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1.
In this paper we tested the applicability of the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) technique through Single-Aliquot Regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol, on single grain quartz extracted from alluvial–coastal sediments. Five samples were collected from deposits belonging to a flight of seven orders of coastal–alluvial terraces outcropping in the area between Mt. Etna volcano and the Catania Plain (Sicily, southern Italy), at the front of the Sicilian fold and thrust system. After various performance tests, we obtained OSL ages ranging between 240 ± 12 and 80 ± 4 ka, consistent with the normal evolutionary model of a terraced sequence, moving from the highest to the lowest elevation. Obtained data allowed us to determine a mean uplift rate of 1.2 mm/year during the last 240 ka, mostly related to regional uplift processes coupled with sea-level changes. Moreover, terraces belonging to the two highest orders are folded, forming a large anticline. According to our results, the frontal thrust of the Sicilian chain was active between 236 and 197 ka ago, even though seismological and geodetic data suggest current activity to the back.  相似文献   
2.
River terraces represent important records of landscape response to e.g. base-level change and tectonic movement. Both these driving forces are important in the southern Iberian Peninsula. In this study, Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating was used to date two principal river terraces in the Tabernas Basin, SE Spain. A total of 23 samples was collected from the fluvial terraces for dating using quartz OSL. Sixteen of the samples could not be dated because of low saturation levels (e.g. typical 2xD0 < 50 Gy). The remaining seven samples (5 fossil and 2 modern analogues) were investigated using both multi-grain and single-grain analysis. Single grain results show that: (i) measurements from multi-grain aliquots overestimate ages by up to ∼ 4 ka for modern analogues and young samples (<5 ka), presumably because (ii) the presence of many saturated grains has biased the multi-grain results to older ages. Despite the unfavourable luminescence characteristics we are able to present the first numerical ages for two terrace aggradation stages in the Tabernas Basin, one at ∼16 ka and the other within the last 2 ka.  相似文献   
3.
This work examines the longitudinal profiles of 27 rivers in the upper Cher basin, of various lengths, in order to characterize their shape and the knickzones (high gradient sections) that disrupt their longitudinal profiles. No smooth, concave-upwards long profile has been found in the study area, located at the contact between the Massif Central basement rocks and the Paris Basin sedimentary rocks, because of the heterogeneous geological structure and lithology. The analysis of the main knickzone parameters allows us to distinguish two knickzone assemblages: the 53 knickzones of the first have a lithological origin and are characterized by a gradient equal to or lower than that given by the power curve y = 63.306 × −0.4392; the 30 knickzones of the second assemblage, which have a higher gradient than that of the curve, and give clear outliers in the DS (distance-slope) plot, are due to active faulting. The locations of this second group of knickzones delimit the areas that have experienced important local vertical crustal motions, too rapid for fluvial incision to have reduced the effect of knickzones caused by active faulting. In these uplifted areas, headward erosion has been arrested by knickzones of the second type, allowing the preservation of shallow-dell valley heads without any incision.  相似文献   
4.
Large-scale, low-gradient ancient landslides estimated at 5.4–18.9 km2 in area and  0.2–1.2 km3 in volume have been studied in the northern hilly periphery of the Crimean Mountains (Ukraine). They originated on slopes along wide water gaps of rivers (Belbek, Kacha, Alma and Biyuk–Karasu) crossing the cuestas of the northern foothills. The slopes generally consist of slightly northward tilting Miocene (mainly Sarmatian) limestones overlying weak, clay-rich Lower Neogene–Palaeogene substratum with a significant content of smectite. Although the region is characterised by the least active contemporary morphodynamics within the Crimean Mountains, the landslides which were studied are of the same size or even larger than various types of landslides occupying active geomorphic domains of the highest mountain range in the southernmost part of the peninsula. The landslides are generally a spreading type, but the sliding mechanics were probably very complex, involving toppling, rotational slides, gravitational folding and translational block slides. All the landslides which were studied are located in the vicinity of regional faults and three of them have headscarps aligned along faults. A common feature is also a location close (within several km) to the Mesozoic suture zone which is the most important tectonic feature in the northern periphery of the Crimean Orogene. This suture was formerly classified as aseismic; however, evidence of strong, low-frequency palaeoearthquakes was collected during the last decade within both the Mesozoic suture and the low-lying northern part of the Crimean Peninsula. Radiocarbon dating of deposits associated with the landslides has revealed at least two phases of increased landslide-activity during the Late Glacial chronozone and Holocene epoch. The main landslide phase presumably took place at some time between the Late Glacial and Atlantic chronozones. Minor reactivation of landslide toes occurred during the Subatlantic chronozone and some of them have been active up to recent times. The first major landslide phase was possibly triggered by an earthquake, whereas late Holocene activity can be attributed both to seismic and hydroclimatic factors.  相似文献   
5.
We show the magnetic model of the Selli-Vavilov region. The Selli Line is known as the northwestern edge of the southern Tyrrhenian Basin. The tectonic evolution of the Tyrrhenian Basin is dominated by a Tortonian-Quaternary extension through the eastward movement of the Apennine subduction system. This migration has generated a diffuse stretching of the continental crust with the emplacement of new oceanic material. This latter occurred in several localized zones where the eastward retreating of the Ionian subduction system produced a strong depletion of the crust with formation of basins and correlated spreading. Nowadays the presence of oceanic crust is confirmed through direct drilling investigation but a complete mapping of the oceanic crustal distribution is still lacking. The Selli-Vavilov region shows a differentiated crustal setting where seamount structures, the oceanic basement portions and continental crust blocks are superimposed. To this aim, a 2D inversion of the magnetic data of this region was conducted to define buried structures. The magnetic susceptibility pattern was computed by solving the least squares problem of the misfit between the predicted and real data for separated wavebands. This method produced two 2D models of the high and low frequency fields of the Selli-Vavilov region. The two apparent susceptibility maps provide different information for distinct ranges of depth. The results of the inversions were also combined with seismic data of the Selli region highlighting the position of the highly magnetized buried bodies. The results confirm a role for the Selli Line as a deep crustal boundary dividing the Sardinian passive domain from the easternmost active region where different oceanic structures are located. The Selli Line has worked as a detachment fault system which has moved eastward. Finally, the Selli-Vavilov region may be interpreted as a tectonic result due to a passive asymmetrical rift occurred between the Tortonian and Pliocene.  相似文献   
6.
The Upper Quaternary seismic stratigraphy and active faults of the Gulf of İzmit were investigated by means of high-resolution shallow seismic profiling data in the source region of 1999 İzmit earthquake. High-resolution seismic reflection data correlated with borehole data indicate that the stratigraphy of İzmit Bay consists of three distinct depositional sequences formed in response to middle Pleistocene-Holocene sea-level changes. Reflector R, separating the pre-Holocene sequences (1 and 2) from the Holocene sequence (3), represents an erosional unconformity produced by the subaerial fluvial erosion of the continental shelves at the time of the last glacial maximum. Occasional, anomalous reflections (acoustic turbidity) observed within the Holocene sequence are interpreted as gas accumulations. The maximum thickness of the Holocene sediments is found to be about 25 m. The isopach map of Holocene sediment implies that the thickness of the Holocene decreases from the east towards the central and western basins of İzmit Bay. Two distinct fault systems are interpreted in İzmit Bay. The main fault system extending roughly in an E-W direction along the Gulf of İzmit is an active right lateral strike slip fault with a normal component. The secondary faults are normal faults striking in different directions and these are identified as being both active and inactive. In addition, prominent compressive features are identified in the seismic cross-sections of some profiles acquired to the east of Hersek Peninsula where the focal mechanisms of the aftershocks of the 1999 İzmit earthquake also reveal predominantly reverse faulting mechanisms, as identified by a local dense seismic network.  相似文献   
7.
The surface geology of central England and Belgium obscures a large ‘basement’ massif with a complex history and stronger crust and lithosphere than surrounding regions. The nucleus was forged by subduction-related magmatism at the Gondwana margin in Ediacaran time. Partitioning into a platform, in the English Midlands, and a basin stretching to Belgium, in the east, was already evident in Cambrian/earliest Ordovician time. The accretion of the Monian Composite Terrane during the Penobscotian deformation phase preceded late Tremadocian rifting, and Floian separation, of the Avalonia Terrane from the Gondwana margin. Late Ordovician magmatism in a belt from the Lake District to Belgium records subduction beneath Avalonia of part of the Tornquist Sea. This ‘Western Pacific-style’ oceanic basin closed in latest Ordovician time, uniting Avalonia and Baltica. Closure of the Iapetus Ocean in early Silurian time was soon followed by closure of the Rheic Ocean, recorded by subduction along the southern margin of the massif. The causes of late Caledonian deformation are poorly understood and controversial. Partitioned behaviour of the massif persisted into late Palaeozoic time. Late Devonian and Carboniferous sequences show strong onlap onto the massif, which was little affected by crustal extension. Compressional deformation during the Variscan Orogeny also appears slight, and was focussed in the west where a wedge-shaped mountain foreland uplift was driven by orogenic indentation, splitting the massif from the Welsh Massif along the reactivated Malvern Line. Permian to Mesozoic sequences exhibit persistent but variable degrees of onlap onto the massif.  相似文献   
8.
During the Neogene and Quaternary, tectonic and climatic processes have had a profound impact upon landscape evolution in England and, perhaps as far back as 0.9 Ma, patterns of early human occupation. Until the Late Miocene, large-scale plate tectonic processes were the principal drivers of landscape evolution causing localised basin inversion and widespread exhumation. This drove, in places, the erosion of several kilometres of Mesozoic cover rocks and the development of a regional unconformity across England and the North Sea Basin. By the Pliocene, the relative influence of tectonics on landscape evolution waned as the background tectonic stress regime evolved and climatic influences became more prominent. Global-scale climate-forcing increased step-wise during the Plio-Pleistocene amplifying erosional and depositional processes that operated within the landscape. These processes caused differential unloading (uplift) and loading (subsidence) of the crust (‘denudational isostasy’) in areas undergoing net erosion (upland areas and slopes) and deposition (basins). Denudational isostasy amplified during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (c.0.9 Ma) as landscapes become progressively synchronised to large-scale 100 ka ‘eccentricity’ climate forcing. Over the past 0.5 Ma, this has led to the establishment of a robust climate record of individual glacial/interglacial cycles enabling comparison to other regional and global records. During the Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and early Holocene (c.16–7 ka), evidence for more abrupt (millennial/centennial) scale climatic events has been discovered. This indicates that superimposed upon the longer-term pattern of landscape evolution is a more dynamic response of the landscape to local and regional drivers.  相似文献   
9.
In the northwestern sector of the Zagros foreland basin, axial fluvial systems initially delivered fine-grained sediments from northwestern source regions into a contiguous basin, and later transverse fluvial systems delivered coarse-grained sediments from northeastern sources into a structurally partitioned basin by fold-thrust deformation. Here we integrate sedimentologic, stratigraphic, palaeomagnetic and geochronologic data from the northwestern Zagros foreland basin to define the Neogene history of deposition and sediment routing in response to progressive advance of the Zagros fold-thrust belt. This study constrains the depositional environments, timing of deposition and provenance of nonmarine clastic deposits of the Injana (Upper Fars), Mukdadiya (Lower Bakhtiari) and Bai-Hasan (Upper Bakhtiari) Formations in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Sediments of the Injana Formation (~12.4–7.75 Ma) were transported axially (orogen-parallel) from northwest to southeast by meandering and low-sinuosity channel belt system. In contrast, during deposition of the Mukdadiya Formation (~7.75–5 Ma), sediments were delivered transversely (orogen-perpendicular) from northeast to southwest by braided and low-sinuosity channel belt system in distributive fluvial megafans. By ~5 Ma, the northwestern Zagros foreland basin became partitioned by growth of the Mountain Front Flexure and considerable gravel was introduced in localized alluvial fans derived from growing topographic highs. Foredeep accumulation rates during deposition of the Injana, Mukdadiya and Bai-Hasan Formations averaged 350, 400 and 600 m/Myr respectively, suggesting accelerated accommodation generation in a rapidly subsiding basin governed by flexural subsidence. Detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra show that in addition to sources of Mesozoic-Cenozoic cover strata, the Injana Formation was derived chiefly from Palaeozoic-Precambrian (including Carboniferous and latest Neoproterozoic) strata in an axial position to the northwest, likely from the Bitlis-Puturge Massif and broader Eastern Anatolia. In contrast, the Mukdadiya and Bai-Hasan Formations yield distinctive Palaeogene U-Pb age peaks, particularly in the southeastern sector of the study region, consistent with transverse delivery from the arc-related terranes of the Walash and Naopurdan volcano-sedimentary groups (Gaveh-Rud domain?) and Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc to the northeast. These temporal and spatial variations in stratigraphic framework, depositional environments, sediment routing and compositional provenance reveal a major drainage reorganization during Neogene shortening in the Zagros fold-thrust belt. Whereas axial fluvial systems initially dominated the foreland basin during early orogenesis in the Kurdistan region of Iraq, transverse fluvial systems were subsequently established and delivered major sediment volumes to the foreland as a consequence of the abrupt deformation advance and associated topographic growth in the Zagros.  相似文献   
10.
This study investigates the rifting structures of Santos Basin at the Southeastern Brazilian margin, based on an integrated geophysical approach. Our aim is to constrain the crustal basement topography of central and northern Santos basin, the presence of magmatism and the role of inherited structures in space and time through the rifting processes. We present a new high resolution aeromagnetic dataset, which in correlation with gravity anomalies enables us to interpret the tectonic trends and crustal basement structures. We calculated the magnetic basement depth for the central and northern Santos Basin using power spectrum analysis. The obtained depths range between 2 and 9 kms, and are comparable with results from previous works. From our integrated study, three margin domains could be identified, which display distinct rifting structures and are characterized by important lateral variation along the margin. The proximal domain displays trends and magnetic basement blocks NE–SW oriented, i.e., parallel to inherited onshore crustal basement with an inflexion to E–W oriented trends; the necking domain is characterized by oblique magnetic basement highs and lows (E–W and NW–SE) and a structural trend change. The trends and magnetic basement highs are bounded by NW–SE negative anomalies, interpreted as transfer zones. Oceanwards at the distal domain, the lineaments and transfer zones show a progressive structural inflexion to ENE and E–W, sub-parallel to adjacent South Atlantic Fracture Zones. The observed crustal basement architecture and segmentation suggest the reactivation of pre-rift structures at the proximal margin and the obliquity of rifting relative to them. From the proximal domain oceanwards the structural pattern may reflect the passage from a “continental type” domain, where lithospheric inheritance controls the deformation, to a distal margin where this influence diminishes and “new” structural trends are formed. We propose that northern Santos Basin show evidences of an intensely deformed zone, where rift evolved under oblique extension, similar to that observed at transform margin segments.  相似文献   
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