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1.
The Qaidam Basin is one of the most sensitive areas to climate change in China, owing to its unique geographical position and ecological condition. In this study, 32 surface‐soil pollen samples were collected to reveal the relationship between modern pollen assemblages, vegetation and precipitation in the eastern region of the Qaidam Basin. The results show that Chenopodiaceae (3.8–87%, average 48%), Artemisia (1.7–64.2%, average 17.5%) and Ephedra (0–90%, average 16.3%) are the dominant pollen types in all samples, and that different pollen assemblages correspond to different vegetation types. DCA and CCA of major pollen types demonstrate that precipitation is an important factor in the control of the distribution of vegetation in the study area. The content and concentration of the three major pollen types (Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Ephedra) change with the mean annual precipitation, and the optimum mean annual precipitation for Ephedra, Chenopodiaceae and Artemisia is <80, 80–200 and >160 mm, respectively. Correlation analysis between the variation in grain size of the three major pollen types and the main environmental variables shows that the grain size of the three pollen types is positively correlated with precipitation in the Qaidam Basin. The results confirm that precipitation is the most important environmental factor in the Qaidam Basin, and that it has an important effect on pollen grain size in the study area.  相似文献   
2.
Palmer干旱指数在淮河流域的修正及应用   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Palmer指数是目前研究区域干旱时应用最广泛的指数之一,但由于其空间适用性比较强,所以在应用已修正的Palmer指数描述淮河流域干旱等级和持续时间时和实际情况有较大差异,因此有必要做进一步订正。利用淮河流域开封、信阳、巢湖站1961—2009年逐日降水和气温等常规观测资料,根据1965年Palmer指数原理,在200...  相似文献   
3.
边坡稳定性影响因素众多,其中一部分具有明显的不确定性,用经典数学理论及力学模型很难描述。采用二级模糊综合评判法,对影响边坡稳定的离散型和连续型因素采用不同方法确定隶属度,并利用二元对比分析法给出各因素权重值;同时考虑降雨对边坡稳定的重要影响,对降雨后各影响因素的权重进行修正,建立边坡稳定的二级模糊综合评判计算模型,评价降雨前后边坡稳定性的变化。研究结果表明:模型所采用的隶属函数,充分考虑了各个因素的不同特点和分布规律;考虑降雨前后权重的变化,能使评判结果更趋合理。以实际工程为例,模糊综合评判结果显示:降雨前边坡处于基本稳定状态,降雨后处于欠稳定状态,与经典极限平衡法计算结果一致。  相似文献   
4.
The Yushu County, Qinghai Province, China, April 14, 2010, earthquake triggered thousands of landslides in a zone between 96°20′32.9″E and 97°10′8.9″E, and 32°52′6.7″N and 33°19′47.9″N. This study examines the use of geographic information system (GIS) technology and Bayesian statistics in creating a suitable landslide hazard-zone map of good predictive power. A total of 2,036 landslides were interpreted from high-resolution aerial photographs and multi-source satellite images pre- and post-earthquake, and verified by selected field checking before a final landslide-inventory map of the study area could be established using GIS software. The 2,036 landslides were randomly partitioned into two subsets: a training dataset, which contains 80 % (1,628 landslides), for training the model; and a testing dataset 20 % (408 landslides). Twelve earthquake triggered landslide associated controlling parameters, such as elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, slope curvature, topographic position, distance from main surface ruptures, peak ground acceleration, distance from roads, normalized difference vegetation index, distance from drainages, lithology, and distance from all faults were obtained from variety of data sources. Landslide hazard indices were calculated using the weight of evidence model. The landslide hazard map was compared with training data and testing data to obtain the success rate and predictive rate of the model, respectively. The validation results showed satisfactory agreement between the hazard map and the existing landslide distribution data. The success rate is 80.607 %, and the predictive rate is 78.855 %. The resulting landslide hazard map showed five classes of landslide hazard, i.e., very high, high, moderate, low and very low. The landslide hazard evaluation map should be useful for environmental recovery planning and reconstruction work.  相似文献   
5.
The probability that an earthquake occurs when a train is running over a bridge in earthquake‐prone regions is much higher than before, for high‐speed railway lines are rapidly developed to connect major cities worldwide. This paper presents a finite element method‐based framework for dynamic analysis of coupled bridge–train systems under non‐uniform seismic ground motion, in which rail–wheel interactions and possible separations between wheels and rails are taken into consideration. The governing equations of motion of the coupled bridge–train system are established in an absolute coordinate system. Without considering the decomposition of seismic responses into pseudo‐static and inertia‐dynamic components, the equations of motion of the coupled system are formed in terms of displacement seismic ground motions. The mode superposition method is applied to the bridge structure to make the problem manageable while the Newmark‐β method with an iterative computation scheme is used to find the best solution for the problem concerned. Eight high‐speed trains running over a multi‐span steel truss‐arch bridge subject to earthquakes are taken as a case study. The results from the case study demonstrate that the spatial variation of seismic ground motion affects dynamic responses of the bridge–train system. The ignorance of pseudo‐static component when using acceleration seismic ground motions as input may underestimate seismic responses of the bridge–train system. The probability of separation between wheels and rails becomes higher with increasing train speed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
6.
This paper presents the preliminary research works on a potential seismic isolation method that makes use of scrap rubber tires for the protection of low‐to‐medium‐rise buildings. The method involves mixing shredded rubber tire particles with soil materials and placing the mixtures around building foundations, which provides a function similar to that of a cushion. Meanwhile, the stockpiling of scrap tires is a significant threat to our environment, and the engineering community has been looking for long‐term viable solutions to the recycling and reuse of rubber. A finite element program has been developed for modeling the time‐domain dynamic responses of soil–foundation–structure system, by which the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method have been evaluated. In general, the structural responses, in terms of acceleration and inter‐story drift, can be reduced by 40–60%. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
7.
碳酸盐岩裂缝性储层测井识别及评价技术综述与展望   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
由于碳酸盐岩裂缝发育机制的复杂性,开展碳酸盐岩裂缝性储层的识别与评价一直是测井分析的热点和难点.本文基于大量文献调研,梳理了碳酸盐岩裂缝的定义、成因和分类,系统归纳了碳酸盐岩裂缝性储层的测井响应特征及评价方法,并进行了实例分析.研究表明,常规测井方法对碳酸盐岩裂缝均有不同程度的揭示,基于不同原理的常规测井方法对碳酸岩盐裂缝的响应程度差异显著,利用常规测井方法对碳酸岩盐储层裂缝识别应遵循综合识别原则;碳酸盐岩裂缝成像测井识别方法中,电阻率成像测井、偶极声波测井和核磁共振测井反映裂缝较为直观,但成本高;基于常规测井资料的灰色关联识别方法、神经网络识别方法、小波多尺度识别方法等非线性数学方法,弥补了常规测井和成像测井识别碳酸盐岩裂缝的不足,并且取得较好的应用效果.  相似文献   
8.
中尺度WRF数值模式系统本地化业务试验   总被引:5,自引:2,他引:3  
段旭  王曼  陈新梅  刘建宇  符睿 《气象》2011,37(1):39-47
利用中尺度WRF数值模式及WRF三维变分同化系统,在对比试验的基础上,选取了适合本地的积云过程、微物理过程和辐射过程的方案组合;选择了NCEP/GFS作为模式的背景场;统计计算了以云南为中心的区域背景误差协方差并替换了三维变分同化系统中原有的背景误差协方差;同时,考虑模式底层高度与地面观测站高度的差异,进行了地面资料地形订正.通过上述试验研究,建立了本地化的中尺度WRF数值预报业务系统,该系统能较好地刻画本地下垫面的动力和热力状况,预报能力有明显改善.  相似文献   
9.
云南省冰冻灾害气候区划   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
段旭  陶云  段长春  段玮  吴星霖 《高原气象》2011,30(3):683-691
通过对1951-2007年云南124个测站的冰冻样本及其对应的气温、风速、相对湿度等数据进行了统计分析,根据冰冻样本概括率和冰冻天气概括率建立了冰冻天气判别式。利用Cressman客观分析方法,对1958-2007年11月~次年4月逐日地面气温、相对湿度和风速进行了1 km×1 km细网格插值,在插值中考虑了气象要素随...  相似文献   
10.
WRF模式三维变分中背景误差协方差估计   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
利用WRF模式2008年5-10月逐日预报结果,通过NMC方法进行背景误差协方差(B)估计.给出其结构特征,进行单点数值试验,并利用不同B进行1个月的数值模拟试验,检验模拟降水效果.结果表明:通过单点数值试验验证估算的B结构合理.不同的B,资料同化过程差别较大,应用重新统计的B,同化效率更高,目标函数收敛更稳定.模式模...  相似文献   
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