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1.
Numerous efforts have been made to understand stemflow dynamics under different types of vegetation at the inter-event scale, but few studies have explored the stemflow characteristics and corresponding influencing factors at the intra-event scale. An in-depth investigation of the inter- and intra-event dynamics of stemflow is important for understanding the ecohydrological processes in forest ecosystems. In this study, stemflow volume (FV), stemflow funnelling ratio (FR), and stemflow ratio (F%) from Quercus acutissima and Broussonetia papyrifera trees were measured at both inter- and intra-event scales in a subtropical deciduous forest, and the driving factors, including tree species and meteorological factors were further explored. Specifically, the FV, FR and F% of Q. acutissima (52.3 L, 47.2, 9.6%) were lower than those of B. papyrifera (85.1 L, 91.2, 12.4%). The effect of tree species on FV and F% was more obvious under low intensity rainfall types. At the inter-event scale, FV had a strong positive linear correlation with rainfall amount (GP) and event duration (DE) for both tree species, whereas FR and F% had a positive logarithmic correlation with GP and DE only under high-intensity, short-duration rainfall type. FR and F% were mainly affected by wind speed and the maximum 30-min rainfall intensity under low-intensity, long-duration rainfall type. At the intra-event scale, for both tree species, the mean lag time between the start of rainfall and stemflow was the shortest under high-intensity, short-duration rainfall type, while the mean duration and amount of stemflow after rain cessation were the greatest under high-amount, long-duration rainfall type. The relationship between stemflow intensity and rainfall intensity at the 5-min interval scale also depended greatly on rainfall type. These findings can help clarify stemflow dynamics and driving factors at both inter- and intra-event scales, and also provide abundant data and parameters for ecohydrological simulations in subtropical forests.  相似文献   
2.
Studies on recent earthquakes highlighted that buildings with minimal structural damage still suffer from extensive damage and failure of nonstructural components. The dropping and damage of suspended ceiling systems, which typically consist of acceleration-sensitive nonstructural elements, resulted in lengthy functional disruptions and extended recovery time. This article experimentally and analytically examined the vibration properties of an integrated ceiling system considering the interactions with surrounding electrical equipment. The theoretical stiffness and corresponding frequency of electrical equipment were initially derived and then verified by subsequent vibration tests and numerical analyses. The seismic performance of the air conditioner (AC) was evaluated with different installment configurations based on design spectra and floor response spectra. Vibration tests of the suspended integrated ceiling system considering the interactions with surrounding equipment showed that the inclusion of peripheral constraints increased the first horizontal vibration frequency of the ceiling system by a factor of approximately 6. The natural frequencies of all components in the integrated ceiling system were almost identical, which was attributed to the coupled behavior between the ceiling panels and surrounding equipment, emphasizing the effect of interactions between adjacent components during dynamic analysis. Based on the above experimental investigation, an associated numerical model of the integrated ceiling system was created. Finally, corresponding parametric studies that included the interactions with surrounding equipment, reinforcing braces of ACs and strengthening members at the rise-up location between two elevations were performed.  相似文献   
3.
Investigating the performance that can be achieved with different hydrological models across catchments with varying characteristics is a requirement for identifying an adequate model for any catchment, gauged or ungauged, just based on information about its climate and catchment properties. As parameter uncertainty increases with the number of model parameters, it is important not only to identify a model achieving good results but also to aim at the simplest model still able to provide acceptable results. The main objective of this study is to identify the climate and catchment properties determining the minimal required complexity of a hydrological model. As previous studies indicate that the required model complexity varies with the temporal scale, the study considers the performance at the daily, monthly, and annual timescales. In agreement with previous studies, the results show that catchments located in arid areas tend to be more difficult to model. They therefore require more complex models for achieving an acceptable performance. For determining which other factors influence model performance, an analysis was carried out for four catchment groups (snowy, arid, and eastern and western catchments). The results show that the baseflow and aridity indices are the most consistent predictors of model performance across catchment groups and timescales. Both properties are negatively correlated with model performance. Other relevant predictors are the fraction of snow in the annual precipitation (negative correlation with model performance), soil depth (negative correlation with model performance), and some other soil properties. It was observed that the sign of the correlation between the catchment characteristics and model performance varies between clusters in some cases, stressing the difficulties encountered in large sample analyses. Regarding the impact of the timescale, the study confirmed previous results indicating that more complex models are needed for shorter timescales.  相似文献   
4.
Subsurface dams are rather effective and used for the prevention of saltwater intrusion in coastal regions around the world. We carried out the laboratory experiments to investigate the elevation of saltwater wedge after the construction of subsurface dams. The elevation of saltwater wedge refers to the upward movement of the downstream saltwater wedge because the subsurface dams obstruct the regional groundwater flow and reduce the freshwater discharge. Consequently, the saltwater wedge cannot further extend in the longitudinal direction but rises in the vertical profile resulting in significant downstream aquifer salinization. In order to quantitatively address this issue, field-scale numerical simulations were conducted to explore the influence of various dam heights, distances, and hydraulic gradients on the elevation of saltwater wedge. Our investigation shows that the upward movement of the saltwater wedge and its areal extension in the vertical domain of the downstream aquifer become more severe with a higher dam and performed a great dependence on the freshwater discharge. Furthermore, the increase of the hydraulic gradient and the dam distance from the sea boundary leads to a more pronounced wedge elevation. This phenomenon comes from the variation of the freshwater discharge due to the modification of dam height, location, and hydraulic gradient. Large freshwater discharge can generate greater repulsive force to restrain the elevation of saltwater wedge. These conclusions provide theoretical references for the behaviour of the freshwater–seawater interface after the construction of subsurface dams and help optimize the design strategy to better utilize the coastal groundwater resources.  相似文献   
5.
Groundwater in India plays an important role to support livelihoods and maintain ecosystems and the present rate of depletion of groundwater resources poses a serious threat to water security. Yet, the sensitivity of the hydrological processes governing groundwater recharge to climate variability remains unclear in the region. Here we assess the groundwater sensitivity (precipitation–recharge relationship) and its potential resilience towards climatic variability over peninsular India using a conceptual water balance model and a convex model, respectively in 54 catchments over peninsular India. Based on the model performance using a comprehensive approach (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency [NSE], bias and variability), 24 out of 54 catchments are selected for assessment of groundwater sensitivity and its resilience. Further, a systematic approach is used to understand the changes in resilience on a temporal scale based upon the convex model and principle of critical slowing down theory. The results of the study indicate that the catchments with higher mean groundwater sensitivity (GWS) encompass high variability in GWS over the period (1988–2011), thus indicating the associated vulnerability towards hydroclimatic disturbances. Moreover, it was found that the catchments pertaining to a lower magnitude of mean resilience index incorporates a high variability in resilience index over the period (1993–2007), clearly illustrating the inherent vulnerability of these catchments. The resilience of groundwater towards climatic variability and hydroclimatic disturbances that is revealed by groundwater sensitivity is essential to understand the future impacts of changing climate on groundwater and can further facilitate effective adaptation strategies.  相似文献   
6.
高强钢组合偏心支撑钢框架是一种新型的抗震结构体系,为分析其抗震性能,利用ABAQUS有限元软件建立了简化分析模型。在验证该简化模型合理有效的基础上,建立了某十层算例的整体模型,施加竖向荷载的同时施加水平倒三角形循环荷载作用,进而分析了该算例的滞回性能。研究表明:本文提出的简化分析模型不仅可以较准确的模拟该结构体系的延性和抗侧刚度,还可以有效预测结构的变形分布和非线性性能。  相似文献   
7.
快速评估建筑物地震灾害信息对地震应急救援工作有着指导意义,而极化SAR具有全天候、全天时的特点,因此利用极化SAR图像提取震害信息已逐渐成为研究热点。虽然极化SAR具有丰富的极化信息,但其纹理信息不可忽略,尤其是完好的人工建筑物在图像上呈现规则的纹理特征,而倒塌建筑区域纹理分布杂乱,因此结合纹理信息也可以很好地提取建筑物信息。以2010年玉树地区的全极化SAR数据为研究对象,首先,利用Yamaguchi分解的体散射分量PV提取了SAR图像中的建筑物区域以及道路、水系等非建筑物信息,在此基础上,对相干散射矩阵T11分量中倒塌建筑物、完好建筑区域进行变差计算,根据变差曲线确定变程a后,再对建筑物区域采取窗口m*m(m=3*a)进行变差计算得到变差纹理信息,最后利用FCM算法对变差纹理信息分别提取完好建筑物和倒塌建筑物区域,为了对比分析,文章利用Yamaguchi分解的二次散射分量PD提取完好建筑物区域,与震后光学遥感图像对应样本点进行人工验证,得到完好建筑物的提取精度为80.18%,倒塌建筑物的提取精度为84.54%,道路水系的提取精度为77.58%。  相似文献   
8.
介绍了自主导航的轨道确定及时间同步观测方程。以北斗仿真全星座为对象,通过采用仿真星间及卫星与地面锚固站间观测值,进行了60 d自主导航解算,分别探讨了锚固站数量及锚固站观测连续性对北斗卫星导航系统(BDS)3类卫星自主导航精度的影响。结果表明:锚固站数量及观测连续性对RERR及CERR无影响;加入1个锚固站即可显著改进URE结果精度,继续增加锚固站数量虽然可进一步提高URE精度但其改进效果有限;锚固站观测中断时间越长,其对应自主导航精度越低。因此,在BDS自主导航运行模式下应保持较高的锚固站观测频次以保证自主导航精度;另外,锚固站数量及观测连续性对北斗系统3类卫星自主导航精度的影响无显著差异。  相似文献   
9.
面向数字孪生城市的智能化全息测绘   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
以大数据、物联网、人工智能、虚拟现实、云计算、智能驾驶等新技术为代表的信息化浪潮席卷全球,数字世界与物理世界正形成两大平行发展、相互作用的体系,数字孪生技术应运而生。随着物联网技术(IOT)的发展,数字孪生的理念被引入到智慧城市建设中来,深刻影响着城市规划、建设与治理。笔者所在单位面向数字孪生城市和自然资源统一监管对测绘地理信息的新需求,在全国开创性地开展了面向数字孪生城市的智能化全息测绘试点工作。本文结合上海市智能化全息测绘试点工作,从数字孪生城市、数字孪生城市对地理信息的新需求、智能化全息测绘关键技术及测绘成果等方面展开了论述,重点介绍了智能化全息测绘的技术体系和产品体系,以及在社会各领域的应用成果。  相似文献   
10.
浮动车轨迹数据具有覆盖范围广、更新周期短、获取成本低等特点,对于地图的生产和更新具有重要意义,但是由于受到卫星信号被遮挡及多路径效应的影响,其精度普遍较低。本文采用一种基于OSM作为参考数据的方式对浮动车轨迹数据进行校正。首先通过一种分层时空地图匹配的方式将轨迹数据与OSM进行匹配;然后采用引力模型对数据进行校正;最后在武汉市出租车轨迹数据上进行了试验。结果表明,本文提出的数据校正方法可以有效地提高浮动车轨迹数据的精度。  相似文献   
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