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1.
The pseudo-binary system Mg3Al2Si3O12–Na2MgSi5O12 modelling the sodium-bearing garnet solid solutions has been studied at 7 and 8.5 GPa and 1,500–1,950°C. The Na-bearing garnet is a liquidus phase of the system up to 60 mol% Na2MgSi5O12 (NaGrt). At higher content of NaGrt in the system, enstatite (up to ∼80 mol%) and then coesite are observed as liquidus phases. Our experiments provided evidence for a stable sodium incorporation in garnet (0.3–0.6 wt% Na2O) and its control by temperature and pressure. The highest sodium contents were obtained in experiments at P = 8.5 GPa. Near the liquidus (T = 1,840°C), the equilibrium concentration of Na2O in garnet is 0.7–0.8 wt% (∼6 mol% Na2MgSi5O12). With the temperature decrease, Na concentration in Grt increases, and the maximal Na2MgSi5O12 content of ∼12 mol% (1.52 wt% Na2O) is gained at the solidus of the system (T = 1,760°С). The data obtained show that most of natural diamonds, with inclusions of Na-bearing garnets usually containing <0.4 wt% Na2O, could be formed from sodium-rich melts at pressures lower than 7 GPa. Majoritic garnets with higher sodium concentrations (>1 wt% Na2O) may crystallize at a pressure range of 7.0–8.5 GPa. However the upper pressure limit for the formation of naturally occurring Na-bearing garnets is restricted by the eclogite/garnetite bulk composition.  相似文献
2.
在中国辽宁金刚石中获得的高硅钙铁榴石(Majorite)为一单晶碎片包裹体,与其共存的金刚石包裹体还有刚玉、碳化钛、红色金刚石碎片、钙钛矿、二氧化硅等。通过电子探针成分分析,确定该高硅钙铁榴石(Majorite)成分超硅高钙缺镁,8个分析点平均值计算的矿物分子式为(Ca2.35Fe0.49Mn0.15Mg0.02)3.01(Al1.08Fe0.48Si0.44)2.00(SiO4)3,根据Kenneth等(2000)提出的计算压力的公式得到该包裹体高硅钙铁榴石(Majorite)形成的压力为14GPa,估算形成深度达400km。用四圆单晶衍射仪测定了该石榴石的晶体结构,a=1.195 15(4)nm,求得了各原子的座标、占位度和各向异性温度因子,用I>2σ(I),计算得到R1=0.077 9,WR2=0.141 6,Goodness-of-fit(F2)=1.382。在该高硅钙铁榴石包裹体中还存在微米级二氧化硅(呈四边形断面)和氧化铁(含钠)的包裹体(析离体),它们可能是斯石英和方铁矿(或似沂蒙矿)。从高硅钙铁榴石(Majorite)的成分判断,其物质来源具壳源性质,由此推断的大陆壳俯冲深度要超过400km,这与地球物理探测郯庐断裂已切穿了上地幔、进入软流圈的看法相一致。  相似文献
3.
Three major suites of silicate inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds show evidence of formation at depths > 250 km, and for each suite there is evidence of their formation from subducted material. Two of these are the well known basic (majoritic garnet) and ultrabasic (MgSi-perovskite + ferropericlase) suites. The third, the recently recognised Ca-rich suite, is characterised by carbonate, Ca-Si-Ti minerals and some aluminous material. Carbon isotope ratios in the host diamonds and geochemical-petrological features of the inclusions themselves provide evidence for their derivation from subducted lithosphere materials. The diamonds hosting the basic and ultrabasic suites are suggested to form in fluids/melts resulting from the release of water caused by dehydration reactions affecting both the crustal and mantle portions of a subducting slab of ocean lithosphere. Conversely, the diamonds containing the Ca-rich suite are linked with the formation of carbonatitic melts. In the Juina kimberlite province of Brazil, all three suites have been found in close proximity. A model is presented whereby the formation of the suites occurs progressively during the subduction and stagnation of a single lithospheric slab, with all three suites being transported to the lithosphere by a plume with which the carbonatitic melts of the Ca-rich suite are associated. Nd-Sr isotopic data are presented for the Juina majoritic-garnet inclusions, which supports their formation from oceanic crust of Mesozoic age. In conjunction with published age data for a Ca-Si-Ti inclusion, the Juina (Brazil) sublithospheric inclusions document a series of events involving diamond formation during and following the emplacement of a subducted slab between ca 190 and 90 Ma beneath west Gondwanaland. This slab and related subducted slabs dating from the Palaeozoic at the Gondwanan margin may be the source of the widespread DUPAL geochemical anomaly in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The kimberlites bringing the diamonds to the Earth's surface may have arisen from a superplume, developed from a graveyard of former Gondwanan stagnant slabs, at the Core-Mantle-Boundary.  相似文献
4.
5.
The high-pressure and temperature equation of state of majorite solid solution, Mj0.8Py0.2, was determined up to 23 GPa and 773 K with energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction at high pressure and high temperature using the single- and double-stage configurations of the multianvil apparatuses, MAX80 and 90. The X-ray diffraction data of the majorite sample were analyzed using the WPPD (whole-powder-pattern decomposition) method to obtain the lattice parameters. A least-squares fitting using the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state yields the isothermal bulk modulus, K T0  = 156 GPa, its pressure derivative, K′ = 4.4(±0.3), and temperature derivative (∂K T /∂T) P = −1.9(±0.3)× 10−2 GPa/K, assuming that the thermal expansion coefficient is similar to that of pyrope-almandine solid solution. Received: 5 October 1998 / Revised, accepted: 24 June 1999  相似文献
6.
 Multianvil experiments were carried out at 10–15 GPa and 1600–1700 °C to match the compositions of majoritic garnet inclusions from diamonds, and to determine the compositions of other phases potentially coexisting with these inclusions in the source. Most experiments produced coexisting majoritic garnet, diopsidic clinopyroxene, one or more (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 polymorphs, and quenched carbonatic melt. The experimental garnets had relatively high Ca and Fe contents similar to the observed Ca and Fe contents of the inclusions. The resulting Si contents confirmed that the depth of origin of the inclusion with the highest Si content did not exceed 410 km, thus none of the majoritic garnet inclusions found so far originated in the transition zone (410–660 km). The evidence from inclusions and experiments is consistent with the presence of an eclogite layer occurring globally between 200 and 410 km. Compositional variations observed among more than 100 majoritic garnet inclusions with their Si content, which is a measure of pressure and depth, are consistent with the origin of the eclogite layer by crystal fractionation in a magma ocean. The compositions of olivine coexisting with majoritic garnet in the experimental products had the average Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios between 0.16 and 0.28. Inclusions with such high Fe contents have not been found; the Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratio of the olivine inclusions in diamonds usually varies between 0.05 and 0.09. Hence, the mantle between 200 and 410 km may not contain olivine. In the absence of olivine, the discontinuity at 410 km is most likely a chemical boundary between the 200-km-thick eclogite layer and a more mafic transition zone. Received: 15 March 2001 / Accepted: 14 September 2001  相似文献
7.
The diamonds from the Swartruggens dyke swarm are mainly tetrahexahedra, with subsidiary octahedral and cuboid crystals. They are predominantly colourless, with subordinate yellows, browns, and greens. The existence of discrete cores and oscillatory growth structures within the diamonds, together with the recognition of harzburgite, lherzolite, at least two eclogitic and a websteritic diamond paragenesis, variable nitrogen contents, and both Type IaAB and Type Ib–IaA diamonds provides evidence for episodic diamond growth in at least six different environments. The predominance of plastic deformation in the diamonds, the state of nitrogen aggregation, and the suite of inclusion minerals recovered are all consistent with a xenocrystic origin for the diamonds, with the Type Ib–IaA diamonds being much younger than the rest. Mantle storage at a time-averaged temperature of ±1100 °C is inferred for the Type IaAB diamonds. The distribution of mantle xenocrysts of garnet and chromite within the high-grade Main kimberlite dyke compared to the low-grade Changehouse kimberlite dyke strongly suggests that the difference in diamond content is due to an increased eclogitic component of diamonds in the Main kimberlite dyke.  相似文献
8.
On a global scale, peridotitic garnet inclusions in diamonds from the subcratonic lithosphere indicate an evolution from strongly sinusoidal REEN, typical for harzburgitic garnets, to mildly sinusoidal or “normal” patterns (positive slope from LREEN to MREEN, fairly flat MREEN–HREEN), typical for lherzolitic garnets. Using the Cr-number of garnet as a proxy for the bulk rock major element composition it becomes apparent that strong LREE enrichment in garnet is restricted to highly depleted lithologies, whereas flat or positive LREE–MREE slopes are limited to less depleted rocks. For lherzolitic garnet inclusions, there is a positive relation between equilibration temperature, enrichment in MREE, HREE and other HFSE (Ti, Zr, Y), and decreasing depletion in major elements. For harzburgitic garnets, relations are not linear, but it appears that lherzolite style enrichment in MREE–HREE only occurs at temperatures above 1150–1200 °C, whereas strong enrichment in Sr is absent at these high temperatures. These observations suggest a transition from melt metasomatism (typical for the lherzolitic sources) characterized by fairly unfractionated trace and major element compositions to metasomatism by CHO fluids carrying primarily incompatible trace elements. Melt and fluid metasomatism are viewed as a compositional continuum, with residual CHO fluids resulting from primary silicate or carbonate melts in the course of fractional crystallization and equilibration with lithospheric host rocks.

Eclogitic garnet inclusions show “normal” REEN patterns, with LREE at about 1× and HREE at about 30× chondritic abundance. Clinopyroxenes approximately mirror the garnet patterns, being enriched in LREE and having chondritic HREE abundances. Positive and negative Eu anomalies are observed for both garnet and clinopyroxene inclusions. Such anomalies are strong evidence for crustal precursors for the eclogitic diamond sources. The trace element composition of an “average eclogitic diamond source” based on garnet and clinopyroxene inclusions is consistent with derivation from former oceanic crust that lost about 10% of a partial melt in the garnet stability field and that subsequently experienced only minor reenrichment in the most incompatible trace elements. Based on individual diamonds, this simplistic picture becomes more complex, with evidence for both strong enrichment and depletion in LREE.

Trace element data for sublithospheric inclusions in diamonds are less abundant. REE in majoritic garnets indicate source compositions that range from being similar to lithospheric eclogitic sources to strongly LREE enriched. Lower mantle sources, assessed based on CaSi–perovskite as the principal host for REE, are not primitive in composition but show moderate to strong LREE enrichment. The bulk rock LREEN–HREEN slope cannot be determined from CaSi–perovskites alone, as garnet may be present in these shallow lower mantle sources and then would act as an important host for HREE. Positive and negative Eu anomalies are widespread in CaSi–perovskites and negative anomalies have also been observed for a majoritic garnet and a coexisting clinopyroxene inclusion. This suggests that sublithospheric diamond sources may be linked to old oceanic slabs, possibly because only former crustal rocks can provide the redox gradients necessary for diamond precipitation in an otherwise reduced sublithospheric mantle.  相似文献

9.
Germanate garnets are often used as isostructural analogues of silicate garnets to provide insight into the crystal chemistry and symmetry of the less accessible natural garnet solid solutions. We synthesised two series of germanate garnets at 3 GPa along the joinVIIICa3VI(CaGe)IVGe3O12VIIICa3VIFe2IVGe3O12 at 900 °C and 1,100 °C. Samples with compositions close to the CaGeO3 end-member consist of tetragonal garnet with a small amount of triclinic CaGe2O5. Samples with nominal compositions between XFe=0.4 and 1.0 consist of a mixture of tetragonal and cubic garnets; whereas, single-phase cubic garnets were obtained for compositions with XFe>1.2 (XFe gives the iron content expressed in atoms per formula unit, and varies between 0 and 2 along the join). Run products which were primarily single-phase garnet were investigated using Mössbauer spectroscopy. Spectra from samples synthesised at 1,100°C consist of one well-resolved doublet that can be assigned to Fe3+ in the octahedral site of the garnet structure. A second doublet, present primarily in samples synthesised at 900°C, can be assigned to Fe2+ at the octahedral sites of the garnet structure. The relative abundance of Fe2+ decreases with increasing iron content. Transmission electron microscopy analyses confirm this tendency and show that the garnets are essentially defect-free. The unit-cell parameters of tetragonal VIIICa3VI(CaGe)IVGe3O3 garnet decrease with increasing synthesis temperature, and the deviation from cubic symmetry becomes smaller. Cubic garnets show a linear decrease of unit-cell parameter with increasing iron content. The results are discussed in the context of iron incorporation into VIIIMg3VI(MgSi)IVSi3O3 majorite.  相似文献
10.
Static lattice energy calculations, based on empirical pair potentials, were performed for a large set of structures differing in the arrangement of octahedral cations within the garnet 2 × 2 × 2 supercell. The compositions of these structures varied between Ca3Fe2Ge3O12 and Ca4Ge4O12. The energies were cluster expanded using pair and quaternary terms. The derived ordering constants were used to constrain Monte Carlo simulations of temperature-dependent mixing properties in the ranges of 1,073–3,673 K and 0–10 GPa. The free energies of mixing were calculated using the method of thermodynamic integration. The calculations predict a wide miscibility gap between Fe-rich (cubic) and Fe-pure (tetragonal) garnets consistent with recent experimental observations of Iezzi et al. (Phys Chem Miner 32:197–207, 2005). It is shown that the miscibility gap arises due to a very strong cation ordering at the Fe-pure composition, driven by the charge difference between Ca2+ and Ge4+ cations. The structural and thermodynamic analogies between Ca–Ge and Mg–Si systems suggest that a similar miscibility gap should exist between pyrope and Mg–Si-majorite.  相似文献
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