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李晋 《地下水》2011,(6):60-62
河流在人类社会发展中扮演着重要的角色,但由于人类的过度使用以及随意将污染物排放入河流中,造成河流的生态破坏、水体污染。对于河流的治理,国外已从传统的"污水处理、达标排放"治理目标转变为以水质再生为核心的"水的循环再利用",由单纯的"污染控制"技术发展为"水生态的修复与恢复"。本文介绍了河流生态修复的理念及其修复技术。  相似文献
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由于降水较少以及地下水超采,北方地区大部分河流基流匮乏,河水主要来自未经深度处理的城市生活污水和工业废水,河水水质难以达标.在这些地区,利用河流漫滩土壤和含水层的天然净化能力,建立近自然土壤-含水层侧渗系统是净化河水的有效途径之一.在介绍侧渗系统净化机理及适用条件的基础上,通过室内试验和野外示范工程研究索须河土壤-含水层对河水中氨氮的去除效果.室内试验表明该处土壤及浅部含水层对氨氮的去除主要通过稀释、吸附和微生物等作用;通过对示范工程典型剖面上的监测井观测表明该系统对氨氮的去除效果良好,受降水补给的土壤和含水层使得河水中的氨氮硝化为亚硝酸盐和硝酸盐.硝酸盐在地下水中很难被去除,只有少部分通过反硝化作用转化成N2.土壤-含水层侧渗系统行之有效,可应用于类似索须河的北方河流.  相似文献
3.
黄平  陈铣成 《水文》1995,(3):8-12
根据随机理论,推导了一个描述污染带变化的概率模型,并采用Monte-Carlo抽样法对其求数值解。该随机模型的解是一个随机物,实例计算表明,它的解能够反映任一计算点的浓度变化趋势及范围,并能够给浓度等值线附加上概率的意义,表现了在不确定因素的影响下,污染带随机变化的情况。  相似文献
4.
The water and bed-sediment pollution status of the Padma River was determined by analysis of representative samples for selected metals and ions. Water and bed-sediment samples were collected at a T-dam, Rajshahi, Bangladesh, for 7 months. Water and silt-metal content analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry or other analytical methods. The data showed the variation of the metal ion-levels in water as follows: Ca 17.11–48.37 ppm, Na 17.51–20.09 ppm, K 1.00–3.60 ppm, Cr 2.80–7.00 ppm, and SO4 4.17–5.48 ppm; in bed sediment, the levels were Cr 35–1050 ppm and Pb 12–48 ppm. The occurrence of Na, K and Ca was in the normal range (US EPA permissible limit), but the levels of Cr in water were much higher than the permissible limit. The SO4 ion content was well below the pollution level. The concentration of Pb in the bed sediment was within the permissible limit for the standard International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Soil-5a, but the concentration of Cr in the bed sediment was significantly higher than the permissible limit for the standard IAEA Soil-5a. Thus the Padma river water was polluted with Cr. The occurrence of some ions showed a monthly variation. Received: 19 August 1999 · Accepted: 12 October 1999  相似文献
5.
着重研究了河流中点源及线源污染物的垂向紊动混合过程。根据大江河中污染物在排放口近区范围内的垂向紊动混合过程,提出了部分均匀混合水深的新概念,建立了点源及线源的垂向紊动混合过程基本方程。通过求解方程,得到部分均匀混合水深随纵向距离变化的基本规律和全水深垂向均匀混合距离的理论公式,且用相关实测资料进行了验证。将所建立的垂向紊动混合过程基本规律引入数值模型中,建立了部分均匀混合水深平均二维水质模型,并用现场罗丹明示踪实测资料进行验证,表明该模型较传统的全水深平均模型在近区具有更高的计算精度,与三维模型相比则有更高的计算效率。  相似文献
6.
The Abrud–Arieş river system, western Romania, is subject to ongoing mining activity associated with Cu, Pb and Zn ore extraction. The catchment contains what is believed to be Europe's largest unutilized Au deposit at Roşia Montană that is planned to be exploited by open-cast mining techniques. The magnitude and environmental significance of metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in surface water and river channel sediment have been investigated along a 140 km reach of the Rivers Abrud and Arieş and 9 tributaries affected by mining. The speciation of sediment-bound metals was established using a 4-stage sequential extraction procedure (SEP) that identified four chemical phases: (1) exchangeable, (2) Fe/Mn oxides, (3) organic matter/sulphides and (4) residual. Peak solute and sediment-bound metal concentrations were found to occur in the River Abrud downstream of the EM Bucium mine and in mining-affected tributaries, with up to 71% of sites containing sediment metal concentrations in excess of Dutch intervention values. The River Arieş was found to be much less polluted than the River Abrud, with only Cu showing concentrations above guideline values, as a consequence of porphyry Cu mineralization in the catchment. The magnitude and spatial extent of metal pollution is influenced by local physico-chemical conditions and hydrological linkages between mining and local river systems. Sediment-bound Cd and Zn were found to be predominantly associated with the exchangeable phase of the sediment (9–74% and 6–65%, respectively), whilst Fe/Mn oxides (5–76%) and organic matter/sulphides (1–45%) generally accounted for a majority of Pb and Cu partitioning, respectively. Sites of environmentally significant sediment-metal pollution were identified in the Rivers Abrud and Arieş where exchangeable metal concentrations exceeded Dutch intervention values. The implications of metal contamination in the Arieş river basin to the proposed mining development at Roşia Montana are discussed in relation to other contaminated Romanian catchments and with the EU Water Framework Directive.  相似文献
7.
The study of hydrogeochemical data sets frequently calls for statistical dimension reducing techniques. It is well known that hydrochemical parameters are compositions and, for this type of data, the direct application of classical statistical methods based on the correlation matrix yield spurious results. But new results on compositional data analysis have identified the sampling space, the simplex, with an Euclidean space, a fact that allows us to define a simplicial factor analysis strategy, thus overcoming the problem. For illustration, we use samples from the Llobregat River and its tributaries (NE Spain). Three unobservable or latent factorial components are extracted, which are identified with pristine waters, potash-mining influence and urban sewage influence. These three factorial components or compositional factors are plotted in a factorial ternary diagram, which reflects the relative influence of each one of these factors on each observation.  相似文献
8.
Heavy metal distribution patterns in river sediments aid in understanding the exogenic cycling of elements as well as in assessing the effect of anthropogenic influences. In India, the Subernarekha river flows over the Precambrian terrain of the Singhbhum craton in eastern India. The rocks are of an iron ore series and the primary rock types are schist and quartzite. One main tributary, the Kharkhai, flows through granite rocks and subsequently flows through the schist and quartzite layers. The Subernarekha flows through the East Singhbhum district, which is one of India’s industrialised areas known for ore mining, steel production, power generation, cement production and other related activities. Freshly deposited river sediments were collected upstream and downstream the industrial zone. Samples were collected from four locations and analysed in <63-μm sediment fraction for heavy metals including Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu by anodic stripping voltammetry. Enrichment of these elements over and above the local natural concentration level has been calculated and reported. Sediments of the present study are classified by Muller’s geo-accumulation index (I geo) and vary from element to element and with climatic seasons. During pre-monsoon period the maximum I geo value for Zn is moderately to highly polluted and for Cu and Pb is moderately polluted, respectively, based on the Muller’s standard. Anthropogenic, lithogenic or cumulative effects of both components are the main reasons for such variations in I geo values. The basic igneous rock layer through which the river flows or a seasonal rivulet that joins with the main river may be the primary source for lithogenic components.  相似文献
9.
The importance of study of heavy metal distribution in river sediments is a component in understanding the exogenic cycling as well as in assessing the effect of anthropogenic influences of the elements. In India, the river Subernarekha flows over Precambrian terrain of Singhbhum craton in the eastern India. The geological succession in this part of India is through (1) iron ore series, (2) ultrabasic igneous rocks, (3) diorite, (4) granite, (5) newer dolerites, (6) newer tertiary and (7) alluvium. The first four groups belong to the Archaean era, and the representative is the iron ore series consisting of iron ore, manganese and chromite which are abundantly present. The primary rock types are schist and quartzite layers. One main tributary, the Kharkhai flow through granite and schist and quartzite layers. Two important creeks are Gurma and Garra, respectively. The former after originating in basic igneous area travels through schist quartzite, while the later one originates in granite area where some functional but old gold mines are located. Freshly deposited sediments of river were collected upstream and downstream the industrial zone (East Singhbhum district). Samples were collected from four locations and analysed in <63 μm sediment fraction for heavy metals like Ni, Co and Cr by adsorption stripping voltammetry on hanging mercury drop electrode and Hg by anodic stripping voltammetry using polished rotating gold disk electrode. Enrichment of these metals over and above the local natural concentration level (NCL) has been calculated and applied to determine metal-pollution index (MPI) proposed by Goncalves et al. and also geo-accumulation index (I geo) by Muller. Based on Muller’s classification, Ni, Cr and Hg have been classified from unpolluted to moderately polluted range in pre-monsoon period but for metals Ni and Cr, during the post-monsoon period the values have reached moderately polluted level while Hg has been classified under unpolluted to moderately polluted level except at the monitoring station situated upstream to Gurma Creek where it was found at unpolluted level. Presence of natural resources of the minerals is primarily the reason for their detection in river sediments (lithogenic) but some anthropogenic sources are also contributing for their presence at some sampling stations. Hg is considered to be chalcophilic in nature and is detected wherever known sulphidic ores of copper or nickel are present.  相似文献
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