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The North Atlantic craton in southern West Greenland mainly consists of a tectonic collage of Mesoarchean continental crustal terranes, which were amalgamated at c. 2.7 Ga and are currently exposed at mid-crustal amphibolite to granulite facies levels. Tonalitic orthogneisses predominate, intercalated with slightly older tholeiitic to andesitic metavolcanic rocks and associated gabbro-anorthosite intrusive complexes. The North Atlantic craton also contains enclaves of Eoarchean, c. 3.86-3.6 Ga orthogneisses and supracrustal rocks including the Isua greenstone (or supracrustal) belt. This is the oldest known assemblage of rocks deposited at the surface of the Earth, comprising mafic pillow lavas, banded iron formations and metasedimentary schists with local disseminated graphite of possible biogenic origin. Eoarchean rocks have not been found in Kola and Karelia in Fennoscandia where most rocks are 2.9-2.7 Ga tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic orthogneisses with intercalated coeval greenstone belts and amphibolites. Mesoarchean 3.0-3.2 Ga rocks are found in the eastern and western parts of the Karelian province. Subduction-related rocks like the Iringora supra-subduction type ophiolite and basalt-andesite-dacite-rhyolite series volcanic rocks in many greenstone belts, as well as eclogites are found in the Archean of Fennoscandia. A clear distinction between Greenland and Fennoscandia is the abundance of 2.75-2.65 Ga igneous rocks in Fennoscandia which indicates that these two cratons had a separate evolution during the Neoarchean.  相似文献
2.
During the Mesoproterozoic, central Fennoscandia and Laurentia (Greenland) were characterized by a weakly extensional stress regime, as evident from episodic rapakivi granites, dolerite dykes, continental rift intrusives, sandstone basins and continental flood basalts. Along the southwestern active margin of Fennoscandia, the 1.64-1.52 Ga Gothian and 1.52-1.48 Ga Telemarkian accretionary events resulted in oceanwards continental growth. The 1.47-1.42 Ga Hallandian- Danopolonian event included high-grade metamorphism and granite magmatism in southern Fennoscandia. The pre-Sveconorwegian 1.34-1.14 Ga period is characterized by bimodal magmatism associated with sedimentation, possibly reflecting transcurrent tectonics. The Sveconorwegian orogeny involved polyphase imbrication of terranes between 1.14 and 0.97 Ga, as a result of a collision between Baltica and another major plate, followed by relaxation and post-collisional magmatism between 0. 96 and 0. 90 Ga. Recent geologic data support classical models restoring the Sveconorwegian belt directly to the east of the Grenville belt of Laurentia at 1.0 Ga. Fragments of Paleo-to Mesoproterozoic crust showing late Grenvillian-Sveconorwegian (1.00-0.92 Ga) magmatism and/or metamorphism are exposed in several tectonic levels in the Caledonides of Scandinavia, Svalbard and East Greenland, on both sides of the inferred Iapetus suture. Linking these fragments into a coherent late-Grenvillian tectonic model, however, require additional study.  相似文献
3.
Neoproterozoic successions of Fennoscandia, East Greenland and Svalbard are related to crustal extension and formation of sedimentary basins along the margins of northern Baltica ( Fennoscandia ) and eastern Laurentia (East Greenland and Svalbard), preceding final break-up of Rodinia. The early rift stage (late Tonian-Cryogenian) is characterized by up to 16 km thick sedimentary successions of deep-marine sandstones and conglomerates linked to rift and strike-slip basins. Pericratonic basins expanded during Cryogenian-Cambrian coastal onlap. Cryogenian tropical climate is reflected by carbonate and evaporitic formations, most of which predate Cryogenian-Ediacaran glaciations. Glacial units, collectively referred to the Varanger Ice Age, may be equivalent to the Marinoan (c. 630 Ma) and the Gaskiers (c. 580 Ma) glacial periods. The final stage in break-up of Rodinia commenced with the emplacement of dolerite dyke swarms along the Baltoscandian margin at c. 600 Ma and the opening of the lapetus Ocean and other sea ways. No such dyke swarms have been recorded along the East Greenland segment of the Laurentian margin. Several Tonian-Cambrian tectonic and magmatic events recorded within the Kalak Nappe Complex in northern Finnmark make this unit an exotic terrane relative to the autochthonous Baltoscandian platform.  相似文献
4.
The Caledonide Orogen in the Nordic countries is exposed in Norway, western Sweden, westernmost Finland, on Svalbard and in northeast Greenland. In the mountains of western Scandinavia, the structure is dominated by E-vergent thrusts with allochthons derived from the Baltoscandian platform and margin, from outboard oceanic (lapetus) terranes and with the highest thrust sheets having Laurentian affinities. The other side of this bivergent orogen is well exposed in northeastern Greenland, where W-vergent thrust sheets emplace Laurentian continental margin assemblages onto the platform. Svalbard's Caledonides are disrupted by late Caledonian faults, but have close affinity with the Laurentian margin in Northeast Greenland. Only Svalbard's Southwestern terrane is foreign to this margin, showing affinity, to the Pearya terrane of northern Ellesmere Island in arctic Canada. Between the margins of western Scandinavia and eastern Greenland, the wide continental shelves, now covered by late Paleozoic and younger successions, are inferred to be underlain by the Caledonide hinterland, probably incorporating substantial Grenville-age basement. In northernmost Norway, the NE-trending Caledonian thrust front truncates the NW-trending Neoproterozoic Timanide orogen of northwest Russia. Much of the central and eastern parts of the Barents Shelf are thought to be underlain by Caledonian-deformed Timanide basement.
Caledonian orogeny in Norden resulted from the closure of the Iapetus Ocean and Scandian collision of continent Baltica with Laurentia. Partial subduction of the Baltoscandian margin beneath Laurentia in the midlate Silurian was followed by rapid exhumation of the highly metamorphosed hinterland in the early Devonian, and deposition of Old Red Sandstones in intramontane basins. Late Scandian collapse of the orogen occurred on major extensional detachments, with defor mation persisting into the late Devonian.  相似文献
5.
Thick Mesozoic sediments are found offshore Norway and Denmark, and Mesozoic rocks are present and well exposed in Denmark, along the coast of East Greenland and on the arctic islands of Svalbard.
During the Mesozoic, Scandinavia and Greenland were subject to major extension in the Late Permian-Early Triassic and Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, prior to Cenozoic opening of the North Atlantic. Deep basins developed along the rift zones of the North Sea and between East Greenland and Norwa); and were .filled with sediments derived from mainland Scandinavia and Greenland. The marginal areas bordering the rift zones suffered less subsidence, as did the epicontinental Barents Sea.  相似文献
6.
We present a review of geophysical models of the continental lithosphere of Norden, which includes the Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden), Greenland, and the adjacent regions of the neighbouring countries. The structure of the crust and the lithospheric mantle reflects the geologic evolution of Norden from Precambrian terrane accretion and subduction within the Baltic Shield and Greenland to Phanerozoic rifting, volcanism, magmatic crust formation, subduction and continent-continent collision at the edges of the cratons and at the plate boundaries. The proposed existence of a mantle plume below Iceland has not been uniquely demonstrated by the available seismic evidence. Its connection to the break-up of the North Atlantic Ocean c. 65 My ago is uncertain, but the 〉30 km thick crust in the strait between Iceland and Greenland may indicate the track of the plume. Using the results from seismic (reflection and refraction profiles, P- and S-wave, body-wave and surface-wave tomography), thermal, gravity, and petrologic studies,we review the structure of the crust and the lithospheric mantle of Norden and propose an integrated model of physical properties of the lithosphere of the region, including maps of lateral variation in crustal and lithospheric thicknesses and compositional variation in the lithospheric mantle.  相似文献
7.
The Paleoproterozoic evolution of Fennoscandia and Greenland can be divided into major rifting and orogenic stages. The Paleoproterozoic rifting of Fennoscandia started with 2.505-2.1 Ga, multiphase, southwest-prograding, intraplate rifting. Both Fennoscandia and Greenland experienced 2.1- 2.04 Ga drifting and separation of their Archean cratons by newly-formed oceans. The main Paleoproterozoic orogenic evolution of Fennoscandia resulted in the Lapland-Kola orogen (1.94-1.86 Ga) and the composite Svecofennian orogen (1.92-1.79 Ga). The Paleoproterozoic orogens in Greenland, from north to south, are the lnglefield mobile belt (1.95-1.92 Ga), the Rinkian .fold belt/Nagssugtoqidian orogen (1.88-1.83 Ga) and the Ketilidian orogen (c. 1.8 Ga). The Lapland-Kola orogen, Inglefield mobile belt and the Rinkian fold belt/Nagssugtoqidian orogen are continent-continent collision zones with limited formation of new Paleoproterozoic crust, whereas the Ketilidian orogen displays a convergent plate-tectonic system, without subsequent collision. The composite Svecofennian orogen is responsible for the main Paleoproterozoic crustal growth of Fennoscandia.  相似文献
8.
权晓莹  刘春花  赵元艺 《地质通报》2019,38(6):1071-1079
格陵兰矿产资源丰富,但尚未大规模开发,现已逐渐成为矿产资源勘查与开发的热点地区。格陵兰的矿产勘查资料易于获得,但中文资料匮乏。中国铀矿类型主要有岩浆型、热液型、砂岩型和碳硅泥岩型,总体上“小、贫、散”,超大型与大型铀矿床很稀缺。为缓解中国铀矿资源的紧缺状况,推动中国企业在格陵兰“走出去”,在收集整理资料的基础上,初步评价了格陵兰的铀矿资源潜力。格兰陵主要的铀矿成因类型是砂岩型、砾岩型、脉型、侵入岩型、火山岩型和交代岩型6种。可确定5个找矿远景区,其中A级3个,B级和C级各1个,建议中国企业重点关注A级远景区。格陵兰政府对于铀矿开采的禁令已经解除,铀矿资源可利用性评价良好,值得中国企业关注。  相似文献
9.
刘青枰  赵元艺  刘春花 《地质通报》2019,38(8):1386-1395
格陵兰地处北极,是全球最大的岛屿,经历了约40亿年的地质构造演化,矿产资源极丰富,尤其是以重稀土元素为特色的稀土矿资源。前人主要集中研究格陵兰岛黑色和多金属矿产资源,较少涉及稀土资源。通过研究,为保护中国有限的稀土资源,给中方企业和地勘单位实施"走出去"政策在格陵兰寻找潜在稀土资源提供基础资料。收集资料发现,格陵兰岛的稀土矿床主要集中在西南部、南部、中东部、中西部,其类型有碳酸岩型、碱性岩型、古砂矿型,可能有IOCG型。格陵兰岛稀土矿资源潜力巨大,通过分析格陵兰岛地质资料确定了4个远景区,由2个Ⅰ级、1个Ⅱ级和1个Ⅲ级组成。下一步重点关注格陵兰岛南部和西南部的2个Ⅰ级远景区,其次关注中东部和中西部Ⅱ级和Ⅲ级远景区。从多方面考虑,格陵兰岛稀土矿资源可利用性评价良好,格陵兰岛的稀土元素矿床值得中国企业关注。  相似文献
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