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1.
Numerous efforts have been made to understand stemflow dynamics under different types of vegetation at the inter-event scale, but few studies have explored the stemflow characteristics and corresponding influencing factors at the intra-event scale. An in-depth investigation of the inter- and intra-event dynamics of stemflow is important for understanding the ecohydrological processes in forest ecosystems. In this study, stemflow volume (FV), stemflow funnelling ratio (FR), and stemflow ratio (F%) from Quercus acutissima and Broussonetia papyrifera trees were measured at both inter- and intra-event scales in a subtropical deciduous forest, and the driving factors, including tree species and meteorological factors were further explored. Specifically, the FV, FR and F% of Q. acutissima (52.3 L, 47.2, 9.6%) were lower than those of B. papyrifera (85.1 L, 91.2, 12.4%). The effect of tree species on FV and F% was more obvious under low intensity rainfall types. At the inter-event scale, FV had a strong positive linear correlation with rainfall amount (GP) and event duration (DE) for both tree species, whereas FR and F% had a positive logarithmic correlation with GP and DE only under high-intensity, short-duration rainfall type. FR and F% were mainly affected by wind speed and the maximum 30-min rainfall intensity under low-intensity, long-duration rainfall type. At the intra-event scale, for both tree species, the mean lag time between the start of rainfall and stemflow was the shortest under high-intensity, short-duration rainfall type, while the mean duration and amount of stemflow after rain cessation were the greatest under high-amount, long-duration rainfall type. The relationship between stemflow intensity and rainfall intensity at the 5-min interval scale also depended greatly on rainfall type. These findings can help clarify stemflow dynamics and driving factors at both inter- and intra-event scales, and also provide abundant data and parameters for ecohydrological simulations in subtropical forests.  相似文献   
2.
Dissolved pollutants in stormwater are a main contributor to water pollution in urban environments. However, many existing transport models are semi-empirical and only consider one-dimensional flows, which limit their predictive capacity. Combining the shallow water and the advection–diffusion equations, a two-dimensional physically based model is developed for dissolved pollutant transport by adopting the concept of a ‘control layer’. A series of laboratory experiments has been conducted to validate the proposed model, taking into account the effects of buildings and intermittent rainfalls. The predictions are found to be in good agreement with experimental observations, which supports the assumption that the depth of the control layer is constant. Based on the validated model, a parametric study is conducted, focusing on the characteristics of the pollutant distribution and transport rate over the depth. The hyetograph, including the intensity, duration and intermittency, of rainfall event has a significant influence on the pollutant transport rates. The depth of the control layer, rainfall intensity, surface roughness and area length are dominant factors that affect the dissolved pollutant transport. Finally, several perspectives of the new pollutant transport model are discussed. This study contributes to an in-depth understanding of the dissolved pollutant transport processes on impermeable surfaces and urban stormwater management.  相似文献   
3.
区域中长期地震危险性数值分析研究,需要对其初始构造应力场有所了解,但目前以及未来一段时期内仍无法直接观测到深部孕震层区域的应力场状况.本文首先基于岩石库仑-摩尔破裂准则,利用青藏高原及邻区百年历史范围内的强震信息,来反演估算该区域的初始应力场.然后,考虑区域构造应力加载及强震造成的应力扰动共同作用,重现了历史强震的发展过程.然而对于初始应力场的反演估算,本文仅能给出区域其上下限的极限值,并不能唯一确定.因此,采用Monte Carlo随机法,进行大量独立的随机试验计算,生成数千种有差异的区域初始应力场模型,且保证每种模型都能令历史强震有序发生,但未来应力场演化过程不尽相同.最后,将数千种模型在未来时间段内的危险性预测结果集成为数理统计结果,据此给出了区域未来的地震危险性概率分布图.初步结果显示未来强震危险性概率较高地区集中在巴颜喀拉块体边界及鲜水河断裂带地区.  相似文献   
4.
2018年9月8日,云南省墨江县发生MS5.9地震并伴随一系列余震,探究该地震周围的应力场对于理解该地震的发生机制和后续地震的发展趋势具有着重要的参考意义.本研究收集了震源及其邻区中前人研究和Global CMT所给出的震源机制资料,对该地区进行了构造应力场反演,并同时利用反演得到的应力张量模拟墨江地区的震源机制解表现.结果表明:(1)在应力轴整体分布上,自西向东σ1轴(压轴)从NNE-SSW向逐渐转向NNW-SSE向,σ3轴(张轴)从WWN-EES向逐渐转向WWS-EEN向,张轴呈弧形分布,压轴呈放射状分布.(2)在应力轴倾伏角上,研究区域内的压应力轴和张应力轴倾伏角都比较小,即两轴均接近水平.(3)R值分布大体是在东南部相较于西北部大,结合当地地质背景分析得到,物质逃逸自西北向东南呈逐渐变缓的趋势.(4)利用反演得到的应力张量和应力状态计算墨江地震震源区的相对剪应力和相对正应力大小.由此推测,墨江地震恰好发生在相对剪切应力值和相对正应力正值最大的节面上.从而可以确定墨江地震的发震节面的基本参数:走向216.32°,倾角86.91°,滑动角0.27°,相对剪应力值0.9,相对正应力值0.3.本研究为此次墨江地震的发震背景和地震动力学研究提供了基础性资料.  相似文献   
5.
含裂隙介质中的视电阻率各向异性变化   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
解滔  卢军 《地球物理学报》2020,63(4):1675-1694
我国50多年的视电阻率连续观测结果表明,大地震前近震中区域的视电阻率呈现出与主压应力方位有关的各向异性变化,即:垂直于主压应力方向观测的变化幅度最大,平行方向最小或不明显,斜交方向介于二者之间.目前我国定点台站视电阻率观测的探测范围主要在浅层沉积层以内,通常含有较多的含水裂隙.本文将地下岩土介质简化为由固体基质和含流体/气体裂隙组成的固液气三相介质,且基质、流体和气体具有标量形式的电阻率,推导出了包含基质和流体电阻率、裂隙率、饱和度和裂隙面积率因子的电阻率张量表达式.以裂隙的扩展/闭合表示应力作用下裂隙的变化,得到了电阻率随裂隙变化的微分形式,电阻率变化对裂隙体积变化放大系数的表达式和裂隙横向变化对纵向电阻率影响的横向权系数的表达式.在此基础上得到了介质电阻率和视电阻率的各向异性变化特征:对于含水裂隙介质,无论裂隙如何变化,均是最小主轴方向电阻率的变化幅度大于其他方向;对于含水孔隙介质,沿孔隙主要变化方向的主轴电阻率变化幅度大于其他方向.对于各向异性变化,视电阻率和介质电阻率存在π/2的方向差异.相较于含水岩石,无水岩石介质电阻率的各向异性变化不显著.本文提出的电阻率表达式可以对实验室和野外实际观测的许多结果做出合理的解释.  相似文献   
6.
波粒相互作用是环电流损失的重要机制之一,但波粒相互作用导致的环电流离子沉降而损失迄今为止缺乏直接的观测证据.基于磁层及电离层卫星的协同观测,本文报道了发生在2015年9月7日,由电磁离子回旋波(EMIC波)导致环电流质子沉降的共轭观测事件.在等离子体层的内边界,Van Allen Probe B卫星观测到,存在EMIC波的区域和不存在EMIC波的区域相比,离子通量的投掷角分布的各向异性变弱.我们将Van Allen Probe B卫星沿着磁力线投影到电离层高度,同时在该投影区域内DMSP 16卫星在亚极光区域观测到环电流质子沉降.而且,通过从理论上计算质子弹跳平均扩散系数,我们进一步证实观测的EMIC波确实能将环电流质子散射到损失锥中.本文的研究工作为EMIC波导致环电流质子沉降提供了直接的观测证据,揭示了环电流衰减的重要物理机制:EMIC波将环电流质子散射到损失锥中,从而沉降到低高度大气层中而损失.  相似文献   
7.
洋底板块运动是地球动力学和全球变化研究的重要内容.本文根据质量迁移与地球外部重力场变化的对应关系,利用不同时期测高资料推算的1995—2019全球海洋重力场变化结果,反演分析全球洋底板块运动特征.研究表明,板块汇聚边界、板块内无震海岭、海山群、断裂带等区域重力异常变化显著,而在板块离散边界无明显变化趋势;西南印度洋中脊、大西洋中脊、中印度洋中脊等地区重力异常垂直梯度变化显著,且在西太平洋俯冲带、部分海岭区域也存在明显变化,其空间分布与地形基本吻合.海洋重力场变化整体上准确反映了全球洋底板块构造运动.相较于重力异常变化反演结果,重力垂直梯度的变化能够更为准确地反映洋底板块运动特征,特别是在洋中脊区域,扩张速率越小,垂直重力梯度变化越显著.此外,详细讨论了测高海洋重力场不确定因素对洋底板块运动分析结果的影响,海面坡度改正是主要因素之一.  相似文献   
8.
黄继伟  刘洪 《地球物理学报》2020,63(8):3091-3104
传统的伪谱(PS)方法,采用傅里叶变换(FT)计算空间导数具有很高的精度,每个波长仅需要两个采样点,而时间导数采用有限差分(FD)近似因而精度较低.当采用大时间步长时,由于时空精度不平衡,PS法存在不稳定性问题.原始的k-space方法可以有效地克服这些问题但是却无法适用于非均匀介质.为了提高原始k-space方法模拟非均匀介质波动方程的精度,我们提出了一种新的k-space算子族.它是用非均匀介质的变速度代替原k-space算子中的常数补偿速度构造得到,引入低秩近似可以高效求解.我们将构造的新的k-space算子应用于耦合的二阶位移波动方程,而不是交错网格一阶速度应力波动方程,使模拟弹性波的计算存储量减少.我们从数学上证明了基于二阶波动方程的k-space方法与基于一阶波动方程的k-space方法是等价的.数值模拟实验表明,与传统的PS、交错网格PS和原始的k-space方法相比,我们的新方法可以在时间和空间步长较大的均匀和非均匀介质中,为弹性波的传播提供更精确的数值解.在保持稳定性和精度的同时,采用较大的时空采样间隔,可以大大降低数值模拟的计算成本.  相似文献   
9.
Knowledge about the stochastic nature of heterogeneity in subsurface hydraulic properties is critical for aquifer characterization and the corresponding prediction of groundwater flow and contaminant transport. Whereas the vertical correlation structure of the heterogeneity is often well constrained by borehole information, the lateral correlation structure is generally unknown because the spacing between boreholes is too large to allow for its meaningful inference. There is, however, evidence to suggest that information on the lateral correlation structure may be extracted from the correlation statistics of the subsurface reflectivity structure imaged by surface-based ground-penetrating radar measurements. To date, case studies involving this approach have been limited to 2D profiles acquired at a single antenna centre frequency in areas with limited complementary information. As a result, the practical reliability of this methodology has been difficult to assess. Here, we extend previous work to 3D and consider reflection ground-penetrating radar data acquired using two antenna centre frequencies at the extensively explored and well-constrained Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site. We find that the results obtained using the two ground-penetrating radar frequencies are consistent with each other, as well as with information from a number of other studies at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site. In addition, contrary to previous 2D work, our results indicate that the surface-based reflection ground-penetrating radar data are not only sensitive to the aspect ratio of the underlying heterogeneity, but also, albeit to a lesser extent, to the so-called Hurst number, which is a key parameter characterizing the local variability of the fine-scale structure.  相似文献   
10.
In this paper, we develop a new nearly analytic symplectic partitioned Runge–Kutta method based on locally one-dimensional technique for numerically solving two-dimensional acoustic wave equations. We first split two-dimensional acoustic wave equation into the local one-dimensional equations and transform each of the split equations into a Hamiltonian system. Then, we use both a nearly analytic discrete operator and a central difference operator to approximate the high-order spatial differential operators, which implies the symmetry of the discretized spatial differential operators, and we employ the partitioned second-order symplectic Runge–Kutta method to numerically solve the resulted semi-discrete Hamiltonian ordinary differential equations, which results in fully discretized scheme is symplectic unlike conventional nearly analytic symplectic partitioned Runge–Kutta methods. Theoretical analyses show that the nearly analytic symplectic partitioned Runge–Kutta method based on locally one-dimensional technique exhibits great higher stability limits and less numerical dispersion than the nearly analytic symplectic partitioned Runge–Kutta method. Numerical experiments are conducted to verify advantages of the nearly analytic symplectic partitioned Runge–Kutta method based on locally one-dimensional technique, such as their computational efficiency, stability, numerical dispersion and long-term calculation capability.  相似文献   
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