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1.
The main goal of this study is to produce landslide susceptibility maps of a landslide-prone area (Haraz) in Iran by using both fuzzy logic and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) models. At first, landslide locations were identified by aerial photographs and field surveys, and a total of 78 landslides were mapped from various sources. Then, the landslide inventory was randomly split into a training dataset 70?% (55 landslides) for training the models and the remaining 30?% (23 landslides) was used for validation purpose. Twelve data layers, as the landslide conditioning factors, are exploited to detect the most susceptible areas. These factors are slope degree, aspect, plan curvature, altitude, lithology, land use, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distance from faults, stream power index, slope length, and topographic wetness index. Subsequently, landslide susceptibility maps were produced using fuzzy logic and AHP models. For verification, receiver operating characteristics curve and area under the curve approaches were used. The verification results showed that the fuzzy logic model (89.7?%) performed better than AHP (81.1?%) model for the study area. The produced susceptibility maps can be used for general land use planning and hazard mitigation purpose.  相似文献
2.
Contaminations of groundwater by heavy metals due to agricultural activities are growing recently. The objective of this study was to evaluate and map regional patterns of heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Cu) in groundwater on a plain with high agricultural activities. The study was conducted to investigate the concentration of heavy metals and distribution in groundwater in regions of Shush Danial and Andimeshk aquifers in the southern part of Iran. Presently, groundwater is the only appropriate and widely used source of drinking water for rural and urban communities in this region. The region covers an area of 1,100 km2 between the Dez and Karkhe rivers, which lead to the Persian Gulf. For this study, the region was divided into four sub-regions A, B, C and D. Additionally, 168 groundwater samples were collected from 42 water wells during the earlier months of 2004. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS-Flame) was used to measure the concentration of heavy metals in water samples and the Surfer software was used for determination of the contour map of metal distribution. The results demonstrated that in all of the samples, Cd and Zn concentrations were below the EPA MCLG and EPA secondary standard, respectively. However, the Cu contents of 4.8 % of all samples were higher than EPA MCL. It is also indicated that the concentrations of metals were more pronounced at the southern part of the studied region than at the others. The analysis of fertilizers applied for agricultural activities at this region also indicated that a great majority of the above-mentioned heavy metals were discharged into the environment. Absence of confining layers, proximity to land surface, excess agricultural activities in the southern part and groundwater flow direction that is generally from the north to the southern parts in this area make the southern region of the Shush plain especially vulnerable to pollution by heavy metals than by other contaminants.  相似文献
3.
Contamination of heavy metals represents one of the most pressing threats to water and soil resources, as well as human health. Phytoremediation can be potentially used to remediate metal contaminated sites. In this study, concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, and magnesium accumulated by native plant species were determined in field conditions of Hame Kasi iron and copper mine in the central part of Iran in Hamadan province. The results showed that metal accumulation by plants differed among species and tissue bodies. Species grown in substrata with elevated metals contained significantly higher metals in plants. Metals accumulated by plants were mostly distributed in root tissues, suggesting that an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance exists widely amongst them. The mentioned species could accumulate relatively higher metal concentrations far above the toxic concentration in the plant shoots. With high translocation factor, metal concentration ratio of plant shoots to roots indicates internal detoxification metal tolerance mechanism; thus, they have potential for phytoextraction. The factors affecting metal accumulation by plant species including metal concentrations, pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient status in substrata were measured. Mostly, concentrations of zinc and copper in both aboveground and underground tissues of the plants were significantly, positively related to their total in substrata, while iron, zinc, and copper were negatively correlated to soil phosphorus.  相似文献
4.
The current research presents a detailed landslide susceptibility mapping study by binary logistic regression, analytical hierarchy process, and statistical index models and an assessment of their performances. The study area covers the north of Tehran metropolitan, Iran. When conducting the study, in the first stage, a landslide inventory map with a total of 528 landslide locations was compiled from various sources such as aerial photographs, satellite images, and field surveys. Then, the landslide inventory was randomly split into a testing dataset 70 % (370 landslide locations) for training the models, and the remaining 30 % (158 landslides locations) was used for validation purpose. Twelve landslide conditioning factors such as slope degree, slope aspect, altitude, plan curvature, normalized difference vegetation index, land use, lithology, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distance from faults, stream power index, and slope-length were considered during the present study. Subsequently, landslide susceptibility maps were produced using binary logistic regression (BLR), analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and statistical index (SI) models in ArcGIS. The validation dataset, which was not used in the modeling process, was considered to validate the landslide susceptibility maps using the receiver operating characteristic curves and frequency ratio plot. The validation results showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for three mentioned models vary from 0.7570 to 0.8520 $ ({\text{AUC}}_{\text{AHP}} = 75.70\;\% ,\;{\text{AUC}}_{\text{SI}} = 80.37\;\% ,\;{\text{and}}\;{\text{AUC}}_{\text{BLR}} = 85.20\;\% ) $ ( AUC AHP = 75.70 % , AUC SI = 80.37 % , and AUC BLR = 85.20 % ) . Also, plot of the frequency ratio for the four landslide susceptibility classes of the three landslide susceptibility models was validated our results. Hence, it is concluded that the binary logistic regression model employed in this study showed reasonably good accuracy in predicting the landslide susceptibility of study area. Meanwhile, the results obtained in this study also showed that the statistical index model can be used as a simple tool in the assessment of landslide susceptibility when a sufficient number of data are obtained.  相似文献
5.
Environmental management of coastal regions in the Caspian Sea   总被引:13,自引:13,他引:0  
Considering rapid population growth and migration, higher accumulation of communities is noticed in coastal areas. This is especially true with the coastal areas of the Caspian Sea. In the present investigation coastal areas between Jouybar to Behshahr region is selected for their special geographical and ecological locations. Further, adverse impacts of human, agriculture and industrial activities was examined along side the above mentioned coasts. It should be pointed out that protected Miankaleh Wildlife zone which is an internationally recognized wetland, falls within area of study. In the present study strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats method is used for the evaluation of environmental management status. In this regard, internal and external factors gained 2.28 and 2.58 scores. This is indicative of the abundance of weaknesses over strengths and it also shows that opportunities are more than threats. Subsequently 27 strategies were developed and quantitative strategic planning matrix method was also used to score each strategies. The results of quantitative strategic planning matrix method analysis was programmed in strategic position and action evaluation matrix. The present situation falls within “competitive” classification. This is indicative of weakness in coordinating development and environmental strategic plans. The result of present investigation strongly emphasis on compilation of strategic environmental plans for the control of population, pollution emission and land use planning changes. The most important strategies include development of environmental regulations and better supervision on enforcement of laws.  相似文献
6.
Flood spreading is an inexpensive method for flood mitigation and artificial recharge of aquifers that results in a large budget return for relatively small investment.It is necessary to study some regional characteristics in order to determine the appropriate areas for artificial groundwater recharge by flood spreading in Meimeh Basin, Isfahan Province, Iran. Necessary regional characteristics to be studied are: slope, infiltration rate, sediment thickness, transmissivity, and water quality. In this research to identify suitable areas for artificial recharge several thematic layers were prepared, assigning each layer to one of the mentioned characteristics. The thematic layers were classified to several classes based on the existing criteria. All of the classes of the thematic layers were integrated and analyzed using a decision support system (DSS) in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. Finally suitability of the integrated classes for artificial recharge was identified in which the following classes were separated:(i) Very suitable, (ii) suitable, (iii) moderate suitability, and (iv) unsuitable.The validity of the generated model was verified by applying the model to a number of successful floodwater spreading stations throughout Iran. The verified model showed satisfactory results for all of the stations. The results for Meimeh Basin showed that about 70% of the Quaternary sediments in the studied area are suitable and moderately suitable for artificial recharge by flood spreading.  相似文献
7.
Discharging different kinds of wastewater and polluted waters such as domestic, industrial and agricultural wastewaters into environment, especially to surface water, can cause heavy pollution of this body sources. With regard to increasing effluent discharge standards to the environment, high considerations should be made when selecting proper treatment processes. Any of chemical, biological and physical treatment processes have its own advantages and disadvantages. It should be kept in mind that economical aspects are important, too. In addition, employing environment-friendly methods for treatment is emphasized much more these days. Application of some waste products that could help in this regard, in addition to reuse of these waste materials, can be an advantage. Agricultural fibers are agricultural wastes and are generated in high amounts. The majority of such materials is generated in developing countries and, since they are very cheap, they can be employed as biosorbents in water and wastewater applications. Polluted surface waters, different wastewaters and partially treated wastewater may be contaminated by heavy metals or some organic matters and these waters should be treated to reduce pollution. The results of investigations show high efficiency of agricultural fibers in heavy metal and phenol removal. In this paper, some studies conducted by the author of this article and other investigators are reviewed.  相似文献
8.
Summary Evaluation of the effects of small repetitive earthquakes on the strength parameters of rock joints in active seismic zones is of interest of the designers of underground constructions. In order to evaluate these effects, it is necessary to study the behaviour of rock joints under dynamic and cyclic loadings. This paper presents the results of a systematic study on the behaviour of artificial rock joints subjected to cyclic shearing. More than 30 identical replicas have been tested using triaxial compression devices under different conditions of monotonic and cyclic loading. At the first stage a few samples have been tested in monotonic loading modes under various confining pressures and rate of displacement. In the second series of tests, small cyclic loads were applied on the samples for increasing number of cycles, frequency levels and stress amplitudes. These were then followed by monotonic loading again. The variations of maximum and residual shear strengths for each test have been studied. The results show increase of shear strength as a result of the increase in confining pressure and they display decrease of shear strength due to the increase of rate of loading, number of cycles, frequency levels and stress amplitudes.  相似文献
9.
10.
In this work, a two-dimensional fourth-order Boussinesq-type numerical model is applied to estimate the impact of landslide-generated waves in dam reservoirs. This numerical model has recently been extended for simulating subaerial landslides. The extended model is validated using available three-dimensional experimental data, and a good agreement is obtained. The numerical model is then employed to investigate the impact of landslide-generated waves in two real cases, the Maku and Shafa-Roud dam reservoirs in the northwestern and the north of Iran, respectively. Generated wave heights, wave run-up, maximum wave height above dam crest, and dam overtopping volume have been estimated for each case. The amplitude of generated waves about 18 and 31 m and the volume of dam overtopping up to 80,000 m3 emphasize the importance of the estimation of the landslide-generated waves in dam sites.  相似文献
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