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Study of groundwater recharge processes is vital for quantification of total natural recharge to the aquifers. One of the recharge processes demonstrated earlier by tracer experiments in the unsaturated zone is that of piston flow movement of soil moisture. Based on this recharge process, environmental tritium, chloride and injected tritium studies have been carried out extensively in various geological environs of India. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the validity of the piston flow concept in different geological environs viz. consolidated fractured and weathered granites, semi-consolidated sandstones and unconsolidated alluvial tracts, and quantify the contribution from this process as well as that from the preferential flow mechanism using different tracers. Analysis of tracer data demonstrates that the preferential flow recharge process contributes very significantly (an average of 75% of total recharge) in the case of fractured granites and is important (an average of 33% of total recharge) for semi-consolidated sandstones, whereas the preferential flow recharge component is minimal in unconsolidated alluvial tracts (piston flow model is applicable). These findings necessitate re-evaluation of the total natural recharge potential of the above mentioned geological environs in view of the significant preferential flow recharge that is evidenced and estimated. Electronic Publication  相似文献
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In order to address the problem of realistic assessment of groundwater potential and its sustainability, it is vital to study the recharge processes and mechanism of groundwater flow in fractured hard rocks, where inhomogeneties and discontinuities have a dominant role to play. Wide variations in chloride, δ18O and 14C concentrations of the studied groundwaters observed in space and time could only reflect the heterogeneous hydrogeological setting in the fractured granites of Hyderabad (India). This paper, based on the observed isotopic and environmental chloride variations of the groundwater system, puts forth two broad types of groundwaters involving various recharge processes and flow mechanisms in the studied granitic hard rock aquifers. Relatively high 14C ages (1300 to ~6000 yr B.P.), δ18O content (?3.2 to ?1.5‰) and chloride concentration (<100 mg/l) are the signatures that identified one broad set of groundwaters resulting from recharge through weathered zone and subsequent movement through extensive sheet joints. The second set of groundwaters possessed an age range Modern to ~1000 yr B.P., chloride in the range 100 to ~350 mg/l and δ18O from ?3.2 to +1.7‰. The δ18O enrichment and chloride concentration, further helped in the segregation of the second set of groundwaters into three sub-sets characterized by different recharge processes and sources. Based on these processes and mechanisms, a conceptual hydrogeologic model has evolved suggesting that the fracture network is connected either to a distant recharge source or to a surface reservoir (evaporating water bodies) apart from overlying weathered zone, explaining various resultant groundwaters having varying 14C ages, chloride and δ18O concentrations. The surface reservoir contribution to groundwater is evaluated to be significant (40 to 70%) in one subset of groundwaters. The conceptual hydrogeologic model, thus evolved, can aid in understanding the mechanism of groundwater flow as well as migration of contaminants to deep groundwater in other fractured granitic areas.  相似文献
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文章通过在某均衡试验场地中的渗透仪上开展土壤水流穿透试验,分析灌溉水对地下水补给方式。试验结果表明:淹灌条件下,粉细砂扰动土中的穿透曲线为典型的单峰对称型,表明粉细砂中的土壤水通过活塞式入渗补给地下水;而亚粘土中的穿透曲线显示多峰、优先穿透、拖尾等现象,表明亚粘土中的土壤水以优势流方式补给地下水。通过对均衡场降水入渗补给的长观资料分析发现:在自然降雨条件下亚粘土中优势流明显,粉细砂中主要以活塞流为主。  相似文献
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