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1.
 Acid mine drainage (AMD) with a minimum pH of 0.52 was recorded at Iron Duke mine near Mazowe, Zimbabwe during an investigation of the environmental geochemistry of mine waters in the Greenstone Belts of Zimbabwe. Hydrochemical data for waters emanating from the Iron Duke waste-rock pile indicate their super-saturation with respect to Fe and SO4 2–. Extremely high dissolved concentrations of Al, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, V, Cr, Cd and As also prevail. Substantial losses of metals from solution occur within 400 m of the AMD source through the precipitation of crystalline sulphates, principally melanterite. Further downstream, hydrous oxide precipitation forms the dominant mechanism of metal attenuation in waters characteristically under-saturated with respect to Fe sulphates. Speciation and saturation index data generated using the equilibrium model WATEQ4F, suggest that such codes have broad utility for generic prediction of the mineralogical contraints on metal mobility in acute AMD systems. Major discrepancies between modelled and empirical hydrochemistries are, however, evident for super-saturated waters in which the kinetics of Fe precipitation are slow, and in which total ionic strengths markedly exceed their theoretical maximum. Received: 28 August 1998 · Accepted: 7 December 1998  相似文献
2.
The Neoarchaean Tati granite–greenstone terrane occurs within the southwestern part of the Zimbabwe craton in NE Botswana. It comprises 10 intrusive bodies forming part of three distinct plutonic suites: (1) an earlier TTG suite dominated by tonalites, trondhjemites, Na-granites distributed into high-Al (Group 1) and low-Al (Group 2) TTG sub-suite rocks; (2) a Sanukitoid suite including gabbros and Mg-diorites; and (3) a younger high-K granite suite displaying I-type, calc-alkaline affinities.

The Group 1 TTG sub-suite rocks are marked by high Sr/Y values and strongly fractionated chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns, with no Eu anomaly. The Group 2 TTG sub-suite displays higher LREE contents, negative Eu anomaly and small to no fractionation of HREE. The primordial mantle-normalized patterns of the Francistown TTGs are marked by negative Nb–Ti anomalies. The geochemical characteristics of the TTG rocks are consistent with features of silicate melts from partial melting of flat subducting slabs for the Group 1 sub-suite and partial melting of arc mafic magmas underplated in the lower crust for the Group 2 sub-suite. The gabbros and high-Mg diorites of the Sanukitoid suite are marked by Mg#>0.5, high Al2O3 (>>16%), low TiO2 (<0.6%) and variable enrichment of HFSE and LILE. Their chondrite-normalized REE patterns are flat in gabbros and mildly to substantially fractionated in high-Mg diorites, with minor negative or positive Eu anomalies. The primordial mantle-normalized diagrams display negative Nb–Ti (and Zr in gabbros) anomalies. Variable but high Sr/Y, Sr/Ce, La/Nb, Th/Ta and Cs/La and low Ce/Pb ratios mark the Sanukitoid suite rocks. These geochemical features are consistent with melting of a sub-arc heterogeneously metasomatised mantle wedge source predominantly enriched by earlier TTG melts and fluids from dehydration of a subducting slab. Melting of the mantle wedge is consistent with a steeper subduction system. The late to post-kinematic high-K granite suite includes I-type calc-alkaline rocks generated through crustal partial melting of earlier TTG material. The Neoarchaean tectonic evolution of the Zimbabwe craton is shown to mark a broad continental magmatic arc (and related accretionary thrusts and sedimentary basins) linked to a subduction zone, which operated within the Limpopo–Shashe belt at 2.8–2.65 Ga. The detachment of the subducting slab led to the uprise of a hotter mantle section as the source of heat inducing crustal partial melting of juvenile TTG material to produce the high-K granite suite.  相似文献

3.
Incorporation of the Kaapvaal craton within a speculative Neoarchaean–Palaeoproterozoic supercontinent has long been debated, and this idea provides a potential solution to solving the apparently enigmatic provenance of the huge quantities of gold within the famous Witwatersrand auriferous deposits of Kaapvaal. Within a framework of a postulated Neoarchaean “Kenorland” (“northern”; present-day reference) supercontinent, we examine possible “southern” cratons that may have been contiguous with Kaapvaal: Pilbara, Zimbabwe, Dharwar, São Francisco, Amazon, Congo. Brief reviews of their basic geology and inferred evolution in syn-Witwatersrand basin times (c. 3.1–2.8 Ga) show no obvious support for any such supercontinental amalgamations. An alternative idea to explain a measure of gross similarity amongst several Neoarchaean cratons is through global events, such as a c. 3125–3000 Ma cratonic-scale erosive event interpreted for both Pilbara and Kaapvaal, and a much more widespread magmatic event at c. 2760–2680 Ma. We postulate that a global superplume event at c. 3.0 Ga included a plume beneath the Kaapvaal cratonic nucleus, thus halting any subduction around that terrane due to the thermal anomaly. Such a speculative global magmatic event is assumed to have enhanced production of juvenile oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges, including those “offshore” of the thermally elevated Kaapvaal nucleus. Intra-oceanic obduction complexes may have built up fairly rapidly under such conditions, globally, and once the plume event had abated, “normal” plate tectonics would have resulted in composite (greenstone-tonalite, possibly also including granite) terranes accreting with nuclei such as Kaapvaal. This enhanced plume-related cratonic growth can be seen as a rapid accretion event. Formation of the envisaged ophiolite complexes possibly encompassed deformation-related first-order concentration of gold, and once accretion occurred around Kaapvaal's nucleus, from north and west (present-day frame of reference), a second-order (deformation-related) gold concentration may have resulted. The third order of gold concentration would logically have occurred once placer systems reworked detritus derived from the orogens along the N and W margins of Kaapvaal. Such conditions and placer gold deposits are known from many Neoarchaean cratons. The initial source of gold was presumably from the much hotter Mesoarchaean mantle and may have been related to major changes in Earth's tectonic regime at c. 3.0 Ga. The unique nature of Kaapvaal is probably its early stabilization, enabling formation of a complex flexural foreland basin system, in which vast quantities of placer sediments and heavy minerals could be deposited, and preserved from younger denudation through a unique post-Witwatersrand history.  相似文献
4.
Metasomatism accompanying kimberlite emplacement is a worldwide phenomenon, although infrequently described or recognised. At the Cambrian-aged Murowa and Sese kimberlite clusters located within the Archean Zimbabwe Craton just north of the boundary with the Limpopo Mobile Zone in southern central Zimbabwe, the metasomatism is intense and well exposed and the processes can be readily studied. Dykes, sills and the root zones of pipes are exposed at the current erosion level. Kimberlite lithologies present are hypabyssal macrocrystic kimberlite (“HMK”), HMK breccia, and tuffisitic kimberlite breccia (“TKB”) including minor lithic tuffisitic kimberlite breccia (“LTKB”). Country rocks are 2.6 Ga Chibi and Zimbabwe granite batholiths emplaced into 2.6–2.9 Ga or earlier Archean tonalitic gneiss and greenstones. During initial metasomatism, the granites become spotted with green chlorite, needles of alkaline amphiboles (winchite, riebeckite, arfvedsonite) and pyroxenes (aegirine–augite) with minor carbonate and felts of talc. Oligoclase feldspar becomes converted to albite, extensively altered, dusted and reddened with hematite, whereas K-feldspar remains unaffected. The granites become converted to syenite through removal of quartz. More intense metasomatism at Murowa and Sese results in veins of green metasomatite which cut and disrupt the granite. Progressive disruption entrains granite blocks, breaking down the granite still further, spalling off needle-like granite slivers, and so giving rise to LTKB. This process of disruption and entrainment appears to be the manner of initial development of the pipe structure. The chemistry of the metasomatite is intermediate between granite and kimberlite. Compared to granite country rock it has markedly higher Mg, Cr, Ni, CO2 and H2O+, higher Ca, Mn, Nb, Sr, P, Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio, U, Co, and Cu, approximately equal TiO2, K2O, Na2O, La, Ta, Rb, Zr, Zn and resultant lower SiO2, Al2O3, Ga and Y. The metasomatite Na2O/K2O ratio is slightly higher than that of the granite. The metasomatic process is broadly analogous to fenitisation of granitic wall rock accompanying carbonatite complex emplacement. The metasomatism at Murowa and Sese was caused by fluids from the rising but confined proto-kimberlite melt penetrating into cracks and matrix of granite country rock and reacting with it. These fluids were CO2-rich, hydrous, oxidising, enhanced in ultramafic elements and carried low levels of Na.  相似文献
5.
Syngenetic inclusions of yimengite K (Cr, Ti, Mg, Fe, Al)12O19, a potassium member of the magnetoplumbite mineral group, have been recorded in an octahedral macrodiamond from the Sese kimberlite (50 km south of Masvingo, Zimbabwe). One yimengite inclusion carries lamellae of chromite suggesting peridotitic diamond paragenesis. The diamond and inclusions were studied in situ in a plate polished parallel to (011). Cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging has shown blue colour and octahedral zonation of the diamond, lack of cracks and the location of five yimengites in different growth zones. Nitrogen (N) contents (at. ppm) in the diamond determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) steadily decrease from 576 (core) to 146 (rim). N aggregation (%1aB) is correspondingly 40% in the core and 30% in the rim. Hydrogen (H) content is high in the core, moderate in the intermediate and very high in the rim zones. Four yimengites were dated using the laser 40Ar/39Ar method. Three inclusions yielded total gas ages that agree with, or are younger than, or within error of, the Sese kimberlite eruption age (538±11 Ma) but may be compromised by gas loss. One inclusion, with the highest tapped interface gas yield, gave a total gas age of 892±21 Ma that is a likely minimum yimengite age. Time–T °C constraints from N aggregation systematics give a range of possible ages from kimberlite eruption date back to Archean and do not resolve the variable results of the 40Ar/39Ar dating. Compared with the published chemistry of yimengite from kimberlites, inclusions from the Sese diamond contain higher Al, Mg, and Sr and have lower concentration of Fe3+. The chondrite-normalised REE pattern of the yimengite shows enrichment in LREE and depletion in HREE, but LREE/HREE fractionations are lower than for lindsleyite–mathiasite series mantle titanates and rather similar to the REE concentrations in kimberlite and lamproite rocks. It is suggested that Sese yimengite formed in the lithospheric mantle from metasomatism of chrome spinel by a fluid rich in Ti, K, Ba and LREE.  相似文献
6.
Inequalities are no respecter of countries, including the affluent ones. Nevertheless, these problems appear to prevail more in the developing countries, which have the dubious distinction of having the highest degrees of inequalities in the world. Inequalities exist between urban and rural areas, as well as between the various regions. This paper discusses inequalities in Ghana and Zimbabwe, emphasizing the rural–urban dichotomy. Using data from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHS) and the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys (ZDHS) conducted by the respective statistical authorities of both countries and Macro International, the paper analyses existing inequalities in both countries. The paper also attempts to elucidate and understand the causes. It concludes that the traditional explanation of disparities that attribute the conditions to aberrations in the operations of market forces, while having some validity, may not provide a full explanation for Ghana and Zimbabwe’s predicament. It argues that whilst the existing disparities may be rooted in history, their persistence and worsening in the post-independence era could only be understood with reference to the corruption, nepotism and the mismanagement that have characterized these states since they gained their independence.  相似文献
7.
Deborah Potts 《Geoforum》2006,37(4):536-551
During the 1990s, urban livelihoods in Zimbabwe began to suffer a series of economic stresses, which accelerated in 1997 and then accelerated again, with the inception of fast-track land reform, from 2000. This has reduced urban living standards significantly and devastated real urban income levels. After a discussion of the economic and political parameters of this period, this paper links these to empirical changes in the urban livelihoods and perceptions of urban living standards of recent in-migrants to Harare. This draws on a longitudinal database of four surveys of recent migrants to the city conducted in 1985, 1988, 1994 and 2001. Among a range of qualitative issues explored in these surveys has been the question of migrants’ future plans in relation to their intended length of stay in town. It is shown that migrants have been feeling increasingly negative or unsure about their urban experience since structural adjustment began in the early 1990s, and that these perceptions had greatly strengthened by 2001. By the last survey only a small minority felt they would remain permanently in town and most of the migrants from rural areas felt that their living standards in Harare were either worse than rural living standards, or no better. While Zimbabwe’s current political and economic crisis is exceptional, serious urban poverty is a feature across sub-Saharan African countries and it is argued that this has had a depressing effect on net rural-urban migration rates.  相似文献
8.
This paper reports the results of our research, conducted from June to August 2004, on the community-based conservation project in Mahenye, Zimbabwe. Previous studies have described this project as a model example of Zimbabwe’s CAMPFIRE program. We explore the project’s recent performance within the context of the country’s post-2000 political and economic crisis and address the implications of our findings for arguments supporting devolution of authority for natural resource management to the community level. These issues are related in that calls for devolution are at least partly contingent on the demonstrated capacity of local institutions to manage projects in the community interest despite difficult circumstances. In our research, we found that outcomes in Mahenye have deteriorated sharply from conditions described in earlier studies. We found further that local failures of leadership combined with the withdrawal of outside agencies responsible for oversight and assistance may be more to blame for this decline than the ongoing national turmoil. Our results suggest that even in apparently successful conservation and development projects, local participatory decision-making institutions are fragile and require continuing external support. Consequently, we argue for caution in promoting full devolution of authority to the community level without safeguards to maintain good governance and adequate capacity.  相似文献
9.
This paper examines the melding of two discourses in southeastern Zimbabwe: land reform and wildlife management. The former seeks to redistribute large, ‘under-utilized’ landholdings to smallholders whilst the latter needs extensive land holdings to be viable. These two discourses are rooted in very different models of development. The land reform exercise emphasizes direct redistribution, equity and land for crops; whilst the wildlife management discourse tends to stress maximizing foreign exchange earnings, encouraging public-private partnerships and trickle down. Yet there has been a recent flurry of interest in the development of ‘wildlife models’ for land reform which would combine the two. This paper investigates whether the competing discourses about land for smallholders and wildlife-based land reform are compatible or can be successfully reconciled. It traces the ways they have come together in Zimbabwe’s southeast lowveld and examines the ‘science’ and politics underlying their melding. Finally it explores the potential implications for rural people’s livelihoods of this development. It concludes that land reform and wildlife management can be reconciled, but probably not in a particularly equitable way: it is more likely to provide an opening for an equitable land reform agenda to be usurped by local and non-local elites with wildlife interests.  相似文献
10.
Abstract High- P granulites contained in two allochthonous tectonic units were thrust southwards onto the northern margin of the Zimbabwe craton during the Pan-African Zambezi orogeny. In the lower sheet, the Masoso Metamorphic Suite contains mafic garnet granulite assemblages formed during a high- P-T metamorphic event, although the suite as a whole is predominantly granitic. The garnet granulites occur as relicts within narrow mafic layers characterized by migmatitic and mylonitic fabrics. The annealed mylonites represent surfaces of deep-crustal tectonic imbrication that formed immediately before the Pan-African orogeny. Gabbros which intruded the granulites after the main phase of migmatization have formed corona textures that document a low- P-T metamorphic event at mid-crustal levels. The style of deformation then changed and the Masoso Suite with its mylonitic layers was folded and thrusted southwards onto the Archaean Zimbabwe craton.  相似文献
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