首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   2495篇
  国内免费   436篇
  完全免费   150篇
  地质学   3081篇
  2019年   1篇
  2018年   11篇
  2017年   54篇
  2016年   66篇
  2015年   103篇
  2014年   171篇
  2013年   114篇
  2012年   189篇
  2011年   170篇
  2010年   218篇
  2009年   274篇
  2008年   301篇
  2007年   359篇
  2006年   204篇
  2005年   124篇
  2004年   109篇
  2003年   71篇
  2002年   54篇
  2001年   67篇
  2000年   66篇
  1999年   66篇
  1998年   2篇
  1997年   63篇
  1996年   51篇
  1995年   53篇
  1994年   27篇
  1993年   33篇
  1992年   10篇
  1991年   10篇
  1990年   9篇
  1989年   5篇
  1988年   7篇
  1987年   4篇
  1986年   3篇
  1985年   5篇
  1984年   5篇
  1976年   1篇
  1973年   1篇
排序方式: 共有3081条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
全国地下水调查中12种半挥发性必检组分的测定   总被引:16,自引:16,他引:2  
李松  饶竹  宋淑玲 《岩矿测试》2008,27(2):91-94
经过优化组合建立了适用于全国地下水调查中六六六、滴滴涕、苯并[a]芘等12种必检组分测定的分析流程。方法利用正己烷液-液萃取,以气相色谱法(电子捕获检测器)检测11种有机氯组分,高效液相色谱法(紫外、荧光检测器)检测苯并[a]芘。建立了分析过程的质量控制流程程序与质量管理指标范围,确保检测数据达到允许的范围之内。所建分析方法检测限低、精密度好,方法简便、准确,适用于批量样品分析。方法报出限在1.00~1.50 ng/L,8次测定相对标准偏差为2.52%~6.07%,加标回收率为85.3%~106.0%,满足了全国地下水调查评价规范的要求。  相似文献
2.
Choosing appropriate techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge   总被引:16,自引:16,他引:29  
Various techniques are available to quantify recharge; however, choosing appropriate techniques is often difficult. Important considerations in choosing a technique include space/time scales, range, and reliability of recharge estimates based on different techniques; other factors may limit the application of particular techniques. The goal of the recharge study is important because it may dictate the required space/time scales of the recharge estimates. Typical study goals include water-resource evaluation, which requires information on recharge over large spatial scales and on decadal time scales; and evaluation of aquifer vulnerability to contamination, which requires detailed information on spatial variability and preferential flow. The range of recharge rates that can be estimated using different approaches should be matched to expected recharge rates at a site. The reliability of recharge estimates using different techniques is variable. Techniques based on surface-water and unsaturated-zone data provide estimates of potential recharge, whereas those based on groundwater data generally provide estimates of actual recharge. Uncertainties in each approach to estimating recharge underscore the need for application of multiple techniques to increase reliability of recharge estimates. Electronic Publication  相似文献
3.
 Groundwater resources from karst aquifers play a major role in the water supply in karst areas in the world, such as in Switzerland. Defining groundwater protection zones in karst environment is frequently not founded on a solid hydrogeological basis. Protection zones are often inadequate and as a result they may be ineffective. In order to improve this situation, the Federal Office for Environment, Forests and Landscape with the Swiss National Hydrological and Geological Survey contracted the Centre of Hydrogeology of the Neuchatel University to develop a new groundwater protection-zones strategy in karst environment. This approach is based on the vulnerability mapping of the catchment areas of water supplies provided by springs or boreholes. Vulnerability is here defined as the intrinsic geological and hydrogeological characteristics which determine the sensitivity of groundwater to contamination by human activities. The EPIK method is a multi-attribute method for vulnerability mapping which takes into consideration the specific hydrogeological behaviour of karst aquifers. EPIK is based on a conceptual model of karst hydrological systems, which suggests considering four karst aquifer attributes: (1) Epikarst, (2) Protective cover, (3) Infiltration conditions and (4) Karst network development. Each of these four attributes is subdivided into classes which are mapped over the whole water catchment. The attributes and their classes are then weighted. Attribute maps are overlain in order to obtain a final vulnerability map. From the vulnerability map, the groundwater protection zones are defined precisely. This method was applied at several sites in Switzerland where agriculture contamination problems have frequently occurred. These applications resulted in recommend new boundaries for the karst water supplies protection-zones. Received: 27 October 1997 · Accepted: 4 July 1998  相似文献
4.
Groundwater recharge: an overview of processes and challenges   总被引:12,自引:12,他引:11  
Since the mid-1980s, a relative explosion of groundwater-recharge studies has been reported in the literature. It is therefore relevant to assess what is now known and to offer further guidance to practitioners involved in water-resource development. The paper summarizes current understanding of recharge processes, identifies recurring recharge-evaluation problems, and reports on some recent advances in estimation techniques. Emphasis is accorded to (semi-)arid regions because the need for information is greatest in those areas – groundwater is often the only water source, is vulnerable to contamination, and is prone to depletion. Few studies deal explicitly with groundwater recharge in temperate and humid zones, because recharge is normally included in regional groundwater investigations as one component of the water balance. The resolution of regional water-balance studies in (semi-)arid areas is, in contrast, often too low to quantify the limited recharge component with sufficient precision. Despite the numerous studies, determination of recharge fluxes in (semi-)arid regions remains fraught with uncertainty. Multiple tracer approaches probably offer the best potential for reliable results in local studies that require 'at-point' information. However, many investigations indicate that these approaches are not straightforward, because in some cases preferential flow contributes as much as 90% of the estimated total recharge. Tracer results (e.g. Cl, 3H) must therefore be interpreted with care in areas with multi-modal flow in the vadose zone. Moreover, accurate estimation of total chloride deposition is essential, and tritium may be influenced by vapour transport at low flux rates. In addition, paleoclimatic and paleohydrological conditions may cause discrepancies between measured actual processes and calculated long-term averages. The frequently studied issues of localized recharge and spatial variability need not be a problem if concern is with regional estimates. The key for practitioners is the project objective, which dictates whether 'at-point' or area-/groundwater-based estimation methods are appropriate. Many indirect (wadi) recharge studies reported in the literature are site specific; the relationship between 'at point' hydraulic properties and channel-reach losses demands further investigation. Electronic Publication  相似文献
5.
Karst groundwater: a challenge for new resources   总被引:11,自引:11,他引:20  
Karst aquifers have complex and original characteristics which make them very different from other aquifers: high heterogeneity created and organised by groundwater flow; large voids, high flow velocities up to several hundreds of m/h, high flow rate springs up to some tens of m3/s. Different conceptual models, known from the literature, attempt to take into account all these particularities. The study methods used in classical hydrogeology—bore hole, pumping test and distributed models—are generally invalid and unsuccessful in karst aquifers, because the results cannot be extended to the whole aquifer nor to some parts, as is done in non-karst aquifers. Presently, karst hydrogeologists use a specific investigation methodology (described here), which is comparable to that used in surface hydrology.Important points remain unsolved. Some of them are related to fundamental aspects such as the void structure – only a conduit network, or a conduit network plus a porous matrix –, the functioning – threshold effects and non-linearities –, the modeling of the functioning – double or triple porosity, or viscous flow in conduits – and of karst genesis. Some other points deal with practical aspects, such as the assessment of aquifer storage capacity or vulnerability, or the prediction of the location of highly productive zones.
Resumen Los acuíferos kársticos tienen características originales y complejas que los hacen muy diferentes de otros acuíferos: alta heterogeneidad creada y organizada por el flujo de agua subterránea, espacios grandes, velocidades altas de flujo de hasta varios cientos de m/h, manantiales con ritmo alto de flujo de hasta algunas decenas de m3/s. Diferentes modelos conceptuales que se conocen en la literatura tratan de tomar en cuenta todas estas particularidades. Los métodos de estudio usados en hidrogeología clásica- pozos, pruebas de bombeo y modelos distribuidos- son generalmente inválidos y no exitosos en acuíferos kársticos, debido a que los resultados no pueden extenderse a todo el acuífero ni a alguna de sus partes, como se hace en acuíferos no kársticos. Actualmente los hidrogeólogos kársticos usan una metodología de investigación específica, que se des cribe aquí, la cual es comparable con la que se utiliza en hidrología superficial. Puntos importantes permanecen sin resolverse. Algunos de ellos se relacionan con aspectos fundamentales tal como la estructura de espacios- solo una red de conductos, o una red de conductos más una matriz porosa-, el funcionamiento-efectos threshold y no-linealidades-, el modelizado del funcionamiento-porosidad doble o triple, o flujo viscoso en conductos- y génesis del karst. Algunos otros puntos se relacionan con aspectos prácticos, tal como la evaluación de la capacidad de almacenamiento del acuífero o la vulnerabilidad, o la predicción de la localización de zonas altamente productivas.

Résumé Les aquifères karstiques présentent des caractères originaux complexes qui les distinguent profondément de tous les autres milieux aquifères : forte hétérogénéité créée et organisée par les écoulements souterrains eux-mêmes, vides de très grandes dimensions, vitesses découlement pouvant atteindre quelques centaines de mètres par heure, sources à débit pouvant atteindre quelques dizaines de m3/s. Différents modèles conceptuels tentent de prendre en compte ces particularités. Les méthodes détude de lhydrogéologie classique—forage, essai de pompage et modèles maillés – ne sont en général pas adaptés aux aquifères karstiques, parce que les résultats obtenus ne peuvent pas être étendus à laquifère tout entier, ou à certaines de ses parties, comme cela est fait pour les aquifères non karstiques. Actuellement les hydrogéologues du karst ont recours à une méthodologie détude spécifique décrite ici, comparable à celle utilisée en hydrologie de surface.Des points importants restent à résoudre. Certains concernent des aspects fondamentaux, comme la structure des vides – réseau de conduits uniquement, ou bien réseau de conduits et matrice poreuse –, le fonctionnement – problèmes de seuil et plus généralement les non-linéarités –, la modélisation du fonctionnement – double porosité ou écoulement visqueux en conduits – et de la genèse du karst. Dautres points portent sur des aspects pratiques, comme lévaluation de la capacité de stockage ou de la vulnérabilité de laquifère, et la prédiction des zones à haute productivité.
  相似文献
6.
 松辽盆地地下水动力场的形成与演化控制了地下水化学场的形成与分布,地下水化学分布特征又反映地下水动力场的演化结果。在地下水化学场的形成过程中,影响沉积盆地地下水化学性质的因素较多,这些因素对地下水化学性质的影响作用在垂向上具有阶段性,在平面上具有选择性。前者导致地下水化学性质的垂直分带性,从浅到深可以划分出:1)大气水下渗淡化带,2)近地表蒸发浓缩带,3)泥岩压实排水淡化带(C1)—压滤浓缩带(C2),4)粘土矿物脱水淡化带和5)渗滤浓缩带等5种水化学剖面单元类型。后者决定了地下水化学场的平面分区性:1)盆地边缘为大气水下渗淡化区,2)盆地中央为泥岩压实排水淡化区,3)越流区为过渡区,4)越流-蒸发区为浓缩区。在泥岩压实排水形成的离心流方向上,矿化度、Na+浓度、Cl-浓度和盐化系数升高,(CO32-+HCO3-、SO42-浓度、钠氯系数(γNa+/γCl-)和脱硫系数(SO42-/SO42-+Cl-)降低。在大气水下渗向心流方向上,矿化度、离子浓度和钠氯系数、脱硫系数和盐化系数一致升高。  相似文献
7.
中国西北内陆干旱盆地地下水形成演化模式及其意义   总被引:10,自引:10,他引:15  
随着系统理论分析方法的引入和同位素、遥感、计算机技术和先进物探手段等的应用,内陆干旱区的地下水勘查与研究得到迅速发展。本文以作者在中国西北地区近十几年的地下水勘查与研究成果为主要基础,将内陆干旱盆地平原区地下水划分为四级地下水流系统,即山前局部地下水流系统(I)、区域地下水流系统(Ⅱ)、滞流地下水流系统(Ⅲ)和细土平原区易变的局部地下水流系统(Ⅳ)。盆地地下水的形成演化和盐分迁移主要发生在I、Ⅱ和  相似文献
8.
Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems   总被引:9,自引:9,他引:9  
 Surface-water bodies are integral parts of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams, lakes, and wetlands in headwater areas to major river valleys and seacoasts. Although it generally is assumed that topographically high areas are groundwater recharge areas and topographically low areas are groundwater discharge areas, this is true primarily for regional flow systems. The superposition of local flow systems associated with surface-water bodies on this regional framework results in complex interactions between groundwater and surface water in all landscapes, regardless of regional topographic position. Hydrologic processes associated with the surface-water bodies themselves, such as seasonally high surface-water levels and evaporation and transpiration of groundwater from around the perimeter of surface-water bodies, are a major cause of the complex and seasonally dynamic groundwater flow fields associated with surface water. These processes have been documented at research sites in glacial, dune, coastal, mantled karst, and riverine terrains. Received, April 1998 · Revised, July 1998, August 1998 · Accepted, September 1998  相似文献
9.
Sustainability and sustainable pumping are two different concepts that are often used interchangeably. The latter term refers to a pumping rate that can be maintained indefinitely without mining an aquifer, whereas the former term is broader and concerns such issues as ecology and water quality, among others, in addition to sustainable pumping. Another important difference between the two concepts is that recharge can be very important to consider when assessing sustainability, but is not necessary to estimate sustainable pumping rates. Confusion over this distinction is made worse by the Water Budget Myth, which comprises the mistaken yet persistent ideas that (1) sustainable pumping rates cannot exceed virgin recharge rates in aquifers, and (2) that virgin recharge rates must therefore be known to estimate sustainable pumping rates. Analysis of the water balance equation shows the special circumstances that must apply for the Water Budget Myth to be true. However, due to the effects recharge is likely to have on water quality, ecology, socioeconomic factors, and, under certain circumstances, its requirement for numerical modeling, it remains important in assessments of sustainability.An erratum to this article can be found at  相似文献
10.
中国北方岩溶水变化特征及其环境问题   总被引:9,自引:6,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
自然条件改变和人类活动强度的加大,我国北方岩溶水系统从输入、输出到结构、水资源要素转换关系均发生了巨大变化。在短短几十年内有近30%岩溶大泉断流,80%泉水流量大幅度衰减,区域岩溶地下水位每年以1~2ml速度持续下降,同时,有20%以上的岩溶水系统主排泄带的水质在Ⅲ类以下且总体趋向恶化,此外,还存在着矿坑突水,岩溶塌陷、地裂,海水入缦,旅游功能降低,生态功能丧失等诸多的岩溶水环境问题,极大地加剧了水资源的紧张状况。本文根据前人成果和实地调查资料并采用一些典型事例归纳总结了岩溶水环境问题及其发展演化趋势,展示北方岩溶水面临的严峻形势,以引起社会各界对此问题的关注,加大岩溶水资源调查研究与保护力度,同时,也为广大学者开展相关立项与研究提供参考。  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号