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1.
This study deals with a unusual cooling event after Typhoon Mujigea passed over the northern South China Sea(SCS) in October 2015. We analyze the satellite sea surface temperature(SST) time series from October 3 to 18,2015 and find that the cooling process in the coastal ocean had two different stages. The first stage occurred immediately after typhoon passage on October 3, and reached a maximum SST drop of –2℃ on October 7 as the usual cold wake after typhoon. The second stage or the unusual extended cooling event occurred after 7d of the typhoon passage, and lasted for 5d from October 10 to 15. The maximum SST cooling was –4℃ and occurred after 12d of typhoon passage. The mechanism analysis results indicate that after landing and moving northwestward to the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau(YGP), Typhoon Mujigea(2015) met the westerly wind front on October 5. The lowpressure and positive-vorticity disturbances to the front triggered meridional air flow and low-pressure trough,thus induced a katabatic cold jet downward from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau(QTP) passing through the YGP to the northwestern SCS. The second cooling reached the maximum SST drop 4d later after the maximum air temperature drop of –9℃ on October 11. The simultaneous air temperature and SST observations at three coastal stations reveal that it is this katabatic cold jet intrusion to lead the unusual SST cooling event.  相似文献   
2.
High Mg–Al granulites from the Sunki locality in the central portion of the Eastern Ghats Province record evidence for the high-temperature peak and retrograde evolution. Peak metamorphic phase assemblages from two samples are garnet + orthopyroxene + quartz + ilmenite + melt and orthopyroxene + spinel + sillimanite + melt, respectively. Isochemical phase diagrams (pseudosections) based on bulk rock compositions calculated in the chemical system Na2O–CaO–K2O–FeO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–H2O–TiO2–Fe2O3 (NCKFMASHTO) and Al contents in orthopyroxene indicate peak UHT metamorphic conditions in excess of 960 °C and 9.7 kbar. Microstructures and the presence of cordierite interpreted to record the post-peak evolution show that the rocks underwent decompression and minor cooling from conditions of peak UHT metamorphism to conditions of ~ 900 °C at ~ 7.5 kbar. In situ U–Pb isotope analyses of monazite associated with garnet and cordierite using the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) yield a weighted mean 207Pb/235U age of ca. 980 Ma, which is interpreted to broadly constrain the timing of high-temperature monazite growth during decompression and melt crystallization at ~ 900–890 °C and 7.5 kbar. However, the range of 207Pb/235U monazite ages (from ca. 1014 Ma to 959 Ma for one sample and ca. 1043 Ma to 922 Ma for the second sample) suggest protracted monazite growth during the high-temperature retrograde evolution, and possibly diffusive lead loss during slow cooling after decompression. The results of the integrated petrologic and geochronologic approach presented here are inconsistent with a long time gap between peak conditions and the formation of cordierite-bearing assemblages at lower pressure, as proposed in previous studies, but are consistent with a simple evolution of a UHT peak followed by decompression and cooling.  相似文献   
3.
An in situ, medium‐resolution LA‐ICP‐MS method was developed to measure the abundances of the first‐row transition metals, Ga and Ge in a suite of geological materials, namely the MPI‐DING reference glasses. The analytical protocol established here hinged on maximising the ablation rate of the ultraviolet (UV) laser system and the sensitivity of the ICP‐MS, as well minimising the production of diatomic oxides and argides, which serve as the dominant sources of isobaric interferences. Non‐spectral matrix effects were accounted for by using multiple external calibrators, including NIST SRM 610 and the USGS basaltic glasses BHVO‐2G, BIR‐1G and BCR‐2G, and utilising 43Ca as an internal standard. Analyses of the MPI‐DING reference glasses, which represent geological matrices ranging from basaltic to rhyolitic in composition, included measurements of concentrations as low as < 100 μg g?1 and as high as > 104 μg g?1. The new data reported here were found to statistically correlate with the ‘preferred’ reference values for these materials at the 95% confidence level, though with significantly better precision, typically on the order of ≤ 3% (2sm). This analytical method may be extended to any matrix‐matched geological sample, particularly oceanic basalts, silicate minerals and meteoritic materials.  相似文献   
4.
The study of climate impacts on Living Marine Resources (LMRs) has increased rapidly in recent years with the availability of climate model simulations contributed to the assessment reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Collaboration between climate and LMR scientists and shared understanding of critical challenges for such applications are essential for developing robust projections of climate impacts on LMRs. This paper assesses present approaches for generating projections of climate impacts on LMRs using IPCC-class climate models, recommends practices that should be followed for these applications, and identifies priority developments that could improve current projections. Understanding of the climate system and its representation within climate models has progressed to a point where many climate model outputs can now be used effectively to make LMR projections. However, uncertainty in climate model projections (particularly biases and inter-model spread at regional to local scales), coarse climate model resolution, and the uncertainty and potential complexity of the mechanisms underlying the response of LMRs to climate limit the robustness and precision of LMR projections. A variety of techniques including the analysis of multi-model ensembles, bias corrections, and statistical and dynamical downscaling can ameliorate some limitations, though the assumptions underlying these approaches and the sensitivity of results to their application must be assessed for each application. Developments in LMR science that could improve current projections of climate impacts on LMRs include improved understanding of the multi-scale mechanisms that link climate and LMRs and better representations of these mechanisms within more holistic LMR models. These developments require a strong baseline of field and laboratory observations including long time series and measurements over the broad range of spatial and temporal scales over which LMRs and climate interact. Priority developments for IPCC-class climate models include improved model accuracy (particularly at regional and local scales), inter-annual to decadal-scale predictions, and the continued development of earth system models capable of simulating the evolution of both the physical climate system and biosphere. Efforts to address these issues should occur in parallel and be informed by the continued application of existing climate and LMR models.  相似文献   
5.
Element partitioning in metal-light element systems is important to our understanding of planetary differentiation processes. In this study, solid-metal/liquid-sulfide, liquid-metal/liquid-sulfide and solid-metal/troilite partition coefficients (D) were determined for 18 elements (Ag, As, Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Ge, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Pt, Mo, Mn, Re, Ru, Se and W) in the graphite-saturated Fe-S-C system at 1 atm. Compared at the same liquid S concentration, the solid/liquid partition coefficients are similar to those in the Fe-S system, but there are systematic differences that appear to be related to interactions with carbon dissolved in the solid metal. Elements previously shown to be “anthracophile” generally have larger solid/liquid partition coefficients in the Fe-S-C system, whereas those that are not have similar or smaller partition coefficients in the Fe-S-C system. The partitioning of trace elements between C-rich and S-rich liquids is, in most cases, broadly similar to the partitioning between solid metal and S-rich liquid. The highly siderophile elements Os, Re, Ir and W are partitioned strongly into the C-rich liquid, with D ? 100. The partition coefficients for Pt, Ge and W decrease significantly at the transition to liquid immiscibility, while the partition coefficient for Mo increases sharply. The bulk siderophile element patterns of ureilite meteorities appear to be better explained by separation of S-rich liquid from residual C-rich metallic liquid at temperatures above the silicate solidus, rather than by separation of S-rich liquid from residual solid metal at lower temperatures.  相似文献   
6.
Eighteen picrites (MgO > 13 wt.%) and three related basalts from six Hawaiian volcanoes were analyzed for 187Os/188Os and 186Os/188Os. Variations in these ratios reflect long-term Re/Os and Pt/Os differences in the mantle source regions of these volcanoes. 187Os/188Os ratios vary from ∼0.129 to 0.136, consistent with the range defined by previous studies of Hawaiian picrites and basalts. Samples with lower 187Os/188Os are mainly from Kea trend volcanoes (Mauna Kea and Kilauea), and the more radiogenic samples are mainly from Loa trend volcanoes (Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Koolau and Loihi). As previously suggested, differences in 187Os/188Os between volcanic centers are most consistent with the presence of variable proportions of recycled materials and/or pyroxenitic components in the Hawaiian source.186Os/188Os ratios vary from 0.1198332 ± 26 to 0.1198480 ± 20, with some samples having ratios that are significantly higher than current estimates for the ambient upper mantle. Although the range of 186Os/188Os for the Hawaiian suite is consistent with that reported by previous studies, the new data reveal significant heterogeneities among picrites from individual volcanoes. The linear correlation between 187Os/188Os and 186Os/188Os reported by a previous study is no longer apparent with the larger dataset. The postulated recycled materials and pyroxenites responsible for the dominant variations in 187Os/188Os are likely not responsible for the variations in 186Os/188Os. Such materials are typically characterized by both insufficiently high Os concentrations and Pt/Os to account for the 186Os/188Os heterogeneities. The lack of correspondence between 186Os/188Os variations and the Kea and Loa trends supports this conclusion.The primary cause of 186Os/188Os variations are evaluated within the framework of two mixing scenarios: (1) metasomatic transport of Pt and/or 186Os-rich Os into some portions of the Hawaiian source, and (2) interaction between an isotopically complex plume source with a common, Os- and 186Os-enriched reservoir (COs). Both scenarios require large scale, selective transport of Pt, Re and/or Os. Current estimates of HSE concentrations in the mantle source of these rocks, however, provide little evidence for either process, so the dominant cause of the 186Os/188Os variations remains uncertain.  相似文献   
7.
A zircon grain in an orthopyroxene–garnet–phlogopite–zircon–rutile-bearing xenolith from Udachnaya, Siberia, preserves a pattern of crystallographic misorientation and subgrain microstructure associated with crystal–plastic deformation. The zircon grain records significant variations in titanium (Ti) from 2.6 to 30 ppm that corresponds to a difference in calculated Ti-in-zircon temperatures of over several hundred degrees Celsius. The highest Ti concentration is measured at subgrain centres (30 ppm), and Ti is variably depleted at low-angle boundaries (down to 2.6 ppm). Variations in cathodoluminescence coincide with the deformation microstructure and indicate localised, differential enrichment of rare earth elements (REE) at low-angle boundaries. Variable enrichment of U and Th and systematic increase of Th/U from 1.61 to 3.52 occurs at low-angle boundaries. Individual SHRIMP-derived U–Pb ages from more deformed zones (mean age of 1799 ± 40, n = 22) are systematically younger than subgrain cores (mean age of 1851 ± 65 Ma, n = 7), and indicate that open system behaviour of Ti–Th–U occurred shortly after zircon growth, prior to the accumulation of significant radiogenic Pb. Modelling of trace-element diffusion distances for geologically reasonable thermal histories indicates that the observed variations are ~ 5 orders of magnitude greater than can be accounted for by volume diffusion. The data are best explained by enhanced diffusion of U, Th and Ti along deformation-related fast-diffusion pathways, such as dislocations and low-angle (< 5°) boundaries. These results indicate chemical exchange between zircon and the surrounding matrix and show that Ti-in-zircon thermometry and U–Pb geochronology from deformed zircon may not yield information relating to the conditions and timing of primary crystallisation.  相似文献   
8.
The latent heat of evapotranspiration (ET) plays an important role in the assessment of drought severity as one sensitive indicator of land drought status. A simple and accurate method of estimating global ET for the monitoring of global land surface droughts from remote sensing data is essential. The objective of this research is to develop a hybrid ET model by introducing empirical coefficients based on a simple linear two-source land ET model, and to then use this model to calculate the Evaporative Drought Index (EDI) based on the actual estimated ET and the potential ET in order to characterize global surface drought conditions. This is done using the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) products, AVHRR-NDVI products from the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group, and National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis-2 (NCEP-2) datasets. We randomly divided 22 flux towers into two groups and performed a series of cross-validations using ground measurements collected from the corresponding flux towers. The validation results from the second group of flux towers using the data from the first group for calibration show that the daily bias varies from −6.72 W/m2 to 12.95 W/m2 and the average monthly bias is −1.73 W/m2. Similarly, the validation results of the first group of flux towers using data from second group for calibration show that the daily bias varies from −12.91 W/m2 to 10.26 W/m2 and the average monthly bias is −3.59 W/m2. To evaluate the reliability of the hybrid ET model on a global scale, we compared the estimated ET from the GEWEX, AVHRR-GIMMS-NDVI, and NECP-2 datasets with the latent heat flux from the Global Soil Wetness Project-2 (GSWP-2) datasets. We found both of them to be in good agreement, which further supports the validity of our model's global ET estimation. Significantly, the patterns of monthly EDI anomalies have a good spatial and temporal correlation with the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) anomalies from January 1984 to December 2002, which indicates that the method can be used to accurately monitor long-term global land surface drought.  相似文献   
9.
利用MODIS植被指数时间序列这一特性,以北京市通州及周边为实验区,冬小麦种植面积为研究对象,提出 了农作物种植面积指数模型(Pan-CPI模型)的概念,并构造了冬小麦特征物候期植被指数与种植面积的定量函数关系, 通过样区TM影像求解关键参数,对研究区冬小麦种植面积测量方法进行了试验研究。研究结果表明:(1)Pan-CPI模 型能够很好地反映特定目标农作物种植面积状况,为基于植被指数时间序列影像识别农作物种植面积提供了新方法; (2)精度分析结果表明:Pan-CPI模型具有很高的稳定性,且不受样本变化的影响,只要达到满足模型计算的样本量(如: 5%),多次测量结果间具有很好的一致性。选取MODIS 6×6像元大小的窗口时,TM样本的复相关系数(R2)稳定在0.85 左右,与TM结果比较,窗口相对精度稳定在95%左右,区域精度稳定在92%以上,经调整的区域精度高达96%以上; (3)对于种植结构复杂、目标作物种植破碎的地区,Pan-CPI模型可以充分利用MODIS植被指数时间序列的优势,有效改 善TM单时相和多时相提取信息因时相缺失无法表征作物变化的不足。  相似文献   
10.
Indigenous forest biome in South Africa is highly fragmented into patches of various sizes (most patches < 1 km2). The utilization of timber and non-timber resources by poor rural communities living around protected forest patches produce subtle changes in the forest canopy which can be hardly detected on a timely manner using traditional field surveys. The aims of this study were to assess: (i) the utility of very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery (WorldView-2, 0.5–2 m spatial resolution) for mapping tree species and canopy gaps in one of the protected subtropical coastal forests in South Africa (the Dukuduku forest patch (ca.3200 ha) located in the province of KwaZulu-Natal) and (ii) the implications of the map products to forest conservation. Three dominant canopy tree species namely, Albizia adianthifolia, Strychnos spp. and Acacia spp., and canopy gap types including bushes (grass/shrubby), bare soil and burnt patches were accurately mapped (overall accuracy = 89.3 ± 2.1%) using WorldView-2 image and support vector machine classifier. The maps revealed subtle forest disturbances such as bush encroachment and edge effects resulting from forest fragmentation by roads and a power-line. In two stakeholders’ workshops organised to assess the implications of the map products to conservation, participants generally agreed amongst others implications that the VHR maps provide valuable information that could be used for implementing and monitoring the effects of rehabilitation measures. The use of VHR imagery is recommended for timely inventorying and monitoring of the small and fragile patches of subtropical forests in Southern Africa.  相似文献   
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