首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   1573篇
  免费   556篇
  国内免费   2187篇
测绘学   79篇
大气科学   208篇
地球物理   298篇
地质学   407篇
海洋学   2965篇
天文学   6篇
综合类   281篇
自然地理   72篇
  2024年   1篇
  2023年   12篇
  2022年   47篇
  2021年   51篇
  2020年   59篇
  2019年   78篇
  2018年   230篇
  2017年   240篇
  2016年   249篇
  2015年   270篇
  2014年   281篇
  2013年   343篇
  2012年   263篇
  2011年   249篇
  2010年   187篇
  2009年   207篇
  2008年   136篇
  2007年   172篇
  2006年   132篇
  2005年   136篇
  2004年   91篇
  2003年   88篇
  2002年   80篇
  2001年   91篇
  2000年   88篇
  1999年   92篇
  1998年   78篇
  1997年   31篇
  1996年   18篇
  1995年   28篇
  1994年   33篇
  1993年   34篇
  1992年   27篇
  1991年   44篇
  1990年   27篇
  1989年   18篇
  1988年   33篇
  1987年   31篇
  1986年   31篇
  1985年   1篇
  1984年   1篇
  1983年   2篇
  1980年   2篇
  1979年   1篇
  1978年   1篇
  1974年   1篇
  1972年   1篇
排序方式: 共有4316条查询结果,搜索用时 21 毫秒
1.
ABSTRACT

We investigated the oceanic crustal structure and lithospheric dynamics of the South China Sea (SCS) basin through a comprehensive analysis of residual gravity anomaly and bathymetry combined with seismic constraints and interpretation from geodynamic modelling. We first calculated the residual mantle Bouguer anomaly (RMBA) of the oceanic crustal regions of the SCS by removing from free-air gravity anomaly the predicted gravitational attractions of water-sediment, sediment-crust, and crust-mantle interfaces, as well as the effects of lithospheric plate cooling, using the latest crustal age constraints including IODP Expedition 349 and recent deep-tow magnetic surveys. We then calculated models of the gravity-derived crustal thickness and calibrated them using the available seismic refraction profiles of the SCS. The gravity-derived crustal thickness models correlate positively with seismically determined crustal thickness values. Our analysis revealed that the isochron-averaged RMBA are consistently more negative over the northern flank of the SCS basin than the southern conjugate for magnetic anomaly chrons C8n (~25.18 Ma) to C5Dn (~17.38 Ma), implying warmer mantle and/or thicker crust over much of the northern flank. Computational geodynamic modelling yielded the following interpretations: (1) Models of asymmetric and variable spreading rates based on the relatively high-resolution deep-tow magnetic analysis would predict alternating thicker and thinner crust at the northern flank than the southern conjugate, which is inconsistent with the observed systematically thicker crust on the northern flank. (2) Models of episodic southward ridge jumps could reproduce the observed N-S asymmetry, but only for crustal age of 23.6–20 Ma. (3) Southward migration of the SCS ridge axis would predict slightly thinner crust at the northern flank, which is inconsistent with the observations. (4) Models of higher mantle temperatures of up to 25–50°C or >2% less depleted mantle sources on the northern flank could produce large enough anomalies to explain the observed N-S asymmetries.  相似文献   
2.
尝试利用卫星遥感高分辨率海表温度资料GHRSST (Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature) 与海表温度(sea surface temperature, SST)数值预报产品之间的误差, 建立一种南海SST模式预报订正方法。首先, 利用南海的Argo浮标上层海温数据对GHRSST 海温数据进行验证, 结果表明两者之间均方根误差约为0.3℃, 相关系数为0.98, GHRSST 海温数据可用于南海业务化数值预报SST的订正。预报订正后的SST与Argo浮标海温数据相比, 24h、48h和72h的均方根误差均由0.8℃左右下降到0.5℃以内。与GHRSST 海温数据相比, 南海北部海域(110°E—121°E, 13°N—23°N)订正后的24h、48h和72h的SST预报空间误差均显著减小, 在冷空气影响南海期间或中尺度涡存在的过程中, SST预报订正效果也较为显著。因此, 该方法可考虑在南海业务化SST数值预报系统中应用。  相似文献   
3.
偏振激光雷达探测大气—水体光学参数廓线   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
激光雷达在上层水体垂直廓线的遥感中展现出巨大优势。本文研制了一套高垂直分辨率的实时探测偏振激光雷达,提出了一种基于偏振激光雷达回波信号的反演算法,采用Fernald理论和多次散射原理反演非均匀大气—水体的衰减和退偏光学产品,以高效稳定地处理偏振激光雷达实验数据。展示了一个中国内陆水体激光雷达探测实例,观测到了两次气溶胶积聚现象和一次水体浑浊现象。对实验数据的分析表明,退偏比主要由前向多次散射和后向单次散射产生的退偏两部分组成。当多次散射强度较大时,退偏比的变化主要取决于多次前向散射退偏;反之,则主要依赖于单次后向散射退偏。  相似文献   
4.
为科学评价测量结果的可靠性,对海水中137Cs γ能谱分析方法的不确定度进行了评估。根据《化学分析中不确定度的评估指南》,分析不确定度的来源并逐一对各不确定度分量进行了量化,最终计算了合成相对标准不确定度。结果表明,影响海水中137Cs γ能谱测量不确定度的因素分别为样品源137Cs峰区计数、标准源活度、取样体积、化学回收率、本底137Cs峰区计数及标准源137Cs峰区计数,其中样品源137Cs峰区计数的不确定度贡献最为突出。对于137Cs活度浓度为1.28 mBq/L的海水样品,其合成相对标准不确定度为9.78%。  相似文献   
5.
Breakwaters can be used as artificial headlands in beach nourishment to mitigate coastal erosion. Longfengtou Beach, located on the southwest coast of Haitan Bay facing the Taiwan Strait on the northeast, suffers severe erosion, where the monsoon causes significant season hydrodynamic variations. Headland breakwaters are intended to be employed to mitigate coastal erosion. A 2D sediment transport model is established using MIKE21 based on current-wave coupling and calibrated by measured data. Summer and winter wave conditions are chosen as characteristic weak and strong waves respectively. The numerical results of suspended sediment concentration and seasonal morphological evolution are compared under the conditions with and without the headland breakwaters. Sediment transport in summer can be regarded as mainly determined by current field, while in winter wave effect is strong enough to change current field. The northern breakwater, nearly perpendicular to the ebb current direction, obstructs the currents and decreases velocity of the ebb currents, and confines the water carrying sediments within the protection area during the flood period. The southern breakwater also breaks the waves in advance and significantly reduces the hydrodynamic effects during the flood period and maintains high suspended sediment concentration in the protection area. In general, two headland breakwaters decrease the erosion near the beach and enlarge the deposition area, which play a significant role in prevention of sediment loss in nearshore area and mitigate coastal erosion.  相似文献   
6.
基于多源遥感数据的日本海内波特征研究   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
日本海特殊的地理位置和复杂的地形使得该海域内波表征极为复杂,遥感是大范围观测内波的有效手段,已被广泛应用于内波的探测研究。本文利用MODIS、GF-1和ENVISAT ASAR遥感影像,开展了日本海内波特征研究。通过提取内波波峰线,生成了日本海内波空间分布图;获取了内波的波峰线长度和传播速度,并基于非线性薛定谔方程反演了内波振幅。研究结果表明,日本海内波分布范围宽广,不仅大陆架沿海区内波分布密集,深海盆地也探测到了大量内波;日本海北部45°N附近海域有少量内波出现,利用高分影像探测到朝鲜陆架浅海区有大量小尺度内波,大和海盆、大和隆起的西南部海域没有发现内波。日本海内波波峰线长达100多千米,深海区的传播速度大于1 m/s;浅海区内波振幅约10 m左右,深海区可达60 m以上。  相似文献   
7.
西南印度洋63.5°E热液区是在超慢速扩张洋脊发现的首个超镁铁质岩热液系统。对取自该区的热液硫化物样品进行了系统的矿物学和地球化学分析,矿物学分析结果表明:该热液区硫化物为富Fe型高温硫化物,且经历了较深程度的氧化蚀变,大量中间态的Fe氧化物充填在硫化物矿物间的孔隙及内部解理中;这些硫化物相以白铁矿为主,其次是等轴古巴矿和少量铜蓝,缺乏黄铁矿、闪锌矿。据推断,该区的热液成矿作用分为4个阶段:低温白铁矿阶段→高温等轴古巴矿阶段→自形白铁矿阶段→后期海底风化阶段(少量铜蓝以及大量的Fe的羟氧化物)。与之相对应,地球化学分析结果表明这些硫化物的Fe含量较高(31.57%~44.59%),Cu含量次之(0.16%~7.24%),而Zn含量普遍较低(0.01%~0.11%);微量元素较为富集Co(328×10-6~2 400×10-6)和Mn(48.5×10-6~1 730×10-6)。该区硫化物中较高含量的Fe、Co与超镁铁质岩热液系统相似,明显高于镁铁质岩热液系统。独特的热液硫化物矿物学特征和元素组成可能与该区普遍出露的地幔岩、橄榄岩蛇纹石化作用以及拆离断层的广泛发育的环境有关。  相似文献   
8.
简易验潮站具有投资少、见效快的优点,是长期验潮站的一种有益补充。作者对厦门地区简易验潮站建设与应用情况进行了系统总结,提出了一种简易验潮站的建设方案。该方案经实践检验证明可以解决在一定环境条件下简易验潮站长期、连续、准确验潮的问题,从而提高社会效益和经济效益,具有良好的推广示范价值。  相似文献   
9.
The China Seas include the South China Sea, East China Sea, Yellow Sea, and Bohai Sea. Located off the Northwestern Pacific margin, covering 4700000 km~2 from tropical to northern temperate zones, and including a variety of continental margins/basins and depths, the China Seas provide typical cases for carbon budget studies. The South China Sea being a deep basin and part of the Western Pacific Warm Pool is characterized by oceanic features; the East China Sea with a wide continental shelf, enormous terrestrial discharges and open margins to the West Pacific, is featured by strong cross-shelf materials transport; the Yellow Sea is featured by the confluence of cold and warm waters; and the Bohai Sea is a shallow semiclosed gulf with strong impacts of human activities. Three large rivers, the Yangtze River, Yellow River, and Pearl River, flow into the East China Sea, the Bohai Sea, and the South China Sea, respectively. The Kuroshio Current at the outer margin of the Chinese continental shelf is one of the two major western boundary currents of the world oceans and its strength and position directly affect the regional climate of China. These characteristics make the China Seas a typical case of marginal seas to study carbon storage and fluxes. This paper systematically analyzes the literature data on the carbon pools and fluxes of the Bohai Sea,Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea, including different interfaces(land-sea, sea-air, sediment-water, and marginal sea-open ocean) and different ecosystems(mangroves, wetland, seagrass beds, macroalgae mariculture, coral reefs, euphotic zones, and water column). Among the four seas, the Bohai Sea and South China Sea are acting as CO_2 sources, releasing about0.22 and 13.86–33.60 Tg C yr~(-1) into the atmosphere, respectively, whereas the Yellow Sea and East China Sea are acting as carbon sinks, absorbing about 1.15 and 6.92–23.30 Tg C yr~(-1) of atmospheric CO_2, respectively. Overall, if only the CO_2 exchange at the sea-air interface is considered, the Chinese marginal seas appear to be a source of atmospheric CO_2, with a net release of 6.01–9.33 Tg C yr~(-1), mainly from the inputs of rivers and adjacent oceans. The riverine dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) input into the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea are 5.04, 14.60, and 40.14 Tg C yr~(-1),respectively. The DIC input from adjacent oceans is as high as 144.81 Tg C yr~(-1), significantly exceeding the carbon released from the seas to the atmosphere. In terms of output, the depositional fluxes of organic carbon in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea are 2.00, 3.60, 7.40, and 5.92 Tg C yr~(-1), respectively. The fluxes of organic carbon from the East China Sea and South China Sea to the adjacent oceans are 15.25–36.70 and 43.93 Tg C yr~(-1), respectively. The annual carbon storage of mangroves, wetlands, and seagrass in Chinese coastal waters is 0.36–1.75 Tg C yr~(-1), with a dissolved organic carbon(DOC) output from seagrass beds of up to 0.59 Tg C yr~(-1). Removable organic carbon flux by Chinese macroalgae mariculture account for 0.68 Tg C yr~(-1) and the associated POC depositional and DOC releasing fluxes are 0.14 and 0.82 Tg C yr~(-1), respectively. Thus, in total, the annual output of organic carbon, which is mainly DOC, in the China Seas is 81.72–104.56 Tg C yr~(-1). The DOC efflux from the East China Sea to the adjacent oceans is 15.00–35.00 Tg C yr~(-1). The DOC efflux from the South China Sea is 31.39 Tg C yr~(-1). Although the marginal China Seas seem to be a source of atmospheric CO_2 based on the CO_2 flux at the sea-air interface, the combined effects of the riverine input in the area, oceanic input, depositional export,and microbial carbon pump(DOC conversion and output) indicate that the China Seas represent an important carbon storage area.  相似文献   
10.
叶翔  李靖  王爱军 《海洋学报》2018,40(7):79-89
滨海湿地作为人类活动和全球变化反应最为敏感的区域,其沉积记录可以反映出周边地区环境变化及人类活动信息。珠江口淇澳岛滨海湿地钻孔分析结果表明,在中全新世期间淇澳岛附近海域为河口湾环境,在风化层以上开始出现淤积,但在4 200 a BP前后受极冷气候的影响,沉积物粗化;自2 500 a BP以来,沉积环境相对稳定,在小冰期期间略有变化。沉积速率计算结果显示:淇澳岛附近海域自中全新世高海面以来的平均沉积速率为0.29 cm/a,4 160~2 500 a BP、2 500 a BP-1488年、1488-1893年、1893-1986年、1990-2007年期间的平均沉积速率分别为:0.17 cm/a、0.23 cm/a、0.35 cm/a、1.37 cm/a和5.94 cm/a,沉积速率逐渐增大,反映了珠江三角洲演化过程中沉积相与沉积环境的变化;1986-1990年期间的海堤建造极大地扰动了该钻孔上部的沉积过程,在工程施工期间共沉积了厚度约112 cm的沉积层,而在海堤建成后,沉积速率也显著增大。沉积物总有机碳、总氮和C/N值的垂向分布表明,在4 160~2 500 a BP期间受海洋环境影响较大,沉积物中有机碳以海源为主,2 500 a BP以来沉积物中碳、氮含量明显增大,C/N也相应变大,有机碳主要来源于陆源输入,但在小冰期期间海源有机碳贡献略有所增大;近百年来由于受人类活动影响显著,陆源有机碳的贡献快速增加。  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号