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1.
Stress wave attenuation across fractured rock masses is a great concern of underground structure safety. When the wave amplitude is large, fractures experience nonlinear deformation during the wave propagation. This paper presents a study on normal transmission of P‐wave across parallel fractures with nonlinear deformational behaviour (static Barton–Bandis model). The results show that the magnitude of transmission coefficient is a function of incident wave amplitude, nondimensional fracture spacing and number of fractures. Two important indices of nondimensional fracture spacing are identified, and they divide the area of nondimensional fracture spacing into three parts (individual fracture area, transition area and small spacing area). In the different areas, the magnitude of transmission coefficient has different trends with nondimensional fracture spacing and number of fractures. In addition, the study reveals that under some circumstances, the magnitude of transmission coefficient increases with increasing number of fractures, and is larger than 1. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
2.
Analysis of Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cr, Li, Ni, K, Al, Fe extracted by 1 mol/L HCl or 0.5 mol/LHCl/H_2O_2, showed concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cr, Fe, Ni were significantly correlated with Li, Al,K, and clay. Two methods are used to indicate the background value of the non-residual phase of elementsin sediments, and are the same as the methods used to indicate the background value of totalconcentrations in sediments. The first method uses correlograms and regression equations,the second usesthe mean element concentrations normalized with grain size. Li, Al, K can be used as reference elements to determine the background value of Zn, Cu, Pb, Co,Cr, Ni, Fe, while the clay concentration's correlation with some extractable concentrations can be used tocalculate the background value of the non-residual phase of elements as a percentage of clay concentrationin the sediments. Based on this study, the concept of using the background value of the non-residualphase of elements to compare the pollution level in differ  相似文献   
3.
当前,由于缺乏对气象服务投入量与产出量准确而完整的统计,要对气象服务的各种经济效益作出总体评价是困难的。然而,在专项气象服务中,却不乏原始、完整而准确的资料。作者从此出发,讨论了专项气象服务经济效益评价的理论。并通过实地调查,以彭州市气象局几项专项气象服务为例探讨了评价技术。  相似文献   
4.
蔡家雄 《湖南地质》1994,13(3):155-162
在△T异常解释课题中,一个新的角度参量─—视磁化特征角的拟定,最大限度地简化了球体磁场表达式。从而才有可能通过特殊解法,给出了球体磁场的极值与拐点公式。作者据此建立了四种不受正常场制约、仅需异常的局部持征曲线即可全面解释三度异常的解释方法。屏障分解、叠加判别、三元迭代的设计,为解释三度体叠加异常给出了简单而易行的途径。  相似文献   
5.
木文根据1966~1986年20年的观测研究,提出大气中存在一类“强降水构造”,它直观地表现为云区的组合。这类“组合”具有互补性、多尺度性、准静止性和阶段性、利用这些属性,有可能从常规地面图上(站距100-300公里)分析和预报出尺度为10~2公里的大~暴雨区;在省的加密地面图上(站距40~70公里)有可能分析出尺度为10~1公里的局地强对流雨。  相似文献   
6.
试论国外河流地貌学的进展   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
本文分四个阶段论述国外河流地貌学研究的发展,阐述了现代河流地貌学在一些领域中取得的成就,以及研究方法和技术的进展。  相似文献   
7.
The ages of subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the North China and South China cratons are less well-constrained than the overlying crust. We report Re–Os isotope systematics of mantle xenoliths entrained in Paleozoic kimberlites and Mesozoic basalts from eastern China. Peridotite xenoliths from the Fuxian and Mengyin Paleozoic diamondiferous kimberlites in the North China Craton give Archean Re depletion ages of 2.6–3.2 Ga and melt depletion ages of 2.9–3.4 Ga. No obvious differences in Re and Os abundances, Os isotopic ratios and model ages are observed between spinel-facies and garnet-facies peridotites from both kimberlite localities. The Re–Os isotopic data, together with the PGE concentrations, demonstrate that beneath the Archean continental crust of the eastern North China Craton, Archean lithospheric mantle of spinel- to diamond-facies existed without apparent compositional stratification during the Paleozoic. The Mesozoic and Cenozoic basalt-borne peridotite and pyroxenite xenoliths, on the other hand, show geochemical features indicating metasomatic enrichment, along with a large range of the Re–Os isotopic model ages from Proterozoic to Phanerozoic. These features indicate that lithospheric transformation or refertilization through melt-peridotite interaction could be the primary mechanism for compositional changes during the Phanerozoic, rather than delamination or thermal-mechanical erosion, despite the potential of these latter processes to play an important role for the loss of garnet-facies mantle. A fresh garnet lherzolite xenolith from the Yangtze Block has a Re depletion age of ∼1.04 Ga, much younger than overlying Archean crustal rocks but the same Re depletion ages as spinel lherzolite xenoliths from adjacent Mesozoic basalts, indicating Neoproterozoic resetting of the Re–Os system in the South China Craton.  相似文献   
8.
This article gives a general introduction to land subsidence with the prediction approaches due to withdrawal of groundwater in three subsided/subsiding regions in China: the deltaic plain of Yangtse River (YRDP), North China Plain (NCP), and Fenwei Plain (FP). On YRDP, Shanghai is the typical subsided/subsiding city; on NCP Tianjin is the typical subsided/subsiding city, and on FP Taiyuan is the typical subsided/subsiding city. The subsided area with subsidence over 200 mm on YRDP is about 10,000 km2 and the maximum subsided value reached 2.9 m at Shanghai; on NCP the subsided area reached 60,000 km2 with the maximum subsidence of 3.9 m at Tianjing; on FP the subsided area is relatively smaller than that on the other two plains and is about 1,135 km2 with maximum subsidence of 3.7 m at Taiyuan city. In order to protect the civil and industrial facilities, it is necessary to predict the future development of land subsidence based on present state. Many researchers proposed several approaches to predict the land subsidence due to groundwater withdrawal according to different geological conditions and groundwater withdrawal practice. This article classifies these approaches into five categories: (i) statistical methods; (ii) 1D numerical method; (iii) quasi-3D seepage model; (iv) 3D seepage model; (v) fully coupled 3D model. In China, the former four categories are presently employed in the prediction practice and their merits and demerits are discussed. According to the prediction practice, 3D seepage model is the best method presently.  相似文献   
9.
In the Hetai goldfield, Guangdong Province, China, samples including rocks, soils and leaves of four plants (Pinus massoniana, Rhodomyrms tomenlosa, D. linearis var. dichotoma and Embelia laeta) collected from the gold mineralization zone and the background area were analyzed for Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg, As and physiological parameters. The objective of this investigation is to study the geochemical and biogeochemical characteristics of studied plants, aiming at biogeochemical methods in Au exploration. The goldfield region shows geochemical and biogeochemical anomalies. Abundances of Au in rocks, soils, plants and the leaf pigments in the mineralized area are much higher than those in the surrounding region. The plants display unhealthy physiological and ecological characteristics in the Hetai goldfield area. The cell structures of the goldfield plants were anomalous and aberrant, and there were many nano-metal particles diffused in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Macro- and microscopic evidences of the vegetation in the goldfield areas are distinctly different from the background regions. The strongly anomalies in responses to Au are profound in further geochemical and botanic exploration studies.  相似文献   
10.
渤海湾盆地新生界生油岩系底界面温度分布   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
依据渤海湾盆地2000余口测温井的地温梯度数据、地层岩性描述、分层数据以及钻井资料,计算了该盆地各生油岩系底界面的温度。统计结果表明:渤海湾盆地沙河街组大部分凹陷区地层底界面温度介于90℃至150℃,目前仍具有大量生油的温度条件,而在隆起或一些凸起地区,该地层组段温度普遍小于90℃,未能达到生油的温度指标。东营组和孔店组地层也仍具有一定的生油温度条件。研究还表明:地层温度与地层界面埋深密切相关,温度随界面埋深的增大而升高,沉积厚度大的凹陷区地层界面温度大于沉积厚度小的凸起区或斜坡地带,说明地层界面埋深是决定地温高低的主要控制因素,而地温梯度对地层界面温度的影响相对较小。  相似文献   
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