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1.
Mechanisms and timescales responsible for pockmark formation and maintenance remain uncertain, especially in areas lacking extensive thermogenic fluid deposits (e.g., previously glaciated estuaries). This study characterizes seafloor activity in the Belfast Bay, Maine nearshore pockmark field using (1) three swath bathymetry datasets collected between 1999 and 2008, complemented by analyses of shallow box-core samples for radionuclide activity and undrained shear strength, and (2) historical bathymetric data (report and smooth sheets from 1872, 1947, 1948). In addition, because repeat swath bathymetry surveys are an emerging data source, we present a selected literature review of recent studies using such datasets for seafloor change analysis. This study is the first to apply the method to a pockmark field, and characterizes macro-scale (>5 m) evolution of tens of square kilometers of highly irregular seafloor. Presence/absence analysis yielded no change in pockmark frequency or distribution over a 9-year period (1999–2008). In that time pockmarks did not detectably enlarge, truncate, elongate, or combine. Historical data indicate that pockmark chains already existed in the 19th century. Despite the lack of macroscopic changes in the field, near-bed undrained shear-strength values of less than 7 kPa and scattered downcore 137Cs signatures indicate a highly disturbed setting. Integrating these findings with independent geophysical and geochemical observations made in the pockmark field, it can be concluded that (1) large-scale sediment resuspension and dispersion related to pockmark formation and failure do not occur frequently within this field, and (2) pockmarks can persevere in a dynamic estuarine setting that exhibits minimal modern fluid venting. Although pockmarks are conventionally thought to be long-lived features maintained by a combination of fluid venting and minimal sediment accumulation, this suggests that other mechanisms may be equally active in maintaining such irregular seafloor morphology. One such mechanism could be upwelling within pockmarks induced by near-bed currents.  相似文献
2.
小球藻对5种常用基因工程抗生素的敏感性研究   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:12  
于1996年以本实验室培养的随圆小球藻为材料,就其对G418,潮霉素,氯霉素,链霉素,卡好霉素等5种抗生素的敏感性进行了研究。结果表明,小球藻对氯霉素,链霉素和卡那霉素敏感,对潮霉素较为敏感,100μg/ml即0.190mmol/L的用量可抑制固体培养中小球藻的生长;对G418则高度敏感,30μg/ml即0.043mmol/L的G418即可完全抑制固体培养中小藻 的生长,15μg/ml即0.022  相似文献
3.
海藻中稀土元素的初步研究   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:6  
于1996年3月地岛海区采集了8种常见海藻,采用中子活化法(PCA-Ⅱ/NAA)测定了其中的La、Sm、Ce、Eu、Lu、Nd、Sc、Yb等8种稀土元素的总含量及其水溶性成分的比例,并与国外报道的相关数据作了比较。结果表明,海藻中含有比陆地植物丰富得多的稀土元素,绿藻中的石莼,刺松藻含量最丰,  相似文献
4.
In situ tensile fracture toughness of surficial cohesive marine sediments   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
This study reports the first in situ measurements of tensile fracture toughness, K IC, of soft, surficial, cohesive marine sediments. A newly developed probe continuously measures the stress required to cause tensile failure in sediments to depths of up to 1 m. Probe measurements are in agreement with standard laboratory methods of K IC measurements in both potter’s clay and natural sediments. The data comprise in situ depth profiles from three field sites in Nova Scotia, Canada. Measured K IC at two muddy sites (median grain size of 23–50 μm) range from near zero at the sediment surface to >1,800 Pa m1/2 at 0.2 m depth. These profiles also appear to identify the bioturbated/mixed depth. K IC for a sandy site (>90% sand) is an order of magnitude lower than for the muddy sediments, and reflects the lack of cohesion/adhesion. A comparison of K IC, median grain size, and porosity in muddy sediments indicates that consolidation increases fracture strength, whereas inclusion of sand causes weakening; thus, sand-bearing layers can be easily identified in K IC profiles. K IC and vane-measured shear strength correlate strongly, which suggests that the vane measurements should perhaps be interpreted as shear fracture toughness, rather than shear strength. Comparison of in situ probe-measured values with K IC of soils and gelatin shows that sediments have a K IC range intermediate between denser compacted soils and softer, elastic gelatin.  相似文献
5.
Catch-quota balancing in multispecies individual fishing quotas   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:2  
Individual fishery quotas (IFQs) are an increasingly prevalent form of fishery management around the world, with more than 170 species currently managed with IFQs. Yet, because of the difficulties in matching quota holdings with catches, many argue that IFQs are not appropriate for multispecies fisheries. Using on-the-ground-experience with multispecies IFQ fisheries in Iceland, New Zealand, Australia, and Canada, we assess the design and use of catch-quota balancing mechanisms. Our methodology includes a mix of interviews with fishery managers, industry representatives, and brokers, literature review, and data analysis. We find that a combination of incentives and limits on use rates for the mechanisms provide sufficient flexibility to the quota owner without the fishery manager incurring excessive levels of overexploitation risk. Contrary to some opinions, these programs are evidence that it is possible to implement IFQ programs for multispecies fisheries and that they can be profitable and sustainable.  相似文献
6.
A series of physical tests are conducted to examine the characteristics of the wave loading exerted on circular-front breakwaters by regular waves. It is found that the wave trough instead of wave crest plays a major role in the failure of submerged circular caissons due to seaward sliding. The difference in the behavior of seaward and shoreward horizontal wave forces is explained based on the variations of dynamic pressure with wave parameters. A wave load model is proposed based on a modified first-order solution for the dynamic pressure on submerged circular-front caissons under a wave trough. This wave loading model is very useful for engineering design. Further studies are needed to include model uncertainties in the reliability assessment of the breakwater.  相似文献
7.
Corrugated stainless steel membranes have been used as the primary barriers for LNG carriers to reduce thermal stresses at cryogenic temperatures. As the capacity of the LNG cargo is increased, however, the corrugated stainless steel membranes suffer from buckling and collapse due to increased sloshing loads in large-capacity LNG cargo carriers. In this study, the pressure resistance of the corrugated part of the stainless steel membrane was evaluated using a finite element method for better design of the LNG containment system, and an experimental equipment was developed and the pressure resistance of the stainless steel corrugations was measured and compared with the calculated results. In addition, a new membrane with high-pressure resistance and its reinforcing method were developed and evaluated experimentally.  相似文献
8.
J.H. Lee 《Ocean Engineering》2011,38(16):1697-1712
The VIVACE converter enhances VIV to harness horizontal hydrokinetic energy of water flows. High-Reynolds and high-damping are required to operate VIVACE in ocean/river currents. Scarce VIV data exist in that parametric subspace. Tests are performed for Reynolds number 40,000<Re<120,000 and damping 0<ζ<0.16 in the Low Turbulence Free Surface Water Channel of the Marine Renewable Energy Laboratory at the University of Michigan. Extensive testing was made possible by building a virtual damper-spring apparatus, which has been system identified and verified with real damper-spring tests. Thus, damping and stiffness are adjusted by software rather than hardware. From the VIV tests, the optimal damping for energy harnessing was found for velocity 0.40 m/s<U<1.10 m/s using spring stiffness 400 N/m<k<1800 N/m. Thus, the VIVACE converter power envelope is developed. The following experimental observations are made: (1) In the high-lift TrSL3 and TrBL0 flow regimes, high-amplitude, high-damping VIV is maintained. (2) VIV strongly depends on Reynolds. (3) The amplitude ratio (A/D) increases with Reynolds number within the upper branch of the VIV synchronization range. (4) In TrSL3/TrBL0, A/D of 1.78 was achieved for a smooth cylinder routinely in low damping. (5) Power density of 98.2 W/m3 at 1.03 m/s (2 knots) is achieved including space between cylinders.  相似文献
9.
In this paper, performance of solid and perforated Π-type breakwaters was investigated experimentally. Both regular and irregular waves were used during testing. Four depths of immersions were selected for each breakwater and wave type. Different wave groups were generated over these breakwaters, and the transmission, reflection and energy-dissipation characteristics were determined. The results of the experimental study were evaluated and some empirical expressions based on the results were suggested to define the transmission, reflection and energy-dissipation coefficients for different immersion depths of solid and perforated breakwaters under regular and irregular waves. Moreover, performance of solid and perforated Π-type breakwaters were compared with that of solid and perforated U-type breakwaters investigated by Günaydın and Kabdaşlı [2006. Performance of solid and perforated U-type breakwaters under regular and irregular waves. Ocean Engineering 31, 1377–1405]. These comparisons showed that the most reasonable model and wave type are selected to determine requiring performance parameters.  相似文献
10.
With increasing availability of good directional data, provision of directional estimates of extreme significant wave heights, in addition to the omni-directional estimates, is more common. However, interpretation of directional together with omni-directional design criteria is subject to inconsistency, even in design guidelines. In particular, omni-directional criteria are usually estimated ignoring directional effects. In this article, for data which exhibit directional effects, we show that a directional extreme value model generally explains the observed variation significantly better than a model which ignores directionality, and that omni-directional criteria developed from a directional model are different from those generated when directionality is not accounted for. We also show that omni-directional criteria derived from a directional model are more accurate and should be preferred in general over those based on models which ignore directional effects. We recommend use of directional extreme value models for estimation of both directional and omni-directional design criteria in future, when good directional data are available. If effects of other covariates (e.g. time or space) are suspected, we similarly recommend use of extreme value models which adequately capture sources of covariate variability for all design analysis.  相似文献
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