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The circulation of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review   总被引:9,自引:9,他引:5  
During the 1950s and 1960s, an extensive field study and interpretive effort was made by researchers, primarily at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, to sample and understand the physical oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific. That work was inspired by the valuable fisheries of the region, the recent discovery of the equatorial undercurrent, and the growing realization of the importance of the El Niño phenomenon. Here we review what was learned in that effort, and integrate those findings with work published since then as well as additional diagnoses based on modern data sets.Unlike the central Pacific, where the winds are nearly zonal and the ocean properties and circulation are nearly independent of longitude, the eastern tropical Pacific is distinguished by wind forcing that is strongly influenced by the topography of the American continent. Its circulation is characterized by short zonal scales, permanent eddies and significant off-equatorial upwelling. Notably, the Costa Rica Dome and a thermocline bowl to its northwest are due to winds blowing through gaps in the Central American cordillera, which imprint their signatures on the ocean through linear Sverdrup dynamics. Strong annual modulation of the gap winds and the meridional oscillation of the Intertropical Convergence Zone generates a Rossby wave, superimposed on the direct forcing, that results in a southwestward-propagating annual thermocline signal accounting for major features of observed thermocline depth variations, including that of the Costa Rica Dome, the Tehuantepec bowl, and the ridge–trough system of the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC). Interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and altimetric sea surface height signals suggests that the strengthening of the NECC observed in the central Pacific during El Niño events continues all the way to the coast, warming SST (by zonal advection) in a wider meridional band than the equatorially trapped thermocline anomalies, and pumping equatorial water poleward along the coast.The South Equatorial Current originates as a combination of equatorial upwelling, mixing and advection from the NECC, and Peru coastal upwelling, but its sources and their variability remain unresolved. Similarly, while much of the Equatorial Undercurrent flows southeast into the Peru Undercurrent and supplies the coastal upwelling, a quantitative assessment is lacking. We are still unable to put together the eastern interconnections among the long zonal currents of the central Pacific.  相似文献
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Distribution of free gas in marine sediments: a global overview   总被引:8,自引:8,他引:2  
To quantify the global distribution of free gas in shallow marine sediments, we have identified and indexed over 100 documented cases in the scientific and engineering literature. Our survey confirms previous assumptions, primarily that gas bubbles are ubiquitous in the organic-rich muds of coastal waters and shallow adjacent seas. Acoustic turbidity, as recorded during seismo-acoustic surveys, is the most frequently cited evidence used to infer the presence of seafloor gas. Biogenic methane predominates within these shallow subbottom deposits. Because of their global prevalence, growing interest in gassy marine sediments is understandable, as their presence can have profound scientific, engineering and environmental significance.  相似文献
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The Humboldt Current System, like all upwelling systems, has dramatic quantities of plankton-feeding fish, which suggested that their population dynamics may ‘drive’ or ‘control’ ecosystem dynamics. With this in mind we analysed the relationship between forage fish populations and their main prey, zooplankton populations. Our study combined a zooplankton sampling program (1961–2005) with simultaneous acoustic observations on fish from 40 pelagic surveys (1983–2005) conducted by the Peruvian Marine Research Institute (IMARPE) and landing statistics for anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) and sardine (Sardinops sagax) along the Peruvian coast from 1961 to 2005. The multi-year trend of anchoveta population abundance varied consistently with zooplankton biovolume trend, suggesting bottom-up control on anchovy at the population scale (since oceanographic conditions and phytoplankton production support the changes in zooplankton abundance). For a finer-scale analysis (km) we statistically modelled zooplankton biovolume as a function of geographical (latitude and distance from the 200-m isobath), environmental (sea surface temperature), temporal (year, month and time-of-day) and biological (acoustic anchovy and sardine biomass within 5 km of each zooplankton sample) covariates over all survey using both classification and regression trees (CART) and generalized additive models (GAM). CART showed local anchoveta density to have the strongest effect on zooplankton biovolume, with significantly reduced levels of biovolume for higher neighbourhood anchoveta biomass. Additionally, zooplankton biovolume was higher offshore than on the shelf. GAM results corroborated the CART findings, also showing a clear diel effect on zooplankton biovolume, probably due to diel migration or daytime net avoidance. Apparently, the observed multi-year population scale bottom-up control is not inconsistent with local depletion of zooplankton when anchoveta are locally abundant, since the latter effect was observed over a wide range of overall anchoveta abundance.  相似文献
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Ten gas-vent fields were discovered in the Okhotsk Sea on the northeast continental slope offshore from Sakhalin Island in water depths of 620—1040 m. At one vent field, estimated to be more than 250 m across, gas hydrates, containing mainly microbial methane (13C = –64.3), were recovered from subbottom depths of 0.3–1.2 m. The sediment, having lenses and bedded layers of gas hydrate, contained 30–40% hydrate per volume of wet sediment. Although gas hydrates were not recovered at other fields, geochemical and thermal measurements suggest that gas hydrates are present.  相似文献
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