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Glaciers and snow cover are important constituents of the surface of the Tibetan Plateau. The responses of these phenomena to global environmental changes are sensitive, rapid and intensive due to the high altitudes and arid cold climate of the Tibetan Plateau. Based on multisource remote sensing data, including Landsat images, MOD10A2 snow product, ICESat, Cryosat-2 altimetry data and long-term ground climate observations, we analysed the dynamic changes of glaciers, snow melting and lake in the Paiku Co basin using extraction methods for glaciers and lake, the degree-day model and the ice and lake volume method. The interaction among the climate, ice-snow and the hydrological elements in Paiku Co is revealed. From 2000 to 2018, the basin tended to be drier, and rainfall decreased at a rate of −3.07 mm/a. The seasonal temperature difference in the basin increased, the maximum temperature increased at a rate of 0.02°C/a and the minimum temperature decreased at a rate of −0.06°C/a, which accelerated the melting from glaciers and snow at rates of 0.55 × 107 m3/a and 0.29 × 107 m3/a, respectively. The rate of contribution to the lake from rainfall, snow and glacier melted water was 55.6, 27.7 and 16.7%, respectively. In the past 18 years, the warmer and drier climate has caused the lake to shrink. The water level of the lake continued to decline at a rate of −0.02 m/a, and the lake water volume decreased by 4.85 × 108 m3 at a rate of −0.27 × 108 m3/a from 2000 to 2018. This evaluation is important for understanding how the snow and ice melting in the central Himalayas affect the regional water cycle.  相似文献   
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The tectonic transition from subduction to collision is a fundamental process during orogenesis, yet the magmatic expression of this transition and related deep geodynamic processes remain unclear. This study focuses on a newly identified volcanic belt within the Moyun–Zaduo–Sulu area of the North Qiangtang Block and presents new zircon U-Pb data that indicate that this belt formed during the Middle Triassic (247–241 Ma), a time characterized by a regional transition from subduction to collisional tectonism. The volcanic belt is located to the south of a Permian to Early Triassic arc and is dominated by high-K calc-alkaline and peraluminous rhyolites. These rhyolites have low Mg#, Nb/Ta, and δEu values, contain low contents of Sr, have high Rb/Sr and whole-rock εNd(t) values, and show positive zircon εHf(t) values, all of which suggest that they formed from magmas generated by the dehydration melting of juvenile crustal material. The migration of Middle Triassic volcanism in this region was most likely caused by rollback of the subducting Longmucuo–Shuanghu Tethyan oceanic slab. Combining our new data with previously published results of numerical modeling of subduction–collisional processes and regional data from north-central Tibet yields insights into the magmatic expressions and related deep geodynamics of the transition from oceanic subduction to continental collision. This combination of data also suggests that variations in oxygen fugacity can be used as a proxy for the discrimination of magmatism related to subduction, the transition from subduction to collision, and collisional tectonism.  相似文献   
4.
Studying seismic wave propagation across rock masses and the induced ground motion is an important topic, which receives considerable attention in design and construction of underground cavern/tunnel constructions and mining activities. The current study investigates wave propagation across a rock mass with one fault and the induced ground motion using a recursive approach. The rocks beside the fault are assumed as viscoelastic media with seismic quality factors, Qp and Qs. Two kinds of interactions between stress waves and a discontinuity and between stress waves and a free surface are analyzed, respectively. As the result of the wave superposition, the mathematical expressions for induced ground vibration are deduced. The proposed approach is then compared with the existing analysis for special cases. Finally, parametric studies are carried out, which includes the influences of fault stiffness, incident angle, and frequency of incident waves on the peak particle velocities of the ground motions.  相似文献   
5.
Soil salinization, caused by salt migration and accumulation underneath the soil surface, will corrode structures. To analyze the moisture-salt migration and salt precipitation in soil under evaporation conditions, a mathematical model consisting of a series of theoretical equations is briefly presented. The filling effect of precipitated salts on tortuosity factor and evaporation rate are taken into account in relevant equations. Besides, a transition equation to link the solute transport equation before and after salt precipitation is proposed. Meanwhile, a new relative humidity equation deduced from Pitzer ions model is used to modify the vapor transport flux equation. The results show that the calculated values are in good agreement with the published experimental data, especially for the simulation of volume water content and evaporation rate of Toyoura sand, which confirm the reliability and applicability of the proposed model.  相似文献   
6.
本文回顾了自然和自然贡献情景模型发展的背景、历史和内容,概括总结了自然和自然贡献情景模型的发展进程以及联合国生物多样性与生态系统服务政府间科学—政策平台(IPBES)情景模型的概念框架,讨论了自然和自然贡献情景模型存在的问题和发展方向。为了在全球层面解决现有综合集成模型存在的问题,根据地球表层建模基本定理和生态环境曲面建模基本定理,提出了具有中国原创特点的自然与自然贡献情景模型概念框架。  相似文献   
7.
The vertical deformation rates (VDRs) and horizontal deformation rates (HDRs) of Shanghai VLBI station in China and Kashima and Kashima34 VLBI stations in Japan were re-analysed using the baseline length change rates from Shanghai to 13 global VLBI stations, and from Kashima to 27 stations and from Kashima34 to 12 stations, based on the NASA VLBI global solution glb1123 (Ma, 1999). The velocity vectors of the global VLBI stations were referred to the ITRF97 reference frame, and the Eulerian vectors of different models of plate motion were used for comparative solutions. The VDR of Shanghai station is estimated to be −1.91±0.56 mm/yr, and those of Kashima and Kashima34 stations, −3.72±0.74mm/yr and −8.81±0.84mm/yr, respectively. The difference between the last two was verified by further analysis. Similar estimates were also made for the Kokee, Kauai and MK_VLBA VLBI stations in mid-Pacific.  相似文献   
8.
Manzhouli is the largest land port city on the Sino-Russia border, transit cargo through the land port amount-ed to 5.95 million tons, transit tourists were 304 500 in 2000. It stands at the joint place of China, Mongolia and Russi-a, faces to Siberia area of Russia, receives direct support from the Northeast China and Bohai Sea Rim Area, and possess-es priorities in geographical location, land port infrastructure, water resources, coal resources, tourist resources andgreat potentiality in economic cooperation with Russia. The future urban function is a key port on the First Eurasia Continen-tal Bridge. Manzhouli Port will keep its first place between China and Russia land transport, and it is forecasted that thetransit amount through Manzhouli Port will go up to 10 million tons in 2005 and 20 million tons in 2010. It will be construct-ed to be a trade center of the peripheral area extending to Russia and Mongolia, a key export-oriented processing industri-al zone supported by industries such as export processing industries, export agriculture, trade services, technology trad-ing and the other service industries. It keeps being a well-known touring city for trade, shopping, sightseeing, vocation,local food, recreation and cultural events. To build Manzhouli Export Processing Industry Zone will improve city econom-ic structure, and the main sectors are organic food processing, livestock products processing, garment and furniture indus-try. Moreover, Manzhouli Export Processing Industry Zone will eventually be upgraded to be a border free trade zone.The city functional transition will inevitably affect urban spatial restructure and its expansion. The city space transforma-tion will develop as such: one development axis of No. 301 highway paralleling with Bin - Zhou(Harbin - Manzhouli) rail-way which cuts through central part of Manzhouli City, and links Zhalainuocr District with central city; three urban unitsincluding central city, Zhalainuocr District and Manzhouli Interchange Trade Zone; cohesion with Aoerjin and Cuogangpastures; regional dual-nuclei structure of Hailaer City and Manhzouli City; and the Manzhouli-Zabaykalsk Free TradeZone.  相似文献   
9.
The effects of natural fish oil,DHA oil and soybean lecithin in microparticulate diets on stress tolerance of larval gilthead seabream(Sparus aurata)were investigated after 15 days feeding trials.The tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stress factors such as exposure to air(lack of dissolved oxygen),changes in water temperature(low)and salinity(high) were determined.This study showed that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and soybean lecithin was the most effective for in-creasing the tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stresses,and that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and palmitic acid(16:0)was more effective than microparticulate diet with DHA oil and soybean lecithin.  相似文献   
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