu, but not Zn, in the soil. For instance, DTPA-extractable Cd, Pb, and Cu decreased by 40, 290, and 20%, respectively, and that of Zn increased by 18% with DP1 (2 g kg−1 of di-ammonium phosphate) application. The concentrations of Pb and Cd decreased mainly in the specifically sorbed (SS) but increased in the amorphous Fe oxide (AFeO) fraction with DP application, indicating redistribution of Pb and Cd in the fractions with less mobility. Lead immobilization by DP was mainly attributed to the P-induced formation of chloropyromorphite, which was identified in the DP treatment using X-ray diffraction technique. It was concluded that DP was the most effective amendment in immobilizing Pb and Cd, though it increased Zn mobility.  相似文献
3.
This study proposes a new approach for determining the optimum dimensions of a protective spur dike to mitigate the amount of scour around existing spur dikes. Several parameters of a protective spur dike were studied to determine their optimum values, including length, angle, and distance. Also the effect of changes of flow intensity and sediment size were examined. The main objective of this article was to predict the optimum values of protective spur dikes to attain the best performance. To predict the parameters of protective spur dikes for controlling the scour around spur dikes, we used the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system method to construct a process that simulates the optimal parameters of a protective spur dike, including the actual length of the protective spur dike, the actual length of the main spur dikes, the distance between the protective spur dike and the first spur dike, the angle between the protective spur dike and the direction of flow, the intensity of the flow, and median size of the bed sediments. This intelligent estimator was implemented using MATLAB/Simulink, and the performances were investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.  相似文献
4.
In this research, an investigation of carbon monoxide in heavy traffic intersections of Kerman municipal districts in 2003–2004 has been performed. Kerman City is located at the south-eastern part of Iran. Carbon monoxide in highly toxic for human health and natural ecosystems in metropolition districts especially due to high traffic and industrial activities. For this reason, it was decided to investigate and find out the high concentration of CO pollutants in heavy traffic intersections of Kerman City. In this regards 21 heavy traffic squares and intersections were selected and the concentration of CO were measured. In the middle of each month during the year, sampling and measurement were scheduled three times at daily times according 7–12 a.m.; 12–16 and 16–20 p.m. In each period, 12 samples of 5 minutes were collected and CO concentration for 1-hr was calculated. The results obtained indicate that the hourly mean concentrations were lower than WHO guidelines and also lower than measurements of 1989, which has already done. In spite of more cases and higher populations, natural gas distribution was the cause of decline in CO concentrations.  相似文献
5.
Predicting soil erosion change is an important strategy in watershed management. The objective of this research was to evaluate land use change effects on soil erosion in the north of Iran using five land use scenarios. Three land use maps were created for a period of 25 years (1986–2010) to investigate land use transition and to simulate land use for the year 2030. Additionally, the RUSLE model was used to estimate erosion and the effect of land use change. The results showed that CLUE-s is suitable for modeling future land use transition using ROC curve. The median soil loss in the basis period was 104.52 t ha?1 years?1. Results indicate that the range of soil loss change is 2–32% in simulated period and soil loss value was higher than basis period in all scenarios. Thirty percent decrease in demand scenario has the lowest soil loss in simulated period, and the soil loss value under this scenario will be only 2% more than the basis period. Thus, the soil conversion effects resulted from the demand of each land use.  相似文献
6.
Local and mine scale exploration models for anomaly recognition within known ore fields are discussed. Traditional geochemical exploration methods are based on multivariate statistical analysis, metallometry, vertical geochemical zonality and criteria of natural field geochemical associations, which suffer several shortcomings, including lack of a geostatistical generalised approach for separating anomalies from background. These shortcomings make the interpretation process time consuming and costly. Fuzzy set theory, fuzzy logic and neural network techniques seem very well suited for typical mining geochemistry applications. The results, obtained from applying the proposed technique to a real scenario, reveals significant improvements, comparing the results obtained from applying multivariate statistical analysis. Computationally, the introduced technique makes possible, without exploration drilling, the distinction between blind mineralisation and zone of dispersed ore mineralisation. The methodology developed in this research study has been verified by testing it on various real-world mining geochemical projects.  相似文献
7.
Strain energy concept has been employed by the researchers for the assessment of liquefaction phenomenon which is a disastrous type of earthquake-induced failure in saturated soils. The efficiency and predictability conditions of strain energy concept for liquefaction potential assessment are investigated herein using effective stress numerical analyses. Several earthquake ground motions were introduced to the base of a calibrated numerical model using an advanced fully coupled constitutive model. Results of the numerical analyses indicate that earthquake-induced excess pore pressure is more rigorously proportional to strain energy compared with the other examined intensity measures. Subsequently, a simple relationship was derived using the results of dynamic analyses to predict cumulative strain energy density in terms of magnitude, source to site distance, and effective overburden pressure. This relationship, which tries to guarantee the predictability condition of strain energy demand, has demonstrated a successful capability in discrimination between the liquefied and non-liquefied case histories recorded after several well-known earthquakes. This study has provided a practical linkage between numerical analysis and field observations. Finally, it is concluded that although strain energy approach possesses a great conceptual efficiency in liquefaction potential assessment, its precise prediction in actual field conditions involves some difficulties.  相似文献
8.
The adsorption of hexamine onto powdered activated carbon from aqueous solutions was studied in a fixed bed system. Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich–Peterson and Toth isotherm models were used to fit the experimental data and isotherm parameters were determined. The results revealed that the adsorption isotherm models fitted the data in the order of Langmuir > Toth > Redlich–Peterson > Freundlich. Lagergren pseudo-first order kinetic model was found to correlate well with the experimental data. The effects of solution pH, temperature, initial hexamine concentration and added salts concentration on the adsorption capacity and the rate of adsorption were studied. The results indicate that the rate of adsorption increases and then decreases as temperature of the hexamine solution increases, however, the adsorption capacity decreases. The addition of low concentration of salt significantly increases the adsorption capacity of activated carbon. The results showed that the activated carbon has potential for the adsorption of hexamine from industrial hexamine wastewater.  相似文献
9.
This study proposes a new approach for determining optimum dimensions of protective spur dike to mitigate scour amount around existing spur dikes. The main objective of this article was to predict the most optimum values of the protective spur dikes to reach the best performance. To predict the protective spur dike parameters for scour controlling around spur dikes, this paper constructed a process which selects the optimal protective spur dike parameters in regard to actual length of the protective spur dike, actual length of the main spur dikes, distance between the protective spur dike and the first spur dike, angle between protective spur dike and flow direction, flow intensity and median size of bed sediments with adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) method. To build a protective spur dike with the best features, it is desirable to select and analyze factors that are truly relevant or the most influential to the spur dike. This procedure is typically called variable selection, and it corresponds to finding a subset of the full set of recorded variables that exhibits good predictive abilities. In this study, architecture for modeling complex systems in function approximation and regression was used, based on using ANFIS. Variable searching using the ANFIS network was performed to determine how the five factors affect the protective spur dike. Experimental model of the protective spur dike was used to generate training and checking data for the ANFIS network.  相似文献
10.
Nowadays, the world is witnessing the ever increasing need of Tunnel excavation due to their unique features and the kind of human applied plans. This has led to increase in demand of excavating this engineering factor. Tunnel excavation process faces a lot of challenges due to environmental and technological complexities which causes the economic evaluation and investigation of this project to be difficult. It is tried to develop the proposed model with regard to efficiency concept in order to evaluate and investigate the efficiency of relative economic performance of Tunnel excavation projects and turn to its modeling and implementing by data envelopment analysis and Fuzzy DEMATEL techniques. The results in Iran showed that the proposed model can turn to investigation and evaluation of economic efficiency of Tunnel excavation by considering two optimistic (ideal) and pessimistic perspectives such that the Tunnel excavation process of “Karaj water transition” and “Cheshmelangan water transition” among 12 rock Tunnel excavation projects of Iran in the time period of 1998–2013 were respectively introduced as the most efficient and the most inefficient rock Tunnel excavation projects.  相似文献
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