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Phase diagrams involving solid solutions are calculated by solving sets of non-linear equations. In calculating P–T  projections and compatibility diagrams, the equations used for each equilibrium are the equilibrium relationships for an independent set of reactions between the end-members of the phases in the equilibrium. Invariant points and univariant lines in P–T  projections can be calculated directly, as can coordinates in compatibility diagrams. In calculating P–T  and T–x / P–x pseudosections – diagrams drawn for particular bulk compositions – the equilibrium relationship equations are augmented by mass balance equations. Lines in pseudosections, where the mode of one phase in the lower variance equilibrium is zero, and points, where the modes of two phases are zero, can then be calculated directly. The software, THERMOCALC, allows the calculation of these and a range of other types of phase diagram. Examples of phase diagrams and phase diagram movies, with instructions for their production, along with the THERMOCALC input and output files, and the MathematicaTM functions for assembling them, are presented in this paper, partly in hard copy and partly on the JMG web sites (http://www.gly.bris.ac.uk/www/jmg/jmg.html, or equivalent Australian or USA sites).
苏北超基性岩某些超高压变质特征   总被引:9,自引:2,他引:7  
苏北芝麻坊超基性岩体,位于大别—苏鲁超高压变质带东段的核心部位,与基性榴辉岩紧密伴生,是苏北最具代表性的岩体之一。根据多年来的成果资料,研究它的超高压变质特征,对研究整个苏鲁超高压变质带具有重大意义。对岩体的形态特征、岩相学特征、特别是矿物学特征,如镁铝榴石特征的研究,结合金刚石的选出,都有力的证实苏北超基性岩是在超高压变质环境下生成的,同时也反映其是由华北地块与扬子地块俯冲碰撞而从地壳深处挤压上来的幔源物质。  相似文献
Mineral inclusions in diamonds from the Sputnik kimberlite pipe, Yakutia   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
The Sputnik kimberlite pipe is a small “satellite” of the larger Mir pipe in central Yakutia (Sakha), Russia. Study of 38 large diamonds (0.7-4.9 carats) showed that nine contain inclusions of the eclogitic paragenesis, while the remainder contain inclusions of the peridotitic paragenesis, or of uncertain paragenesis. The peridotitic inclusion suite comprises olivine, enstatite, Cr-diopside, chromite, Cr-pyrope garnet (both lherzolitic and harzburgitic), ilmenite, Ni-rich sulfide and a Ti-Cr-Fe-Mg-Sr-K phase of the lindsleyite-mathiasite (LIMA) series. The eclogitic inclusion suite comprises omphacite, garnet, Ni-poor sulfide, phlogopite and rutile. Peridotitic ilmenite inclusions have high Mg, Cr and Ni contents and high Nb/Zr ratios; they may be related to metasomatic ilmenites known from peridotite xenoliths in kimberlite. Eclogitic phlogopite is intergrown with omphacite, coexists with garnet, and has an unusually high TiO2 content. Comparison with inclusions in diamonds from Mir shows general similarities, but differences in details of trace-element patterns. Large compositional variations among inclusions of one phase (olivine, garnet, chromite) within single diamonds indicate that the chemical environment of diamond crystallisation changed rapidly relative to diamond growth rates in many cases. P-T conditions of formation were calculated from multiphase inclusions and from trace element geothermobarometry of single inclusions. The geotherm at the time of diamond formation was near a 35 mW/m2 conductive model; that is indistinguishable from the Paleozoic geotherm derived by studies of xenoliths and concentrate minerals from Mir. A range of Ni temperatures between garnet inclusions in single diamonds from both Mir and Sputnik suggests that many of the diamonds grew during thermal events affecting a relatively narrow depth range of the lithosphere, within the diamond stability field. The minor differences between inclusions in Mir and Sputnik may reflect lateral heterogeneity in the upper mantle.  相似文献
贵州省镇远地区钾镁煌斑岩岩石特征   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
贵州省镇远地区的钾镁煌斑岩(Lamproite)的分布在大地构造上受地台和地台内隆起与坳陷间的深断裂控制,为浅成侵入脉岩,呈岩墙或岩床产出,规模不大,厚几厘米至数米,长数十米至千米,已见于深冲、白坟、思南塘等岩群。岩石具煌斑结构,块状构造,斑晶为钛金云母、透辉石、假像橄榄石,基质除上述矿物外,还有透长石、白榴石、角闪石、磷灰石、锆石、金红石等,还见到微量镁铝榴石和铬铁矿。其中钛金云母、铬铁矿、镁铝榴石的矿物化学成分与西澳同类岩石十分接近,投入米切尔,J·格尼有关图件中,均落入钾镁煌斑岩趋势区。岩石化学成分属钾质超基性岩,K_2O>Na_2O,K_2O/Na_2O为20.85~66.51,富含TiO_2,但MgO较西澳同类岩石略低。富含Sr、Ba、Zr、Nb、P等痕量元素。稀土总量高,富集轻稀土。稀土分配模式与西澳同类岩石一致。D_5岩体中经1987年再次选矿证实含微量金刚石。  相似文献
The spinel–garnet transition in Cr/Al-enriched peridotiticbulk compositions is known from experimental investigationsto occur at 20–70 kbar, within the pressure range sampledby kimberlites. We show that the Cr2O3–CaO compositionsof concentrate garnets from kimberlite have maximum Cr/Ca arrayscharacterized by Cr2O3/CaO 0·96–0·81, andinterpret the arrays as primary evidence of chromite–garnetcoexistence in Cr-rich harzburgitic or lherzolitic bulk compositionsderived from depth within the lithosphere. Under Cr-saturatedconditions on a known geotherm, each Cr/Ca array implicitlydelineates an isobar inside a garnet Cr2O3–CaO diagram.This simplification invites a graphical approach to calibratean empirical Cr/Ca-in-pyrope barometer. Carbonaceous chromite–garnetharzburgite xenoliths from the Roberts Victor kimberlite tightlybracket a graphite–diamond constraint (GDC) located atCr2O3 = 0·94CaO + 5·0 (wt %), representing a pivotalcalibration corresponding to 43 kbar on a 38 mW/m2 conductivegeotherm. Additional calibration points are established at 14,17·4 and 59·1 kbar by judiciously projecting garnetcompositions from simple-system experiments onto the same geotherm.The garnet Cr/Ca barometer is then simply formulated as follows(in wt %):
if Cr2O3 0·94CaO + 5, then P38 (kbar) = 26·9+ 3·22Cr2O3 – 3·03CaO, or
if Cr2O3 <0·94CaO + 5, then P38 (kbar) = 9·2+ 36[(Cr2O3+ 1·6)/(CaO + 7·02)].
A small correction to P38 values, applicable for 35–48mW/m2 conductive geotherms, is derived empirically by requiringconventional thermobarometry results and garnet concentratecompositions to be consistent with the presence of diamondsin the Kyle Lake kimberlite and their absence in the Zero kimberlite.We discuss application of the P38 barometer to estimate (1)real pressures in the special case where chromite–garnetcoexistence is known, (2) minimum pressures in the general casewhere Cr saturation is unknown, and (3) the maximum depth ofdepleted lithospheres, particularly those underlying Archaeancratons. A comparison with the PCr barometer of Ryan et al.(1996, Journal of Geophysical Research 101, 5611–5625)shows agreement with P38 at 55 ± 2 kbar, and 6–12%higher PCr values at lower P38. Because the PCr formulationsystematically overestimates the 43 kbar value of the GDC by2–6 kbar, we conclude that the empirical Cr/Ca-in-garnetbarometer is preferred for all situations where conductive geothermsintersect the graphite–diamond equilibrium. KEY WORDS: Cr-pyrope; chromite; P38 barometer; mantle petrology; lithosphere thickness  相似文献
辽宁金伯利岩中镁铝榴石与金刚石的关系   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
辽宁金伯利岩中镁铝榴石的含量与金刚石的含量成正比。富含矿的岩体中镁铝榴石颜色有紫色、红色和橙色等种类,其中以紫色的为主,金刚石的含量越多紫色类型所占比例就越大。 镁铝榴石中Cr_2O_3和CaO的含量随其颜色的加深而升高;Al_2O_3、MgO、TiO_2的含量变化则相反。富矿岩体中富铬(>5%)镁铝榴石的含量高于中等含矿和贫含矿的岩体。 文中还列出了山东和贵州金刚石矿中镁铝榴石的资料以资对比。  相似文献
黄进初 《矿物岩石》1990,10(1):12-18
镁铝榴石是找寻金刚石的一种重要的指示矿物。本文应用了聚类分析方法,以镁铝榴石中的钙组分、铬组分、镁组分和镁组分(铁铝榴石)4种成分参数作变量,将56个样品分为6类,讨论了每一类样品的化学成分特点,确定了它们的标型意义,并应用多元判别分析得出了划分这6类和对未知样品进行判别归类的一组判别函数。  相似文献
The Buffalo Hills kimberlites define a province of kimberlite magmatism occurring within and adjacent to Proterozoic crystalline basement termed the Buffalo Head Terrane in north-central Alberta, Canada. The kimberlites are distinguished by a diverse xenocryst suite and most contain some quantity of diamond. The xenocryst assemblage in the province is atypical for diamondiferous kimberlite, including an overall paucity of mantle indicator minerals and the near-absence of compositionally subcalcic peridotitic garnet (G10). The most diamond-rich bodies are distinguished by the presence of slightly subcalcic, chromium-rich garnet and the general absence of picroilmenite, with the majority forming a small cluster in the northwestern part of the province. Barren and near-barren pipes tend to occur to the south, with increasing proximity to the basement structure known as the Peace River Arch. Niobian picroilmenite, compositionally restricted low-to moderate-Cr peridotitic garnet, and megacrystal titanian pyrope occur in kimberlites closest to the arch. Major element data for clinopyroxene and trace element data for garnet from diamond-rich and diamond-poor kimberlites suggests that metasomatism of lithospheric peridotite within the diamond stability field may have caused destruction of diamond, and diamond source rocks proximal to the arch were the most affected.  相似文献
In Venezuela, kimberlites have so far only been found in the Guaniamo region, where they occur as high diamond grade sheets in massive to steeply foliated Paleoproterozoic granitoid rocks. The emplacement age of the Guaniamo kimberlites is 712±6 Ma, i.e., Neoproterozoic. The Guaniamo kimberlites contain a high abundance of mantle minerals, with greater than 30% olivine macrocrysts. The principal kimberlite indicator minerals found are pyrope garnet and chromian spinel, with the overwhelming majority of the garnets being of the peridotite association. Chrome-diopside is rare, and picroilmenite is uncommon. Chemically, the Guaniamo kimberlites are characterized by high MgO contents, with low Al2O3 and TiO2 contents and higher than average FeO and K2O contents. These rocks have above average Ni, Cr, Co, Th, Nb, Ta, Sr and LREE concentrations and very low P, Y and, particularly, Zr and Hf contents. The Nb/Zr ratio is very distinctive and is similar to that of the Aries, Australia kimberlite. The Guaniamo kimberlites are similar in petrography, mineralogy and mantle mineral content to ilmenite-free Group 2 mica kimberlites of South Africa. The Nd-Sr isotopic characteristics of Guaniamo kimberlites are distinct from both kimberlite Group 1 and Group 2, being more similar to transitional type kimberlites, and in particular to diamondiferous kimberlites of the Arkhangelsk Diamond Province, Russia. The Guaniamo kimberlites form part of a compositional spectrum between other standard kimberlite reference groups. They formed from metasomatised subcontinental lithospheric mantle and it is likely that subduction of oceanic crust was the source of this metasomatised material, and also of the eclogitic component, which is dominant in Guaniamo diamonds.  相似文献
The compositional structure and thermal state of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Kalahari Craton and the surrounding mobile belts have been mapped in space and time using >3400 garnet xenocrysts from >50 kimberlites intruded over the period 520–80 Ma. The trace-element patterns of many garnets reflect the metasomatic refertilisation of originally highly depleted harzburgites and lherzolites, and much of the lateral and vertical heterogeneity observed in the SCLM within the craton is the product of such metasomatism. The most depleted, and possibly least modified, SCLM was sampled beneath the Limpopo Belt by early Paleozoic kimberlites; the SCLM beneath other parts of the craton may represent similar material modified by metasomatism during Phanerozoic time. In the SW part of the craton, the SCLM sampled by “Group 2” kimberlites (>110 Ma) is thicker, cooler and less metasomatised than that sampled by “Group 1” kimberlites (mostly ≤95 Ma) in the same area. Therefore, the extensively studied xenolith suite from the Group 1 kimberlites probably is not representative of primary Archean SCLM compositions. The relatively fertile SCLM beneath the mobile belts surrounding the craton is interpreted as largely Archean SCLM, metasomatised and mixed with younger material during Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic rifting and compression. This implies that at least some of the observed secular evolution in SCLM composition worldwide may reflect the reworking of Archean SCLM. There are strong correlations between mantle composition and the lateral variations in seismic velocity shown by detailed tomographic studies. Areas of relatively low Vp within the craton largely reflect the progressive refertilisation of the Archean root during episodes of intraplate magmatism, including the Bushveld (2 Ga) and Karroo (ca. 180 Ma) events; areas of high Vp map out the distribution of relatively less metasomatised Archean SCLM. The relatively low Vp of the SCLM beneath the mobile belts around the craton is consistent with its fertile composition. The seismic data may be used to map the lateral extent of different types of SCLM, taking into account the small lateral variations in the geotherm identified using the techniques described here.  相似文献
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