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1.
High-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) in concentrated and unconcentrated water samples from a wide variety of freshwater, coastal and marine environments. Several types of fluorescent signals were observed, including humic-like, tyrosine-like, and tryptophan-like. Humic-like fluorescence consisted of two peaks, one stimulated by UV excitation (peak A) and one by visible excitation (peak C). For all samples, the positions of both excitation and emission maxima for peak C were dependent upon wavelength of observation, with a shift towards longer wavelength emission maximum at longer excitation wavelength and longer wavelength excitation maximum at longer emission wavelength. A trend was observed in the position of wavelength-independent maximum fluorescence () for peak C, with maximum at shorter excitation and emission wavelengths for marine samples than for freshwater samples. Mean positions of these maxima were: rivers = nm; coastal water = nm; marine shallow transitional = nm; marine shallow eutrophic = nm; and marine deep = nm. Differences suggest that the humic material in marine surface waters is chemically different from humic material in the other environments sampled. These results explain previous conflicting reports regarding fluorescence properties of DOM from natural waters and also provide a means of distinguishing between water mass sources in the ocean.  相似文献
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WWATCH模式模拟南海海浪场的结果分析   总被引:27,自引:3,他引:24       下载免费PDF全文
利用美国NOAA/NCEP环境模拟中心海洋模拟小组近年新开发的一个准业务化的海浪数值模式WAVEWATCHⅢ(以下简称WWATCH),以每天4次的NOAA/NCEP再分析风场资料为输入,模拟了1996年的南海海域的海面风浪场,通过分析TOPEX/Poseidon(以下简称T/P)高度计的上升和下降轨道在南海海域的交叉点位置处的风、浪观测资料与NCEP,风场和WWATCH模式模拟的有效波高大小,可以看出,NCEP风场基本与T/P高度计的风速观测结果一致,相应的模式模拟的有效波高也基本与卫星高度计的有效波高观测结果相一致,但从空间上看,在计算区域中心附近海域的结果一致性较好,靠近计算边界附近海域的结果相对较差,但这种因边界而影响模拟结果的范围很有限;从时间上看,冬季风期间的结果一致性较好,而夏季风期间的结果偏小的趋势明显,并且这种偏小主要出现在夏季风期间的极小风速值附近。  相似文献
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Hydrocarbon-derived and microbially mediated authigenic carbonates occur over the entire depth range of the northern Gulf of Mexico slope. These carbonates consist of nodules and incipient nodules in surface sediments, hardgrounds and isolated slabs, and moundlike buildups of up to 10–20 m relief above the surrounding seafloor. The authigenic carbonates are characterized by 13C negative values in the range –18 to –55 (PDB) suggesting mixing of seawater carbon with13C-depleted carbon sources ranging from crude oil to biogenic methane. Near the shelf edge, carbonates are diluted with biogenic material produced by reefs—bioherms developed at low sea level stands. Fossil-poor carbonates over salt diapirs of the upper and middle slope formed in the shallow subsurface and have been exhumed by the combined processes of uplift and physical erosion. Middle and lower slope carbonates are generally rich in fossil shells of chemosynthetic organisms. Mg calcite pelloidal matrix and acicular to botryoidal aragonitic void-filling cements are common petrographic features of these hydrocarbonderived carbonates. At two sites carbonates are mixed with barite.  相似文献
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建立了由预过滤装置、蠕动泵、中空纤维超滤膜(Amicon H10P10-20,标称截留分子量10KDa)和连接管组成的错充超滤系统,利用荧光标记的40KDa葡聚粮和已乔放射性活度的^234Th示踪剂评估了超滤膜的截留和吸附性质,探讨了^234Th在超滤过程中的渗透行为,考查了该系统用于实际海水样品时铀、钍、镭同位素和有机碳的质量平衡状况,结果表明,10KDa中空纤维超滤膜对40KDa葡聚糖具有良好  相似文献
7.
Worldwide distribution of subaquatic gas hydrates   总被引:16,自引:2,他引:14  
Sediments containing natural gas hydrates occur worldwide on continental and insular slopes and rises of active and passive margins, on continental shelves of polar regions, and in deep-water (> 300 m) environments of inland lakes and seas. The potential amount of methane in natural gas hydrates is enormous, with current estimates at about 1019 g of methane carbon. Subaquatic gas hydrates have been recovered in 14 different areas of the world, and geophysical and geochemical evidence for them has been found in 33 other areas. The worldwide distribution of natural gas hydrates is updated here; their global importance to the chemical and physical properties of near-surface subaquatic sediments is affirmed.  相似文献
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An analysis of historical oxygen data provides evidence on the water exchange between theSouth China Sea (SCS) and the Pacific Ocean (PO). In the vicinity of the Luzon Strait (LS) , the dissolved oxygen concentration of sea water is found to be lower on the Pacific side than on the SCS side at depths between 700 and 1500 m (intermediate layer) , while the situation is reversed above 700 m (upper layer) and below 1 500 m (deep layer). The evidence suggests that water exits the SCS in the intermediate layer but enters it from the Pacific in both the upper and the deep layers, supporting the earlier speculation that the Luzon Strait transport has a sandwiched structure in the vertical. Within the SCS basin, the oxygen distribution indicates widespread vertical movement, including the upwelling in the intermediate layer and the downwelling in the deep layer.  相似文献
10.
The circulation of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review   总被引:14,自引:9,他引:5  
During the 1950s and 1960s, an extensive field study and interpretive effort was made by researchers, primarily at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, to sample and understand the physical oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific. That work was inspired by the valuable fisheries of the region, the recent discovery of the equatorial undercurrent, and the growing realization of the importance of the El Niño phenomenon. Here we review what was learned in that effort, and integrate those findings with work published since then as well as additional diagnoses based on modern data sets.Unlike the central Pacific, where the winds are nearly zonal and the ocean properties and circulation are nearly independent of longitude, the eastern tropical Pacific is distinguished by wind forcing that is strongly influenced by the topography of the American continent. Its circulation is characterized by short zonal scales, permanent eddies and significant off-equatorial upwelling. Notably, the Costa Rica Dome and a thermocline bowl to its northwest are due to winds blowing through gaps in the Central American cordillera, which imprint their signatures on the ocean through linear Sverdrup dynamics. Strong annual modulation of the gap winds and the meridional oscillation of the Intertropical Convergence Zone generates a Rossby wave, superimposed on the direct forcing, that results in a southwestward-propagating annual thermocline signal accounting for major features of observed thermocline depth variations, including that of the Costa Rica Dome, the Tehuantepec bowl, and the ridge–trough system of the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC). Interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and altimetric sea surface height signals suggests that the strengthening of the NECC observed in the central Pacific during El Niño events continues all the way to the coast, warming SST (by zonal advection) in a wider meridional band than the equatorially trapped thermocline anomalies, and pumping equatorial water poleward along the coast.The South Equatorial Current originates as a combination of equatorial upwelling, mixing and advection from the NECC, and Peru coastal upwelling, but its sources and their variability remain unresolved. Similarly, while much of the Equatorial Undercurrent flows southeast into the Peru Undercurrent and supplies the coastal upwelling, a quantitative assessment is lacking. We are still unable to put together the eastern interconnections among the long zonal currents of the central Pacific.  相似文献
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