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A.L. Jaques  P.R. Milligan 《Lithos》2004,77(1-4):783-802
The distribution of kimberlite, lamproite and related alkaline volcanism in Australia can be broadly related to the structure of the Australian continent and lithosphere. Diamondiferous kimberlites and lamproites, with the apparent exception of the weakly diamondiferous Orrorro kimberlites in the Adelaide Fold Belt, lie within the large Precambrian shield where seismic tomographic models and heat flow data indicate the presence of relatively cold, high seismic wave speed lithosphere (tectosphere) typically some 200 km thick or more beneath the Archaean cratons and up to 300 km in parts of central Australia. Many of the diamondiferous intrusions appear to lie at the margins rather than in the centre of the lithosphere domains. The highest concentration of diamondiferous intrusions (kimberlites and lamproites) is on and around the Kimberley Craton where seismic data indicate crustal thicknesses of 35–40 km and a lithosphere up to 275 km thick that is distinct from Proterozoic northern Australia.

Many, but clearly not all, of the intrusions show evidence of regional and local structural controls. Some are spatially associated with known crustal structures, especially regional faults. Others are aligned, either singly or in clusters, along or near discontinuities and/or gradients evident in regional scale potential field data, especially the total horizontal gradients of gravity data continued upward tens to hundreds of kilometres. Many of these features are not evident in the original datasets as their signatures are masked by shorter wavelength (near surface) anomalies. In some cases, the kimberlites and associated rocks lie within crustal blocks and domains defined by discontinuities in the potential field data rather than at domain boundaries.

Our overview suggests that analysis of potential field data, especially horizontal gradients in upwardly continued potential field data, at all scales can assist definition of crustal and, potentially, lithospheric structures that may influence the distribution of diamond pipes. However, more definitive mapping of Australia's diamond prospective regions requires the integration of data on crustal structures, especially trans-lithospheric faults, and geodynamic settings with high resolution tomographic models and other geophysical, petrologic, and isotopic information on the nature of the lithosphere beneath the Australian continent.  相似文献

2.
Recent developments in seismic, magnetotelluric and geochemical analytical techniques have significantly increased our capacity to explore the mantle lithosphere to depths of several hundred kilometres, to map its structures, and through geological interpretations, to assess its potential as a diamond reservoir. Several independent teleseismic techniques provide a synergistic approach in which one technique compensates for inadequacies in another. Shear wave anisotropy and discontinuity studies using single seismic stations define vertical mantle stratigraphic columns. For example, beneath the central Slave craton seismic discontinuities at depths of 38, 110, 140 and 190 km appear to bound two distinct anisotropic layers. Tomographic (3-D) inversions of seismic wave travel-times and 2-D inversions of surface or scattered waves use arrays of stations and provide lateral coverage. In combination, and by correlation with electrical conductivity and xenolith petrology studies, these techniques provide maps of key physical properties within parts of the cratons known to host diamonds. Beneath the Slave craton, the discontinuity at 38 km is the base of the crust; the boundaries at 110 and 140 km appear to bound a layer of depleted harzburgite that is interpreted to contain graphite. To date, only some of these techniques have been applied to the Slave and Kaapvaal cratons so that the origin and geological history of the currently mapped mantle structures are not, as yet, generally agreed.  相似文献
3.
Prospecting for kimberlites and related rocks in till-covered terrains requires a methodology for recovering a few small grains within tens of kilograms samples, necessitating 1 ppb sensitivity or better. As part of reconnaissance survey for the kimberlite indicator minerals, i.e. pyrope garnet, picroilmenite, chromite and chromian diopside, the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) developed such a system by significantly modifying and augmenting a 3″ Knelson Concentrator that accomplishes nearly complete recovery of moderately heavy minerals (>0.25 mm) from till samples.Diamondiferous kimberlites occur in the eastern Finland around the Kaavi–Kuopio and Kuhmo areas and much of the rest of the Karelian craton remains prospective based on the empirical evidence necessary for diamond preservation: thick (>200 km) lithospheric mantle, low heat flow and Archaean age rocks. A target area in Lapland, 20×50 km in size, was selected for a pilot study to test extraction of chromite for the (1) discrimination of regionally and locally derived populations, and (2) recognition of possible kimberlitic/lamproitic chromites. Area selection was based on the regional occurrence of a variety of mantle-derived rocks, the recovery of a chromian pyrope grain from till in 1996 and most importantly, the well-established Quaternary stratigraphy in the region. The sample material consisted of sixty-two 80-kg excavator and 40-kg shovel samples. Approximately 1000 chromite grains, almost exclusively 0.25–0.5 mm in diameter, were recovered and analysed by electron microprobe.Tills in the sampling area proved to contain at least two compositional populations of chromite. The first is present in almost every sample and is apparently derived from layered mafic intrusions distal to and up-ice from the study area. The second population consists of chromites with low Ti, high Cr and Mg similar to inclusions in diamond. It is present in approximately one third of the samples, concentrated in a couple of clusters within the target area and is therefore considered to be of more local derivation. Since no high-Ti, high-Cr chromites diagnostic for kimberlites and lamproites were present in the samples, the source for the low-Ti, high-Cr, high-Mg chromite grains remains uncertain, but is probably not kimberlitic. Although this apparently is a negative outcome for diamond exploration in the target area, the main goal of the study was realised by showing the applicability of the system to heavy mineral separation from Quaternary glacial deposits.  相似文献
4.
A database of 1267 quality-screened major- and trace-element analyses of chromites (s.l.) from kimberlites, lamproites, ultramafic lamprophyres (UMLs) and crustal sources (‘greenstones’, including ophiolites, gabbros, basalts and komatiites) has been subjected to statistical analysis, in order to derive discriminants for use in diamond exploration. The techniques used included nearest-neighbour analysis, CART (classification and regression trees) and MARS (multivariate adaptive regression splines). The results show that both CART and MARS approaches can correctly discriminate kimberlite/lamproite chromites from UML/‘greenstone’ chromites at levels near 90%. Discrimination into the four classes separately is achieved at levels of ca. 80% by MARS and > 70% by CART; much of the misclassification is between the kimberlite and lamproite classes. These results probably represent the maximum probable level of discrimination on chemical criteria, given that ascending magmas may sample both mantle and crustal rocks. The CART approach produces a classification tree that requires no further computation to classify a given grain; the MARS approach requires the use of a simple software package. Tests on known samples illustrate the high level of accuracy of the methods in an exploration context, as well as the useful petrogenetic conclusions that can be drawn from some ‘misclassifications’.  相似文献
5.
Mantle-derived garnets recovered in diamond exploration programs show compositional variations in Cr, Ca, Mg, Fe and Ti that reflect the chemical, physical and lithological environments in which they occur, occasionally together with diamond. The association of diamond with mantle garnet has progressed through a number of geochemical advances, most notably those of Dawson and Stephens (1975) and Gurney (1984), which are integrated in this work with less well known petrological advances made primarily in xenolith and experimental petrology. A simple, robust garnet classification scheme is formulated which accommodates empirical garnet–diamond relationships for peridotitic (G10, G9, G12), megacrystic (G1), Ti-metasomatised (G11), pyroxenitic (G4, G5) and eclogitic (G3) lithologies in eight distinct garnet classes. The calcium-saturation characteristics of harzburgitic (G10), lherzolitic (G9) and wehrlitic (G12) garnets are described by a Ca-intercept projection that also shows promise as a relative barometer for garnet lherzolite (Grütter and Winter, 1997). Thermobarometric aspects of garnet–diamond associations are highlighted in the scheme through the use of the minor elements Mn and Na, though analysis by anything other than an electron microprobe is not required for classification. A “D” suffix is added to the G10, G4, G5 or G3 categories to indicate a strong compositional and pressure–temperature association with diamond. The scheme remains open to improvement, particularly with regard to delineation of pyroxenitic (or websteritic) diamond associations and to advances in Ca-in-garnet and Na-in-garnet thermobarometry.  相似文献
6.
庄继翔 《安徽地质》2013,(2):123-125
为在安徽省宿州市栏杆-褚栏地区寻找金刚石矿,深入研究该地区的地磁异常特征,圈定有意义的地磁异常,结合航磁异常、地磁异常、深源磁场剖析与已知矿体之间的对应关系,掌握基性、超基性岩脉的预测及其分布规律,进一步指出找矿方向。  相似文献
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