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1.
Incorporation of the Kaapvaal craton within a speculative Neoarchaean–Palaeoproterozoic supercontinent has long been debated, and this idea provides a potential solution to solving the apparently enigmatic provenance of the huge quantities of gold within the famous Witwatersrand auriferous deposits of Kaapvaal. Within a framework of a postulated Neoarchaean “Kenorland” (“northern”; present-day reference) supercontinent, we examine possible “southern” cratons that may have been contiguous with Kaapvaal: Pilbara, Zimbabwe, Dharwar, São Francisco, Amazon, Congo. Brief reviews of their basic geology and inferred evolution in syn-Witwatersrand basin times (c. 3.1–2.8 Ga) show no obvious support for any such supercontinental amalgamations. An alternative idea to explain a measure of gross similarity amongst several Neoarchaean cratons is through global events, such as a c. 3125–3000 Ma cratonic-scale erosive event interpreted for both Pilbara and Kaapvaal, and a much more widespread magmatic event at c. 2760–2680 Ma. We postulate that a global superplume event at c. 3.0 Ga included a plume beneath the Kaapvaal cratonic nucleus, thus halting any subduction around that terrane due to the thermal anomaly. Such a speculative global magmatic event is assumed to have enhanced production of juvenile oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges, including those “offshore” of the thermally elevated Kaapvaal nucleus. Intra-oceanic obduction complexes may have built up fairly rapidly under such conditions, globally, and once the plume event had abated, “normal” plate tectonics would have resulted in composite (greenstone-tonalite, possibly also including granite) terranes accreting with nuclei such as Kaapvaal. This enhanced plume-related cratonic growth can be seen as a rapid accretion event. Formation of the envisaged ophiolite complexes possibly encompassed deformation-related first-order concentration of gold, and once accretion occurred around Kaapvaal's nucleus, from north and west (present-day frame of reference), a second-order (deformation-related) gold concentration may have resulted. The third order of gold concentration would logically have occurred once placer systems reworked detritus derived from the orogens along the N and W margins of Kaapvaal. Such conditions and placer gold deposits are known from many Neoarchaean cratons. The initial source of gold was presumably from the much hotter Mesoarchaean mantle and may have been related to major changes in Earth's tectonic regime at c. 3.0 Ga. The unique nature of Kaapvaal is probably its early stabilization, enabling formation of a complex flexural foreland basin system, in which vast quantities of placer sediments and heavy minerals could be deposited, and preserved from younger denudation through a unique post-Witwatersrand history.  相似文献
2.
We present baddeleyite U–Pb ages of Neoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic dyke swarms and the Mashonaland sill province in Zimbabwe. The 2575.0 ± 1.5 Ma age of the Umvimeela dyke is indistinguishable from the 2575.4 ± 0.7 Ma result (Oberthür et al., 2002) for a pyroxenite layer of the Great Dyke and testifies to synchronous emplacement of the Great Dyke and its satellites. Three samples of WNW- to NNW-trending dykes of the Sebanga swarm yielded ages of 2512.3 ± 1.8 Ma, 2470.0 ± 1.2 Ma and 2408.3 ± 2.0 Ma, the latter of which dates the Sebanga Poort Dyke of this swarm. These results suggest that emplacement took place over a protracted period which involved at least three generations of dykes within the swarm and, more importantly, invalidate previous inferences of a genetic link between the Sebanga swarm and the Mashonaland sills. Crystallisation ages of 1877 ± 2.2 Ma, 1885.9 ± 2.4 Ma and 1875.6 ± 1.6 Ma for three dolerite samples of the extensive Mashonaland sills from different parts of the Zimbabwe craton were also obtained. This is the oldest common igneous event that is recorded in the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal cratons. Collectively with previous published geochronological and petrological evidence in favour of a major 2.0 Ga event within the Limpopo Belt, these results suggest that the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal cratons did not form a coherent unit (Kalahari) until ca. 2.0 Ga.  相似文献
3.
王峪 《安徽地质》2011,(4):252-256
通过对津巴布韦穆托科铌钽矿地质勘查资料的整理、研究,系统分析了该矿床的控矿因素、矿床地质特征,总结了该矿找矿标志及矿床成因,为找矿突破提供了思路。  相似文献
4.
陆太进  陈华  张健  宋中华  柯捷 《地质通报》2011,30(10):1638-1645
津巴布韦马朗金刚石矿床为近年来发现的特大型高品位金刚石砂矿。对津巴布韦马朗金刚石产区的金刚石样品进行了矿物学和宝石学研究。结果显示,津巴布韦金刚石的晶体形态、表面微细特征等与世界上主要产地的金刚石有较大差异。其中最新发现的“十字架”形熔蚀图像和红色斑点是该产地金刚石的典型特征。“十字架”是由大量大小不等的正方形熔蚀坑沿晶体[100]重叠排列而成的,红色斑点为铁质氧化物沿熔蚀坑棱线生长而成的。研究结果表明,津巴布韦马朗金刚石的形态特征具有产地“指纹特征”的意义,对中国地勘单位赴境外进行金刚石找矿具有借鉴意义。  相似文献
5.
津巴布韦大岩墙北部红土型镍矿严格受橄榄岩控制,受地形地貌条件影响,位于橄榄岩出露的支谷山前缓坡地带的红土下部和靠山坡一侧.沟谷平坦和山上陡坡地段则无矿或有极薄氧化壳.该大岩墙上部橄榄岩、辉石岩、橄榄辉石岩带和铬铁矿层呈层状相互交替组成韵律性层序.在橄榄岩出露的地表植被稀疏,多为草本植物,而辉石岩、橄榄辉石岩带上呈现出茂密树丛.  相似文献
6.
Chelsea East金矿床位于津巴布韦北东部Dindi绿岩带之上,该区域是津巴布韦重要的贵金属和稀有金属矿产聚集区之一,其金矿勘查开发潜力巨大.矿床共圈定3个金矿体和8个贫金矿体,矿体一般呈似层状、脉状或透镜体状产出,主要位于新太古代Bulawayo群Ar3Yum组中,主要控矿构造为北西西—南东东向脆-韧性剪切构造带和脆性断层,矿体主要由合金构造蚀变岩组成,其次为石英脉等.本文在综合分析矿床地质特征、成矿控制因素和物理化学条件的基础之上,初步建立了矿床成矿模式.该矿床的形成至少表现为两阶段成矿,即早期的区域动力变质变形阶段和后期的区域构造岩浆活动阶段.  相似文献
7.
文章通过系统梳理津巴布韦克拉通成矿年代学研究成果,结合野外观测工作、赋矿岩体间接年龄测定以及热液矿物的同位素年龄测定,总结了其区内典型地区如Harare-Shamva绿岩带、Midlands绿岩带、Mutare绿岩带及Limpopo活动带北缘的金矿化时限分布特征,提出主金矿化年龄分布范围为2 660 Ma-2 610 Ma,接近于新太古代地壳块体稳定克拉通化阶段末期,属同构造期或后构造期成矿;另一期矿化作用时限为2 420 Ma-2 380 Ma,与后克拉通化作用中大岩墙的侵位、区域性应力转换拉伸以及再活化作用引起的广泛的岩浆作用有关.两期矿化作用事件可与其它地区典型克拉通相类比.  相似文献
8.
Amin Y. Kamete   《Geoforum》2008,39(5):1721-1733
The paper examines the illegal occupation and use of urban spaces by Harare’s youth and the ensuing tussles with the repressive machinery of the local authority and the nation-state. It analyses efforts by planning to contain rampant spatial unruliness. The paper maps the patterns of official hostile responses to the illegal activities of the youth whose daily routines inevitably entail the disregard of the spatial planning framework as reflected in existing legal and regulatory controls. The analysis reveals the reliance by the urban planning and management system on the use of force and violence, a feat made possible by the mobilisation of the repressive state apparatus. The discussion argues that what comes out in the relationship between the order-imposing planning system and the regulation-flouting youth is a situation that can largely be comprehended by turning to the non-progressive side of planning.  相似文献
9.
O. Nebel  K. Mezger   《Precambrian Research》2008,164(3-4):227-232
Dating low temperature events such as magmatic cooling or (hydro-)thermal surges in Archean and Proterozoic terranes is crucial in defining cratonal thermal stabilization after episodic continental growth during the Archean and Early Proterozoic. Rubidium–Sr chronology is potentially a powerful tool in this regard because of its low closure temperature, i.e., <400 °C in most minerals, but has until now been hampered by its relatively low precision compared to high-temperature chronometers. Consequently, Rb–Sr age investigations have so far failed to provide high-precision age constraints on the cooling of rocks older than 2 Ga. Here, it is demonstrated that internal Rb–Sr microchrons can yield important, high-precision age constraints on the cooling history of Archean intrusions. After careful mineral selection and chemical treatment, a Rb–Sr age of 2543.0 ± 4.4 Ma was obtained from the Archean Great Dyke, Zimbabwe Craton, in contrast to the intrusion age of 2575.8 ± 1 Ma, yielding an ambient average cooling of 5 ± 2 °C/Ma. The non-disturbed magmatic Rb–Sr cooling age of the Great Dyke marks the final stage of Zimbabwe craton stabilization and that the greater craton area did not experience any intensive later reheating event during metamorphic or tectonic events.  相似文献
10.
The granite-greenstone terrain of south-central Zimbabwe, encompassing the Belingwe (Mberengwa) greenstone belt and sections of the Great Dyke, provides important constraints on models for the evolution of the Zimbabwe craton and the Archaean crust in general. In this paper we enhance and model existing and recently acquired gravity data from the region and correlate the anomalies and their derivatives with the known basement geology to evaluate models for greenstone belt development. We also study the spatial gneiss-granite-greenstone association in general, and the geologic implications of models of the anomaly patterns in particular. Although the Belingwe greenstone belt has been mapped, its subsurface geometry is poorly known. Similarly, the Great Dyke is well studied, but no systematic study of the extent and cross-cutting relations of other mafic dykes in the Archaean crust has been undertaken.The regional gravity field shows no evidence for crustal thickness variations in the area and the gravity anomalies can be explained by lateral density variations of the supracrustal rocks. Prominent gravity highs are observed over the high density ( 3000 kg/m3) volcano-sedimentary piles (greenstone belts) and ultramafic complexes. Well-defined elongate, sub-oval/elliptical gravity lows are associated with intrusive granitic plutons. The granite-greenstone contacts are marked by steep gravity gradients of up to 5 mGal/km that imply steeply dipping or near-vertical contacts for the anomalous bodies. This is tested and confirmed by 21/2D modelling of gravity profiles across the Belingwe and Fort Rixon greenstone belts, constrained by measured densities and observed geological data. The modelling also indicates that these belts, and possibly all the belts in the study area (based on comparable densities and anomaly amplitudes), have limited depth extents in the range of 3–5 km. This is comparable to thicknesses obtained elsewhere from deep seismic reflection data and geoelectrical studies, but mapped stratigraphic thicknesses give a maximum depth extent of about 9.5 km. Present studies and previous work support the idea that the volcanics were extruded within rift zones and laid on older granitic crust, followed by subsidence and rapid deposition of sediments that were sourced from the adjacent basement terrains. The volcano-sedimentary sequences were subsequently deformed by intruding younger plutons and affected by late-stage strike-slip activity producing cross-cutting structures.  相似文献
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