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1.
Diapycnal Mixing (DM) within the upper 2000m of the global ocean is calculated by a fine-scale parameterization using the multiyear-mean density gridded product that created by employing all the Argo float observations to date through the recently published equation of seawater TEOS-10. The geographic distribution of Argo-derived DM derived in this study is spatial-dependent and varies with latitude and depth. The magnitude and pattern of DM is favorably validated by comparisons with previous studies. Furthermore, the mixing coefficient tensor K is calculated and analyzed. Components of the tensor fitting for the geopotential coordinate models are also presented. It is found that the tensor components in horizontal direction, Kxx and Kyy, have similar magnitude and distribution pattern. In the vertical, Kzz is enhanced over regions with rough topography and strong wind (e.g., Westerly region), suggesting agreement with previous estimates. This work presents a scheme to estimate the DM and mixing coefficient tensor using Argo observations, and offers a useful Argo-based mixing product for the purpose of promoting the study and modeling of ocean circulation and other processes.  相似文献   
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南黄海盆地北部坳陷的东北凹、北凹、中凹、南凹等凹陷发育有多种类型的正反转构造,包括穿透断展型、挤压褶皱型、逆断层型等。主要反转期为渐新世和上新世末,其中渐新世的构造反转影响较大。太平洋—欧亚板块汇聚速率变化是控制南黄海盆地北部坳陷新生代反转构造发育的重要因素。正反转构造有利于油气藏的形成,但反转强度较大时可能使油气藏的保存条件变差。  相似文献   
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The MITAS (Methane in the Arctic Shelf/Slope) expedition was conducted during September, 2009 onboard the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter (USCGC) Polar Sea (WAGB-11), on the Alaskan Shelf/Slope of the Beaufort Sea. Expedition goals were to investigate spatial variations in methane source(s), vertical methane flux in shallow sediments (<10 mbsf), and methane contributions to shallow sediment carbon cycling. Three nearshore to offshore transects were conducted across the slope at locations approximately 200 km apart in water column depths from 20 to 2100 m. Shallow sediments were collected by piston cores and vibracores and samples were analyzed for sediment headspace methane (CH4), porewater sulfate (SO42−), chloride (Cl), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations, and CH4 and DIC stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C). Downward SO42− diffusion rates estimated from sediment porewater SO42− profiles were between −15.4 and −154.8 mmol m−2 a−1 and imply a large spatial variation in vertical CH4 flux between transects in the study region. Lowest inferred CH4 fluxes were estimated along the easternmost transect. Higher inferred CH4 flux rates were observed in the western transects. Sediment headspace δ13CCH4 values ranged from −138 to −48‰, suggesting strong differences in shallow sediment CH4 cycling within and among sample locations. Measured porewater DIC concentrations ranged from 2.53 mM to 79.39 mM with δ13CDIC values ranging from −36.4‰ to 5.1‰. Higher down-core DIC concentrations were observed to occur with lower δ13C where an increase in δ13CCH4 was measured, indicating locations with active anaerobic oxidation of methane. Shallow core CH4 production was inferred at the two western most transects (i.e. Thetis Island and Halkett) through observations of low δ13CCH4 coupled with elevated DIC concentrations. At the easternmost Hammerhead transect and offshore locations, δ13CCH4 and DIC concentrations were not coupled suggesting less rapid methane cycling. Results from the MITAS expedition represent one of the most comprehensive studies of methane source(s) and vertical methane flux in shallow sediments of the U.S. Alaskan Beaufort Shelf to date and show geospatially variable sediment methane flux that is highly influenced by the local geophysical environment.  相似文献   
5.
This paper examines the nature of the management and governance structures underpinning the North East Kent European Marine Site (NEKEMS). It tells the story of how a strong and effective partnership has been built over the last 15 years, overcoming historical disputes between proponents of economic development and conservation. It explores a range of techniques used to encourage community engagement with marine conservation and looks at an innovative approach to community consultation. The development of social capital is identified as a central factor in the success of the partnership. Furthermore, the concept is also used as an analytical tool for evaluating the effectiveness of the partnership.  相似文献   
6.
Using Boussinesq scaling for water waves while imposing no constraints on rotationality, we derive and test model equations for nonlinear water wave transformation over varying depth. These use polynomial basis functions to create velocity profiles which are inserted into the basic equations of motion keeping terms up to the desired Boussinesq scaling order, and solved in a weighted residual sense. The models show rapid convergence to exact solutions for linear dispersion, shoaling, and orbital velocities; however, properties may be substantially improved for a given order of approximation using asymptotic rearrangements. This improvement is accomplished using the large numbers of degrees of freedom inherent in the definitions of the polynomial basis functions either to match additional terms in a Taylor series, or to minimize errors over a range. Explicit coefficients are given at O(μ2) and O(μ4), while more generalized basis functions are given at higher order. Nonlinear performance is somewhat more limited as, for reasons of complexity, we only provide explicitly lower order nonlinear terms. Still, second order harmonics may remain good to kh  10 for O(μ4) equations. Numerical tests for wave transformation over a shoal show good agreement with experiments. Future work will harness the full rotational performance of these systems by incorporating turbulent and viscous stresses into the equations, making them into surf zone models.  相似文献   
7.
If the upstream boundary conditions are prescribed based on the incident wave only, the time-dependent numerical models cannot effectively simulate the wave field when the physical or spurious reflected waves become significant. This paper describes carefully an approach to specifying the incident wave boundary conditions combined with a set sponge layer to absorb the reflected waves towards the incident boundary. Incorporated into a time-dependent numerical model, whose governing equations are the Boussinesq-type ones, the effectiveness of the approach is studied in detail. The general boundary conditions, describing the down-wave boundary conditions are also generalized to the case of random waves. The numerical model is in detail examined. The test cases include both the normal one-dimensional incident regular or random waves and the two-dimensional oblique incident regular waves. The calculated results show that the present approach is effective on damping the reflected waves towards the incident wave boundary.  相似文献   
8.
以副溶血性弧菌VP-X-3为试验对象,利用气相色谱技术分析了其细胞脂肪酸的组成和含量,以色谱峰的数量、色谱峰高及脂肪酸含量作为评价指标,探讨了不同的皂化和甲酯化条件对细菌细胞脂肪酸测定结果的影响。结果表明:皂化和甲酯化条件都对细胞脂肪酸的组成和含量产生一定的影响。较低温度皂化处理利于增加色谱峰数量和色谱峰高。甲酯化温度过高容易破坏脂肪酸,尤其是长链脂肪酸和不饱和脂肪酸的结构。高温甲酯化条件下,时间越长,甲酯化效果越差。试验得到较为理想的气相色谱前处理条件:2 mol/L NaOH-甲醇溶液2 mL,70℃水浴10 min;10%(V/V)H2SO4-甲醇溶液2 mL,70℃水浴15 min。此条件下的色谱峰的数量多达29种,色谱峰高明显高于其他处理条件下的峰高。  相似文献   
9.
西北太平洋公海春季秋刀鱼生物学特性的初步研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
根据2009年5~7月和2010年4~7月西北太平洋公海秋刀鱼海上调查数据,对西北太平洋公海秋刀鱼生物学特性进行了初步的研究。主要结果表明:2009年叉长范围为161~333mm,优势叉长组为260~320mm;2010年叉长范围为108~344mm,优势叉长组为240~300mm.经方差分析2009年和2010年叉长分布存在显著性差异,各年间雌雄叉长分布也存在显著性差异,但同时摄氏等级的年间差异不明显。2009年和2010年雌雄比分别为1.32和1.18。2年性腺成熟度都以Ⅱ、Ⅲ期为主。摄食等级都以1、2、3期为主,发现了空胃现象。2009年体质量范围为21-257g,2010年体质量范围为9-220g,2年间体质量分布存在显著性差异。通过方差分析2009年和2010间体长与体质量之间的关系存在显著性差异,说明这两年的秋刀鱼可能属于不同的种群。  相似文献   
10.
An analytical theory is developed to study the effects of a coaxial tube-sector-shaped supporting structure on the conversion efficiency of a suspended, circular OWC converter. An eigen-function expansion method is employed in a cylindrical coordinate system to study wave interaction with an OWC converter in finite depth of water. Effects of the supporting structure, OWC dimensions, wave direction on energy conversion efficiency, and optimization of power-takeoff devices are discussed. Our results show that the coaxial tube-sector-shaped support with an opening in the range of π/2–5π/4 can significantly increase the conversion efficiency and widen the frequency range over which the conversion efficiency is high.  相似文献   
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