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Computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy is introduced as a faster, reliably and cost-reducing alternative to conventional electron microprobe analyses on kimberlite indicator minerals. The method is based on conventional scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, but due to extended counting times, optimised settings and computer-controlled particle recognition valid data can be obtained on a low amount of operator and machine time. A comparison of the results between both methods yields that computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy is able to investigate major and minor element concentrations in indicator minerals with almost the same precision as the electron microprobe.  相似文献
2.
Geochemical exploration based on the analysis of indicator minerals (IMs) is becoming increasingly used as an effective method for mineral exploration for many types of mineral deposits. The types of IMs used or recommended for exploration for different types of deposits, their properties suitable for concentrating them, as well as those of other common minerals from which they must be separated are listed.  相似文献
3.
诸多迹象表明,敖市金刚石异常为一浓集异常,且叠加在一辉石重砂异常之上,显示出强烈的近源补给特征,其补给源极有可能是具工业价值的金刚石原生矿。鉴于湘黔金刚石成矿区内已知的含金刚石钾镁煌斑岩及其相关岩体的同位素年龄值均在375~475 Ma范围,其成矿期显然属加里东晚期,而紧邻敖市异常尚有后加里东盖层残留,作为幔源火山作用产物的金刚石原生矿如果出现在此种盖层附近,所遭后加里东期剥蚀将极其有限,不至像已知马坪原生矿那样失去工业价值。在该区未来的找矿工作中,应从本区的实际出发,选定合适指示矿物组合,应坚持运用大、中、小样相结合分级控制不同级别径流的重砂法和取样时先除去沉积物表层的成功经验,而不宜硬套国外的模式。  相似文献
4.
盛学庸 《贵州地质》2011,(4):247-253
湘黔地区金刚石成矿作用素有"多期"、"多源"之说。"多源"说已为不争事实,系该区开展新一轮金刚石原生矿找矿的依据和前提;笔者质疑"多期"说,并指出加里东期为本区的主要金刚石成矿期,是找矿的主攻方向。在具备成矿条件的前提下,成矿后的剥蚀-保存条件将决定矿床的命运和价值。因金刚石原生矿均系幔源火山作用的产物,由此引申出研究成矿期古剥夷面剥蚀-保存现状的重要性。为提高找矿有效性,在总结以往找矿成功经验和失败教训的基础上,笔者强调找矿工作一定要从我国,尤其是本区的实际出发,运用已被实践证实的成功经验,避免硬套外国模式。  相似文献
5.
Zn-bearing minerals that act as indicator minerals for base metal sulphide mineralization from the Proterozoic Betul Belt, central India with special emphasis on their genetic significance have been discussed. Sulphide mineralisation is hosted by the felsic volcanic rocks and has similarities with volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposits in other parts of the world. Synvolcanic hydrothermal alteration is crudely zoned with an inner high Mg-Ca core and an outer wider envelop of Al-Fe rich mineral assemblage. Most of the prospects have strata bound, moderately to steeply dipping, multiple, sub-parallel sheet like ore bodies composed of disseminated and semi-massive to massive ores. Zn-bearing spinel, staurolite, biotite and ilmenite typically occur within the foot-wall alteration zones in close proximity to the sulphide mineralization. Zincian spinel is ubiquitous irrespective of the nature of alteration zone. Zincian staurolite is nearly absent in Mg-Ca alteration zones but commonly present in Al-Fe alteration zone along with zincian ilmenite. Zn-bearing biotite in intimate association with zincian spinel is generally found in Mg-Ca alteration zone and in the transition to Al-Fe alteration zone. Most of these indicator minerals can be considered as products of desulphidation of sphalerite during metamorphism. Mechanisms other than desulphidation like formation of gahnite by overstepping of the zinc saturation limit of biotite during retrogression to chlorite and formation of zincian staurolite at the expense of gahnite is also recorded. Field presence of these minerals has immense significance in exploration in Betul Belt as they occur in close spatial relationship with the sulphide rich zones and therefore act as direct vectors to ore.  相似文献
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This paper summarizes advances since 1987 in the application of glacial sediment sampling to mineral exploration (drift prospecting) in areas affected by continental or alpine glaciation. In these exploration programs, clastic glacial sediments are tested by geochemical or mineralogical methods to detect dispersal trains of mineral deposit indicators that have been glacially transported from source by mechanical processes. In glaciated terrain the key sampling medium, till, is produced by abrasion, crushing and blending of rock debris and recycled sediment followed by down-ice dispersal ranging from a few metres to many kilometres. As a consequence of the mid-1980s boom in gold exploration, the majority of case studies and regional till geochemical surveys published in the past decade deal with this commodity. Approximately 30% of Canada and virtually all of Fennoscandia have been covered by regional till geochemical surveys that aid mineral exploration and provide baseline data for environmental, agricultural, and landuse planning. The most profound event in drift prospecting in the last decade, however, has been the early-1990s explosion in diamond exploration which has dramatically increased the profile of glacial geology and glacial sediment sampling and stimulated changes in sampling and analytical methods.  相似文献
7.
Sixteen kimberlite boulders were collected from three sites on the Munro and Misema River Eskers in the Kirkland Lake kimberlite field and one site on the Sharp Lake esker in the Lake Timiskaming kimberlite field. The boulders were processed for heavy-mineral concentrates from which grains of Mg-ilmenite, chromite, garnet, clinopyroxene and olivine were picked, counted and analyzed by electron microprobe. Based on relative abundances and composition of these mineral phases, the boulders could be assigned to six mineralogically different groups, five for the Kirkland Lake area and one for the Lake Timiskaming area. Their indicator mineral composition and abundances are compared to existing data for known kimberlites in both the Kirkland Lake and Lake Timiskaming areas. Six boulders from the Munro Esker form a compositionally homogeneous group (I) in which the Mg-ilmenite population is very similar to that of the A1 kimberlite, located 7–12 km N (up-ice), directly adjacent to the Munro esker in the Kirkland Lake kimberlite field. U–Pb perovskite ages of three of the group I boulders overlap with that of the A1 kimberlite. Three other boulders recovered from the same localities in the Munro Esker also show some broad similarities in Mg-ilmenite composition and age to the A1 kimberlite. However, they are sufficiently different in mineral abundances and composition from each other and from the A1 kimberlite to assign them to different groups (II–IV). Their sources could be different phases of the same kimberlite or—more likely—three different, hitherto unknown kimberlites up-ice of the sample localities along the Munro Esker in the Kirkland Lake kimberlite field. A single boulder from the Misema River esker, Kirkland Lake, has mineral compositions that do not match any of the known kimberlites from the Kirkland Lake field. This suggests another unknown kimberlite exists in the area up-ice of the Larder Lake pit along the Misema River esker. Six boulders from the Sharp Lake esker, within the Lake Timiskaming field, form a homogeneous group with distinct mineral compositions unmatched by any of the known kimberlites in the Lake Timiskaming field. U–Pb perovskite age determinations on two of these boulders support this notion. These boulders are likely derived from an unknown kimberlite source up-ice from the Seed kimberlite, 4 km NW of the Sharp Lake pit, since indicator minerals with identical compositions to those of the Sharp Lake boulders have been found in till samples collected down-ice from Seed. Based on abundance and composition of indicator minerals, most importantly Mg-ilmenite, and supported by U–Pb age dating of perovskite, we conclude that the sources of 10 of the 16 boulders must be several hitherto unknown kimberlite bodies in the Kirkland Lake and Lake Timiskaming kimberlite fields.  相似文献
8.
Diamondiferous kimberlites occur in eastern Finland, in the areas of Kaavi–Kuopio and Kuhmo. Active diamond exploration has been ongoing in the country for over two decades, but the Karelian craton still remains under explored given its size and potential. In order to develop techniques that can be applied to diamond exploration in glaciated terrains, the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) carried out a detailed heavy mineral and geochemical survey of Quaternary till in 2001–2003 around two of the known kimberlitic bodies in Finland, Pipe 7 in Kaavi and Dyke 16 in Kuhmo. The mineralogical and geochemical signatures of these two kimberlites were studied in the basal till deposited down-ice from the targets. The kimberlites were selected to represent two different types in terms of shape, size, age and petrology, as well as showing contrasting country rocks and Quaternary deposits. Till samples up to 60 kg in weight were taken by excavator and by drill rig. Kimberlitic indicator mineral grains (0.25–1.0 mm) were concentrated using a GTK modified 3″Knelson Concentrator. Fine fractions (< 0.063 mm) of selected samples were analyzed by XRF and ICP-MS. The indicator grains down-ice from Pipe 7 form a well-defined fan in the basal till that can be followed for at least 2 km with a maximum concentration at 1.2 km distance from the pipe. Another kimberlitic body discovered during the study 300 m down-ice from Pipe 7 demonstrates that there are in fact at least two superimposed indicator fans. The results do not rule out the possibility of even more undiscovered kimberlitic sources in the area. In contrast, the indicator dispersal trail from Dyke 16 is shorter (1 km) and less well-defined than that at Kaavi, mainly due to the lower indicator content in the kimberlite itself and subsequently in till, as well as a large population of background chromites in till. The latter population is likely having been derived from the Archean Näätäniemi serpentinite massif and the associated ultramafic metavolcanics of the Kuhmo greenstone belt, located ca. 30 km up-ice from the sampling area. The indicator maximum at Seitaperä dyke swarm occurs immediately down-ice from the kimberlite, after which the concentration drops rapidly. Results of this study contribute to the overall understanding of the Quaternary history of the Kaavi and Kuhmo areas, and more importantly, provide key information to diamond exploration in these particular regions and also elsewhere in glaciated terrains.  相似文献
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