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1.
The 33 086 ha mixed land use Fall Creek watershed in upstate New York is part of the Great Lakes drainage system. Results from more than 3500 water samples are available in a data set that compiles flow data and measurements of various water quality analytes collected between 1972 and 1995 in all seasons and under all flow regimes in Fall Creek and its tributaries. Data is freely accessible at https://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/8148 and includes measurements of suspended solids, pH, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), sulphate sulphur (SO4-S), phosphorus (P) fractions molybdate reactive P (MRP) and total dissolved P (TDP), percent P in sediment, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N). Methods, sub-watershed areas, and coordinates for sampling sites are also included. The work represented in this data set has made important scientific contributions to understanding of hydrological and biogeochemical processes that influence loading in mixed use watersheds and that have an impact on algal productivity in receiving water bodies. In addition, the work has been foundational for important regulatory and management decisions in the region.  相似文献   
2.
Wildfire increases the potential connectivity of runoff and sediment throughout watersheds due to greater bare soil, runoff and erosion as compared to pre-fire conditions. This research examines the connectivity of post-fire runoff and sediment from hillslopes (< 1.5 ha; n = 31) and catchments (< 1000 ha; n = 10) within two watersheds (< 1500 ha) burned by the 2012 High Park Fire in northcentral Colorado, USA. Our objectives were to: (1) identify sources and quantify magnitudes of post-fire runoff and erosion at nested hillslopes and watersheds for two rain storms with varied duration, intensity and antecedent precipitation; and (2) assess the factors affecting the magnitude and connectivity of runoff and sediment across spatial scales for these two rain storms. The two summer storms that are the focus of this research occurred during the third summer after burning. The first storm had low intensity rainfall over 11 hours (return interval <1–2 years), whereas the second event had high intensity rainfall over 1 hour (return interval <1–10 years). The lower intensity storm was preceded by high antecedent rainfall and led to low hillslope sediment yields and channel incision at most locations, whereas the high intensity storm led to infiltration-excess overland flow, high sediment yields, in-stream sediment deposition and channel substrate fining. For both storms, hillslope-to-stream sediment delivery ratios and area-normalised cross-sectional channel change increased with the percent of catchment that burned at high severity. For the high intensity storm, hillslope-to-stream sediment delivery ratios decreased with unconfined channel length (%). The findings quantify post-fire connectivity and sediment delivery from hillslopes and streams, and highlight how different types of storms can cause varying magnitues and spatial patterns of sediment transport and deposition from hillslopes through stream channel networks.  相似文献   
3.
Redox hot spots occurring as metal-rich anoxic groundwater discharges through oxic wetland and river sediments commonly result in the formation of iron (Fe) oxide precipitates. These redox-sensitive precipitates influence the release of nutrients and metals to surface water and can act as ‘contaminant sponges’ by absorbing toxic compounds. We explore the feasibility of a non-invasive, high-resolution magnetic susceptibility (MS) technique to efficiently map the spatial variations of magnetic Fe oxide precipitates in the shallow bed of three rivers impacted by anoxic groundwater discharge. Laboratory analyses on Mashpee River (MA, USA) sediments demonstrate the sensitivity of MS to sediment Fe concentrations. Field surveys in the Mashpee and Quashnet rivers (MA, USA) reveal several discrete high MS zones, which are associated with likely anoxic groundwater discharge as evaluated by riverbed temperature, vertical head gradient, and groundwater chemistry measurements. In the East River (CO, USA), widespread cobbles/rocks exhibit high background MS from geological ferrimagnetic minerals, thereby obscuring the relatively small enhancement of MS from groundwater induced Fe oxide precipitates. Our study suggests that, in settings with low geological sources of magnetic minerals such as lowland rivers and wetlands, MS may serve as a complementary tool to temperature methods for efficiently mapping Fe oxide accumulation zones due to anoxic groundwater discharges that may function as biogeochemical hot spots and water quality control points in gaining systems.  相似文献   
4.
Mitigating and adapting to global changes requires a better understanding of the response of the Biosphere to these environmental variations. Human disturbances and their effects act in the long term (decades to centuries) and consequently, a similar time frame is needed to fully understand the hydrological and biogeochemical functioning of a natural system. To this end, the ‘Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique’ (CNRS) promotes and certifies long-term monitoring tools called national observation services or ‘Service National d'Observation’ (SNO) in a large range of hydrological and biogeochemical systems (e.g., cryosphere, catchments, aquifers). The SNO investigating peatlands, the SNO ‘Tourbières’, was certified in 2011 ( https://www.sno-tourbieres.cnrs.fr/ ). Peatlands are mostly found in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere and French peatlands are located in the southern part of this area. Thus, they are located in environmental conditions that will occur in northern peatlands in coming decades or centuries and can be considered as sentinels. The SNO Tourbières is composed of four peatlands: La Guette (lowland central France), Landemarais (lowland oceanic western France), Frasne (upland continental eastern France) and Bernadouze (upland southern France). Thirty target variables are monitored to study the hydrological and biogeochemical functioning of the sites. They are grouped into four datasets: hydrology, fluvial export of organic matter, greenhouse gas fluxes and meteorology/soil physics. The data from all sites follow a common processing chain from the sensors to the public repository. The raw data are stored on an FTP server. After operator or automatic processing, data are stored in a database, from which a web application extracts the data to make them available ( https://data-snot.cnrs.fr/data-access/ ). Each year at least, an archive of each dataset is stored in Zenodo, with a digital object identifier (DOI) attribution ( https://zenodo.org/communities/sno_tourbieres_data/ ).  相似文献   
5.
Large dams and reservoirs alter not only the natural flow regimes of streams and rivers but also their flooding cycles and flood magnitudes. Although the effect of dams and reservoirs has been reported for some vulnerable locations, the understanding of the inner-basin variation with respect to the effects remains limited. In this study, we analyse the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) built on the Changjiang mainstream (Yangtze River) to investigate the dam effect variations in the system of interconnected water bodies located downstream. We investigated the effect of flow alterations along the downstream river network using discharge time series at different gauging stations. The river–lake interactions (referring to the interactions between the Changjiang mainstream and its tributary lakes i.e. the Dongting and Poyang lakes) and their roles in modifying the TGD effect intensity were also investigated in the large-scale river–lake system. The results show that the water storage of the tributary lakes decreased after the activation of the TGD. Severe droughts occurred in the lakes, weakening their ability to recharge the Changjiang mainstream. As a consequence, the effect of the TGD on the Changjiang flow increase during the dry season diminished quickly downstream of the dam, whereas its impact on the flow decrease during the wet season gradually exacerbated along the mainstream, especially at sites located downstream of the lake outlets. Therefore, when assessing dam-induced hydrological changes, special attention should be paid to the changes in the storage of tributary lakes and the associated effects in the mainstream. This is of high importance for managing the water resource trade-offs between different water bodies in dam-affected riverine systems.  相似文献   
6.
Water flow velocity is an important hydraulic variable in hydrological and soil erosion models, and is greatly affected by freezing and thawing of the surface soil layer in cold high-altitude regions. The accurate measurement of rill flow velocity when impacted by the thawing process is critical to simulate runoff and sediment transport processes. In this study, an electrolyte tracer modelling method was used to measure rill flow velocity along a meadow soil slope at different thaw depths under simulated rainfall. Rill flow velocity was measured using four thawed soil depths (0, 1, 2 and 10 cm), four slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15° and 20°) and four rainfall intensities (30, 60, 90 and 120 mm·h−1). The results showed that the increase in thawed soil depth caused a decrease in rill flow velocity, whereby the rate of this decrease was also diminishing. Whilst the rill flow velocity was positively correlated with slope gradient and rainfall intensity, the response of rill flow velocity to these influencing factors varied with thawed soil depth. The mechanism by which thawed soil depth influenced rill flow velocity was attributed to the consumption of runoff energy, slope surface roughness, and the headcut effect. Rill flow velocity was modelled by thawed soil depth, slope gradient and rainfall intensity using an empirical function. This function predicted values that were in good agreement with the measured data. These results provide the foundation for a better understanding of the effect of thawed soil depth on slope hydrology, erosion and the parameterization scheme for hydrological and soil erosion models.  相似文献   
7.
巡天观测与高能物理、黑洞天文等领域均有密切的联系.基于星系-超新星二分类问题,研究光谱数据预处理,结合余弦相似度改善PCA(Principal Component Analysis)光谱分解特征提取方法,用SDSS(the Sloan Digital Sky Survey)、WISeREP(the Weizmann Interactive Supernova data REPository)组成的5620条光谱数据集训练支持向量机,可以得到0.498%泛化误差的识别模型和新样本分类概率.使用Neyman-Pearson决策方法建立NPSVM(Neyman-Pearson Support Vector Machine)模型可进一步降低超新星的漏判率.  相似文献   
8.
毫秒脉冲星的自转频率非常稳定,提供了一种独立的基于遥远自然天体并能持续数百万乃至数十亿年的时间基准,具有稳定性强、运行时间长、服务范围广等特点.为了减弱毫秒脉冲星计时观测中各种高斯噪声对脉冲星时的影响,研究了一种基于双谱滤波的综合脉冲星时构建算法,处理分析了国际脉冲星计时阵(International Pul-sar Timing Array,IPTA)最新发布的4颗毫秒脉冲星(PSR J0437-4715、J0613-0200、J1713+0747和J1909-3744)的观测数据,分析了不同时间尺度综合脉冲星时的稳定性,并与构成国际原子时(International Atomic Time,TAI)的4家授时单位原子钟稳定性进行了比较.结果表明:双谱滤波算法能够较好地抑制观测噪声,提高综合脉冲星时的稳定性.相比于经典加权算法,综合脉冲星时1 yr、10 yr稳定度从7.77×10-14、8.56×10-16分别提高到1.50×10-14、3.50×10-16,单脉冲星时稳定性的提升也类似.同时发现,综合脉冲星时稳定性在5 yr及以上时间尺度上优于原子钟稳定性,可用于改善当前原子时的长期稳定性.  相似文献   
9.
The use of the sulphate mass balance (SMB) between precipitation and soil water as a supplementary method to estimate the diffuse recharge rate assumes that the sulphate in soil water originated entirely from atmospheric deposition; however, the origin of sulphate in soil and groundwater is often unclear, especially in loess aquifers. This study analysed the sulphur (δ34S-SO4) and oxygen (δ18O-SO4) isotopes of sulphate in precipitation, water-extractable soil water, and shallow groundwater samples and used these data along with hydrochemical data to determine the sources of sulphate in the thick unsaturated zone and groundwater of a loess aquifer. The results suggest that sulphate in groundwater mainly originated from old precipitation. When precipitation percolates through the unsaturated zone to recharge groundwater, sulphates were rarely dissolved due to the formation of CaCO3 film on the surface of sulphate minerals. The water-extractable sulphate in the deep unsaturated zone (>10 m) was mainly derived from the dissolution of evaporite minerals and there was no oxidation of sulphide minerals during the extraction of soil water by elutriating soil samples with deionized water. The water-extractable concentration of SO4 was not representative of the actual SO4 concentration in mobile soil water. Therefore, the recharge rate cannot be estimated by the SMB method using the water-extractable concentration of SO4 in the loess areas. This study is important for identifying sulphate sources and clarifying the proper method for estimating the recharge rate in loess aquifers.  相似文献   
10.
The H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA) encompasses the 6400 ha Lookout Creek watershed in western Oregon, USA. Hydrologic, chemistry and precipitation data have been collected, curated, and archived for up to 70 years. The HJA was established in 1948 to study the effects of harvest of old-growth conifer forest and logging-road construction on water quality, quantity and vegetation succession. Over time, research questions have expanded to include terrestrial and aquatic species, communities and ecosystem dynamics. There are nine small experimental watersheds and 10 gaging stations in the HJA, including both reference and experimentally treated watersheds. Gaged watershed areas range from 8.5 to 6242 ha. All gaging stations record stage height, water conductivity, water temperature and above-stream air temperature. At nine of the gage sites, flow-proportional water samples are collected and composited over 3-week intervals for chemical analysis. Analysis of stream and precipitation chemistry began in 1968. Analytes include dissolved and particulate species of nitrogen and phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, pH, specific conductance, suspended sediment, alkalinity, and major cations and anions. Supporting climate measurements began in the 1950s in association with the first small watershed experiments. Over time, and following the initiation of the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) grant in 1980, infrastructure expanded to include a set of benchmark and secondary meteorological stations located in clearings spanning the elevation range within the Lookout Creek watershed, as well as a large number of forest understory temperature stations. Extensive metadata on sensor configurations, changes in methods over time, sensor accuracy and precision, and data quality control flags are associated with the HJA data.  相似文献   
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