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Indian River Inlet is located at roughly the mid-point of the Atlantic coast of Delaware and connects the ocean to two Delaware inland bays. Jetties constructed in 1940 have maintained the inlet for navigation purposes but have also acted as a barrier to net northerly alongshore sediment transport causing downdrift erosion. A mobile, land-based bypassing system was initiated in 1990 in an effort to counteract this erosion. Beach profile data from 1985 (pre-bypassing) until 2008 are used to investigate the effect of the sand bypassing system on beaches adjacent to the inlet. The downdrift beach experienced horizontal shoreline erosion between 10 and 60 m during the pre-bypassing period but accreted 10–20 m during the bypassing period. The mean shoreline location on the updrift beach during bypassing is 10–20 m landward (erosion) of its position during the pre-bypassing period. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) amplitudes from analyses performed on mean-removed elevation surfaces during the periods of highest bypassed volume (average of 83% of design rate) showed that the influence of the bypassing system on the downdrift beach extends to about 1500 m of the inlet. An EOF analysis showed that different morphologic responses were evident following the initiation of bypass operations. Temporal variations of shoreline and beach morphology were correlated to the temporal variations in bypassing rates on the downdrift beach only. The downdrift beach response was greatest near the inlet for larger bypassing volumes. Correlation in these instances occurred with a roughly 1-year time lag suggesting that the beach quickly redistributes the bypassed sand. EOF amplitude and shoreline response are weakly correlated to bypassed volumes when the system bypassed smaller volumes (average of 56% of design rate) of sand suggesting that there is a minimum bypassing rate, regardless of yearly variability, below which the effect on the downdrift beach is obscured.  相似文献   
3.
Hydrothermal vent sulfide edifices contain some of the most extreme thermal and chemical conditions in which animals are able to live. As a result, sulfide edifices in the East Pacific Rise, Juan de Fuca Ridge, and Mid Atlantic Ridge vent systems often contain distinct faunal assemblages. In this study, we used high-resolution imagery and in-situ physico-chemical measurements within the context of a Geographic Information System (GIS) to examine community structure and niche differentiation of dominant fauna on sulfide edifices in the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC) and Valu Fa Ridge (VFR) in the Western Pacific Ocean. Our results show that ELSC and VFR sulfide edifices host two distinct types of communities. One type, that covers the majority of sulfide edifice faces, is overall very similar to nearby lava communities and biomass is dominated by the same chemoautotrophic symbiont-containing molluscs that dominate lava communities, namely the provannid gastropods Alviniconcha spp. and Ifremeria nautilei and the mytilid bivalve Bathymodiolus brevior. The spatial distribution of the dominant molluscs is often a variation of the pattern of concentric rings observed on lavas, with Alviniconcha spp. at the tops of edifices where exposure to vent flow is the highest, and I. nautilei and B. brevior below. Our physico-chemical measurements indicate that because of rapid dispersion of vent fluid, habitable area for symbiont-containing fauna is quite limited on sulfide edifices, and the realized niches of the mollusc groups are narrower on sulfide edifices than on lavas. We suggest that competition plays an important role in determining the realized distributions of the mollusc groups on edifices. The other habitat, present in small patches of presumably hot, new anhydrite, is avoided by the dominant symbiont-containing molluscs and inhabited by crabs, shrimp and polynoids that are likely more heat tolerant. The ratio of sulfide concentration to temperature anomaly of vent fluids was significantly different between sulfide edifice sites and lava sites in the southern vent fields but not in the northern vent fields. We suggest that this is due to increased sulfide consumption by a large microbial consortium associated with the more friable andesitic lava substrates in the south.  相似文献   
4.
Marginal seas provide a globally important interface between land and interior ocean where organic carbon is metabolized, buried or exported. The trophic status of these seas varies seasonally, depending on river flow, primary production, the proportion of dissolved to particulate organic carbon and other factors. In the Strait of Georgia, about 80% of the organic carbon in the water column is dissolved. Organic carbon enters at the surface, with river discharge and primary production, particularly during spring and summer. The amount of organic carbon passing through the Strait (∼16 × 108 kg C yr−1) is almost twice the standing inventory (∼9.4 × 108 kg C). The organic carbon that is oxidized within the Strait (∼5.6 × 108 kg yr−1) presumably supports microbial food webs or participates in chemical or photochemical reactions, while that which is exported (7.2 × 108 kg yr−1) represents a local source of organic carbon to the open ocean.  相似文献   
5.
《Marine pollution bulletin》2010,60(8-12):268-280
Benthic foraminifera and sediment texture were studied on a total of 37 samples, collected from two brackish-water coastal basins: Fogliano Lake and Lungo Lake (central Italy). The research was performed as a preliminary low-cost survey to highlight the degree of the environmental stress and to recognize a possible anthropogenic disturbance. The sedimentological and foraminiferal data were processed by bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Three distinct assemblages, referable to different environments were recognized for the Fogliano Lake: inner, intermediate and outer lagoon. Only the outer lagoon assemblage was found in the Lungo Lake. The distribution of foraminifera in the Fogliano Lake suggests a natural environmental stress probably due to the ecological instability typical of marginal environments, while the absence of the inner and intermediate lagoon assemblages in the Lungo Lake suggests an environmental disturbance possibly related to human activities. An interdisciplinary survey including geochemical analyses is recommended in order to deduce the nature and degree of pollution in the Lungo Lake.  相似文献   
6.
Cu-rich massive sulfide deposits associated with mafic–ultramafic rocks in the southern portion of the Main Urals Fault (MUF) are characterized by variable enrichments in Ni (up to 0.45 wt.%), Co (up to 10 wt.%) and Au (up to 16 ppm in individual hand-specimens). The Cu (Ni–Co)-rich composition of MUF deposits, as opposed to the Cu (Zn)-rich composition of more eastward massive sulfide deposits of broadly similar age along the western flank of the Magnitogorsk arc, reflects the abundance of seafloor-exposed, Ni–Co-rich ultramafic rocks in the most external portion of the Early-Devonian Magnitogorsk forearc. Morphological, textural, and compositional differences between individual deposits are interpreted to be the result of the sulfide deposition style and, in part, of the original subseafloor lithology. One deposit produced by dominantly on-seafloor hydrothermal processes is characterized by pyrite–marcasite  pyrrhotite, not so low Zn grades (occasionally up to 2 wt.%), abundant clastic facies and periodical superficial oxidation. Deposits produced by dominantly subseafloor hydrothermal processes are characterized by pyrrhotite > pyrite, very low Zn (generally < to ≪ 0.1 wt.%), volumetrically minor clastic facies, and multi-layer deposit morphology. Very low Ni/Co ratios in the on-seafloor deposit may indicate a dominant metal contribution from a mafic rather than ultramafic source. The sulfide mineralization was associated with extensive hydrothermal alteration of the host ultramafic and mafic rocks, leading to formation of abundant talc, talc–carbonate and chlorite rocks. Occurrence of large volumes of such altered lithotypes in ophiolitic belts may be considered as a potential searching criteria for MUF-type (Cu, Co, Ni)-deposits. In spite of the contrasting geodynamic environment, geological, geochemical, textural and mineralogical peculiarities of the MUF deposits in many respects are similar to those of ultramafic-hosted massive sulfide deposits along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In geological time, supra subduction-zone settings appear to have been more effective than mid-ocean ridge settings for preservation of ultramafic-hosted massive sulfide deposits.  相似文献   
7.
A tectonics sedimentation evolution has been researched in Southeast Chongqing, and the reasonable Longmaxi shale highstand system tract (HST) and transgressive system tract (TST) geological model were built respectively based on the rock mechanical test and acoustic emission experiment which the samples are from field outcrop and the Yuye-1 well. The Longmaxi shale two-dimension tectonic stress field during the Cenozoic was simulated by the finite element method, and the distribution of fractures was predicted. The research results show that the tectonic stress field and the distribution of fractures were controlled by lithology and structure. As a result of Cretaceous movement, there are trough-like folds (wide spaced synclines), battlement-like folds (similar spaces between synclines and anticlines) and ejective folds (wide spaced anticlines), which are regularly distributed from southeast to northwest in the study area. Since the strain rate and other physical factors such as the viscosity are not taken into account, and the stress intensity is the main factor that determines the tectonic strength. Therefore, the stronger tectonic strength leads the higher stress intensity in the eastern and southeastern study area than in the northwest. The fracture zones are mainly concentrated in the fold axis, transition locations of faults and folds, the regions where are adjacent to faults. The fragile mineral contents (such as siliceous rock, carbonate rock and feldspar) in the shelf facies shale from south of the study area are higher than in the bathyal facies and abyssal facies shale from center of the study area. The shales characterized by low Poisson’s ratio and high elastic modulus from south of the study area are easily broken during Cenozoic orogenic movement.  相似文献   
8.
Fjords are semi-enclosed systems often with usually strong physical and chemical gradients. These gradients provide the opportunity to test the influence of various physical and chemical factors on biodiversity. However study area of this investigation, Trondheimsfjord, is a large water body where especially salinity gradient along the fjord is not well pronounced. The goal of this study was to establish within a temperate fjord a baseline identifying encrusting fauna on rocks and determine the factors driving changes along the length of the fjord and changing depths. There was no trend in species composition change and increase or decrease in number of species, diversity and number of individuals along the fjord. This was likely due to the relative homogeneity of both substrate (rocks) and environmental parameters. Nevertheless, the influence of fresh water inflow in the vicinity of the river mouth was apparent by the presence of characteristic brackish-water species at these locations. Multidimensional scaling analysis revealed three separate assemblages: intertidal, shallow and deep subtidal (below 50 m). Intertidal assemblages were species poor (one to 11 species) but relatively abundant (six to 2374 indiv./m2 of rocks). Number of individuals and biomass was highest in the shallow subtidal (2059–13,587 indiv./m2 of rocks). Overall the highest species number (45) was recorded at 50 m depth which is probably result of low competition pressure yet still relatively high nutrient concentration in comparison to shallower locations. Environmental parameters (i.e., tidal currents, wave action, salinity) change more drastically with depth than along the fjord and these changes are the major driving forces in shaping encrusting assemblages in Trondheimsfjord.  相似文献   
9.
Accurately estimating the mean and extreme wave statistics and better understanding their directional and seasonal variations are of great importance in the planning and designing of ocean and coastal engineering works. Due to the lack of long-term wave measurement data, the analysis of extreme waves is often based on the numerical wave hind-casting results. In this study, the wave climate in the East China Seas (including the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea) for the past 35 years (1979–2013) is hind-casted using a third generation wave model – WAMC4 (Cycle 4 version of WAM model). Two sets of reanalysis wind data from NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction, USA) and ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts) are used to drive the wave model to generate the long-term wave climate. The hind-casted waves are then analysed to study the mean and extreme wave statistics in the study area. The results show that the mean wave heights decrease from south to north and from sea to land in general. The extreme wave heights with return periods of 50 and 100 years in the summer and autumn seasons are significantly higher than those in the other two seasons, mainly due to the effect of typhoon events. The mean wave heights in the winter season have the highest values, mainly due to the effect of winter monsoon winds. The comparison of extreme wave statistics from both wind fields with the field measurements at several nearshore wave observation stations shows that the extreme waves generated by the ECMWF winds are better than those generated by the NCEP winds. The comparison also shows the extreme waves in deep waters are better reproduced than those in shallow waters, which is partly attributed to the limitations of the wave model used. The results presented in this paper provide useful insight into the wave climate in the area of the East China Seas, as well as the effect of wind data resolution on the simulation of long-term waves.  相似文献   
10.
A regional reanalysis product—China Ocean Reanalysis(CORA)—has been developed for the China's seas and the adjacent areas. In this study, the intraseasonal variabilities(ISVs) in CORA are assessed by comparing with observations and two other reanalysis products(ECCO2 and SODA). CORA shows a better performance in capturing the intraseasonal sea surface temperatures(SSTs) and the intraseasonal sea surface heights(SSHs) than ECCO2 and SODA do, probably due to its high resolution, stronger response to the intraseasonal forcing in the atmosphere(especially the Madden-Julian Oscillation), and more available regional data for assimilation. But at the subsurface, the ISVs in CORA are likely to be weaker than reality, which is probably attributed to rare observational data for assimilation and weak diapycnal eddy diffusivity in the CORA model. According to the comparison results, CORA is a good choice for the study related to variabilities at the surface, but cares have to be taken for the study focusing on the subsurface processes.  相似文献   
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