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1.
In the late 1990s, the Fazenda Largo kimberlite cluster was discovered in the Piauí State of Brazil. As with earlier known kimberlites in this area – Redondão, Santa Filomena-Bom Jesus (Gilbues) and Picos – this cluster is located within the Palaeozoic Parnaiba Sedimentary Basin that separates the São Francisco and the Amazonian Precambrian cratons. Locations of kimberlites are controlled by the ‘Transbrasiliano Lineament’. The Fazenda Largo kimberlites are intensely weathered, almost completely altered rocks with a fine-grained clastic structure, and contain variable amounts of terrigene admixture (quartz sand). These rocks represent near-surface volcano-sedimentary deposits of the crater parts of kimberlite pipes. By petrographic, mineralogical and chemical features, the Fazenda Largo kimberlites are similar to average kimberlite. The composition of the deep-seated material in the Fazenda Largo kimberlites is quite diverse: among mantle microxenoliths are amphibolitised pyrope peridotites, garnetised spinel peridotites, ilmenite peridotites, chromian spinel + chromian diopside + pyrope intergrowths, and large xenoliths of pyrope dunite. High-pressure minerals are predominantly of the ultramafic suite, Cr-association minerals (purplish-red and violet pyrope, chromian spinel, chromian diopside, Cr-pargasite and orthopyroxene). The Ti-association minerals of the ultramafic suite (picroilmenite and orange pyrope), as well as rare grains of orange pyrope-almandine of the eclogite association, are subordinate. Kimberlites from all four pipes contain rare grains of G10 pyrope of the diamond association, but chromian spinel of the diamond association was not encountered. By their tectonic position, by geochemical characteristics, and by the composition of kimberlite indicator minerals, the Fazenda Largo kimberlites, like the others of such type, are unlikely to be economic.  相似文献
2.
We calculated thermo-elastic properties of pyrope(Mg3Al2Si3O12) at mantle pressures and temperatures using Ab initio molecular dynamic simulation.A third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation at a reference temperature of 2 000 K fits the calculations with bulk modulus,K0=159.5 GPa,K0'=4.3,V0=785.89 A3,Grüneisen parameter,γ0=1.15,q=0.80,Anderson Grüneisen parameter δT=3.76 and thermal expansion,α0=2.93×10-5 K-1.Referenced to room temperature,where V0=750.80 A3,γ0 and α0 become 1.11 and 2.47×10-5 K-1.The elastic pr...  相似文献
3.
Elastic wave velocities for dense (99.8% of theoretical density) isotropic polycrystalline specimens of synthetic pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3O12) were measured to 1,000 K at 300 MPa by the phase comparison method of ultrasonic interferometry in an internally heated gas-medium apparatus. The temperature derivatives of the elastic moduli [(∂Ks/∂T) P = −19.3(4); (∂G/∂T) P = −10.4(2) MPa K−1] measured in this study are consistent with previous acoustic measurements on both synthetic polycrystalline pyrope in a DIA-type cubic anvil apparatus (Gwanmesia et al. in Phys Earth Planet Inter 155:179–190, 2006) and on a natural single crystal by the rectangular parallelepiped resonance (RPR; Suzuki and Anderson in J Phys Earth 31:125–138, 1983) method but |(∂Ks/∂T) P | is significantly larger than from a Brillouin spectroscopy study of single-crystal pyrope (Sinogeikin and Bass in Phys Earth Planet Inter 203:549–555, 2002). Alternative approaches to the retrieval of mixed derivatives of the elastic moduli from joint analysis of data from this study and from the solid-medium data of Gwanmesia et al. in Phys Earth Planet Inter 155:179–190 (2006) yield ∂2 G/∂PT = [0.07(12), 0.20(14)] × 10−3 K−1 and ∂2 K S /∂PT = [−0.20(24), 0.22(26)] × 10−3 K−1, both of order 10−4 K−1 and not significantly different from zero. More robust inference of the mixed derivatives will require solid-medium acoustic measurements of precision significantly better than 1%.  相似文献
4.
We present results of study of the specific composition and parageneses of pyrope-almandine garnets from alluvial deposits of the Muna-Markha interfluve drainage in the Yakutian diamondiferous province. The data are correlated with the specific features of garnets (tentatively crustal) from Yakutian and Guinean kimberlites and their crustal xenoliths and from metamorphic rocks of the Anabar Shield. The conclusion is drawn that most of orange pyrope-almandine garnets from the alluvial deposits were generated from kimberlites with varying contents of disintegrated crustal material. This gives grounds to include the studied garnets into a complex of indicator minerals of kimberlites and use them in search for diamonds in the Yakutian diamondiferous province.  相似文献
5.
辽宁金伯利岩中镁铝榴石的含量与金刚石的含量成正比。富含矿的岩体中镁铝榴石颜色有紫色、红色和橙色等种类,其中以紫色的为主,金刚石的含量越多紫色类型所占比例就越大。 镁铝榴石中Cr_2O_3和CaO的含量随其颜色的加深而升高;Al_2O_3、MgO、TiO_2的含量变化则相反。富矿岩体中富铬(>5%)镁铝榴石的含量高于中等含矿和贫含矿的岩体。 文中还列出了山东和贵州金刚石矿中镁铝榴石的资料以资对比。  相似文献
6.
贵州省镇远地区的钾镁煌斑岩(Lamproite)的分布在大地构造上受地台和地台内隆起与坳陷间的深断裂控制,为浅成侵入脉岩,呈岩墙或岩床产出,规模不大,厚几厘米至数米,长数十米至千米,已见于深冲、白坟、思南塘等岩群。岩石具煌斑结构,块状构造,斑晶为钛金云母、透辉石、假像橄榄石,基质除上述矿物外,还有透长石、白榴石、角闪石、磷灰石、锆石、金红石等,还见到微量镁铝榴石和铬铁矿。其中钛金云母、铬铁矿、镁铝榴石的矿物化学成分与西澳同类岩石十分接近,投入米切尔,J·格尼有关图件中,均落入钾镁煌斑岩趋势区。岩石化学成分属钾质超基性岩,K_2O>Na_2O,K_2O/Na_2O为20.85~66.51,富含TiO_2,但MgO较西澳同类岩石略低。富含Sr、Ba、Zr、Nb、P等痕量元素。稀土总量高,富集轻稀土。稀土分配模式与西澳同类岩石一致。D_5岩体中经1987年再次选矿证实含微量金刚石。  相似文献
7.
黄进初 《矿物岩石》1990,10(1):12-18
镁铝榴石是找寻金刚石的一种重要的指示矿物。本文应用了聚类分析方法,以镁铝榴石中的钙组分、铬组分、镁组分和镁组分(铁铝榴石)4种成分参数作变量,将56个样品分为6类,讨论了每一类样品的化学成分特点,确定了它们的标型意义,并应用多元判别分析得出了划分这6类和对未知样品进行判别归类的一组判别函数。  相似文献
8.
在红外光谱有关镁铝榴石中微量结构水的研究基础上,运用质子探针分析方法系统研究了辽宁50号金伯利岩管中粗晶镁铝榴石Ni、Zn、Ga、Sr、Y、Zr、Pb等微量元素的含量。根据镁铝榴石中微量元素Ni含量地质温度计,计算该岩管中镁铝榴石粗晶的形成温度,对比研究了不同含矿性的金伯利岩中粗晶镁铝榴石形成温度范围的异同,并探讨了该方法运用于金刚石找矿勘查的可能性;讨论了含结构水镁铝榴石的形成温度范围及其意义,并结合其它微量元素分析资料,探讨了镁铝榴石中微量结构水与地幔交代作用之间的成因联系。  相似文献
9.
The Sputnik kimberlite pipe is a small “satellite” of the larger Mir pipe in central Yakutia (Sakha), Russia. Study of 38 large diamonds (0.7-4.9 carats) showed that nine contain inclusions of the eclogitic paragenesis, while the remainder contain inclusions of the peridotitic paragenesis, or of uncertain paragenesis. The peridotitic inclusion suite comprises olivine, enstatite, Cr-diopside, chromite, Cr-pyrope garnet (both lherzolitic and harzburgitic), ilmenite, Ni-rich sulfide and a Ti-Cr-Fe-Mg-Sr-K phase of the lindsleyite-mathiasite (LIMA) series. The eclogitic inclusion suite comprises omphacite, garnet, Ni-poor sulfide, phlogopite and rutile. Peridotitic ilmenite inclusions have high Mg, Cr and Ni contents and high Nb/Zr ratios; they may be related to metasomatic ilmenites known from peridotite xenoliths in kimberlite. Eclogitic phlogopite is intergrown with omphacite, coexists with garnet, and has an unusually high TiO2 content. Comparison with inclusions in diamonds from Mir shows general similarities, but differences in details of trace-element patterns. Large compositional variations among inclusions of one phase (olivine, garnet, chromite) within single diamonds indicate that the chemical environment of diamond crystallisation changed rapidly relative to diamond growth rates in many cases. P-T conditions of formation were calculated from multiphase inclusions and from trace element geothermobarometry of single inclusions. The geotherm at the time of diamond formation was near a 35 mW/m2 conductive model; that is indistinguishable from the Paleozoic geotherm derived by studies of xenoliths and concentrate minerals from Mir. A range of Ni temperatures between garnet inclusions in single diamonds from both Mir and Sputnik suggests that many of the diamonds grew during thermal events affecting a relatively narrow depth range of the lithosphere, within the diamond stability field. The minor differences between inclusions in Mir and Sputnik may reflect lateral heterogeneity in the upper mantle.  相似文献
10.
In the Port Edward area of southern Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa, charnockitic aureoles up to 10 m in width in the normally garnetiferous Nicholson's Point Granite, are developed adjacent to intrusive contacts with the Port Edward Enderbite and anhydrous pegmatitic veins. Mineralogical differences between the country rock and charnockitic aureole suggest that the dehydration reaction Bt + Qtz → Opx + Kfs + H2O and the reaction of Grt + Qtz → Opx + Pl were responsible for the charnockitization. The compositions of fluid inclusions show systematic variation with: (1) the Port Edward Enderbite being dominated by CO2 and N2 fluid inclusions; (2) the non-charnockitized granite by saline aqueous inclusions with 18–23 EqWt% NaCl; (3) the charnockitic aureoles by low-salinity and pure water inclusions (<7 EqWt% NaCl); (4) the pegmatites by aqueous inclusions of various salinity with minor CO2. As a result of the thermal event the homogenization temperatures of the inclusions in charnockite show a much larger range (up to 390 °C) compared to the fluid inclusions in granite (mostly <250 °C). Contrary to fluid-controlled charnockitization (brines, CO2) which may have taken place along shear zones away from the intrusive body, the present “proximal” charnockitized granite formed directly at the contact with enderbite. The inclusions indicate contact metamorphism induced by the intrusion of “dry” enderbitic magma into “wet” granite resulting in local dehydration. This was confirmed by cathodoluminescence microscopy showing textures indicative for the local reduction of structural water in the charnockite quartz. Two-pyroxene thermometry on the Port Edward Enderbite suggests intrusion at temperatures of ∼1000–1050 °C into country rock with temperature of <700 °C. The temperature of aureole formation must have been between ∼700 °C (breakdown of pyrite to form pyrrhotite) and ∼1000 °C. Charnockitization was probably controlled largely by heat related to anhydrous intrusions causing dehydration reactions and resulting in the release and subsequent trapping of dehydration fluids. The salinity of the metamorphic fluid in the contact zones is supposed to have been higher at an early stage of contact metamorphism, but it has lost its salt content by K-metasomatic reactions and/or the preferential migration of the saline fluids out of the contact zones towards the enderbite. The low water activity inhibited the localized melting of the granite. Mineral thermobarometry suggests that after charnockite aureole genesis, an isobaric cooling path was followed during which reequilibration of most of the aqueous inclusions occurred. Received: 8 November 1998 / Accepted: 21 June 1999  相似文献
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