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1.
中华哲水蚤(Calanus sinicus)是广泛分布于西北太平洋大陆架水域的浮游桡足类,在海洋生态系统的物质循环和能量流动中具有重要作用。根据2006年7月至2007年10月4个季节使用网目孔径为0.505mm的浮游生物网采集的样品,分析了南海西北部陆架区中华哲水蚤的水平、季节和昼夜垂直分布以及与季风、海流和温度的关系。中华哲水蚤丰度季节变化显著,整个调查海域春季的平均达(22.30±77.78)个/m3,夏季的降低,平均为(13.74±45.10)个/m3,秋季消失,冬季调查期间仍未出现。中华哲水蚤的区域分布差异十分显著,将调查海域划分为粤西近海、琼东近海、粤西-琼东外海三个亚区,在粤西近海亚区春、夏季中华哲水蚤的平均丰度分别为(115.63±145.93),(68.12±84.00)个/m3,远高于另外两个亚区。夏季琼东沿岸上升流区的中华哲水蚤没有昼夜垂直移动行为,呈底层分布,以躲避表层高温的伤害。南海西北部陆架区是中华哲水蚤的季节分布区,冬春季东北季风期间由广东沿岸流从东海沿岸携带而来,出现的时间从北往南逐渐推迟;夏季西南季风期间雷州半岛东部近海的冷涡和琼东沿岸上升流区成为中华哲水蚤度夏的避难所;秋季季风转换时期上升流减弱或消失,中华哲水蚤因耐受不了高温(>27℃)死亡而消失。因此,中华哲水蚤对东北季风时期的沿岸流和西南季风时期的上升流均具有良好的指示作用。  相似文献   
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《Marine pollution bulletin》2009,58(6-12):689-694
To complement physical and chemical data, information of biological communities is important to assess the qualities of mangrove sediments receiving wastewater. Ciliate communities have cosmopolitan distribution, short life cycle and high sensitivity to pollutants, which make them useful as biological indicators of the sediment environment. In most literature, ciliates are widely used as bioindicators for the state of water quality. In this study, the physico-chemical parameters and ciliate community structure of surface sediment collected at different sampling points from two constructed mangrove (Aegiceras and Sonneratia) belts for treatment of municipal sewage in southern China were investigated. Results showed that most (> 80%) of the 216 species ciliates identified at the two constructed mangrove belts were either omnivorous or bacterivorous. Sediment redox potential (Eh) was considered an important factor to govern the distribution of ciliate species within the mangrove sediment. The saprobic system originally derived from freshwater ecosystem was used to evaluate the saprobic degrees of these constructed mangrove belts. Saprobic index (SI) values declined from the sewage inlet to the outlet points of the constructed belts, suggesting better sediment quality at the outlet point caused by treatment processes within the mangrove belt system. Sediment quality of the sewage outlet area of the constructed Aegiceras belt was determined as class II-III (SI = 2.48), while that of the Sonneratia belt was as class III (SI = 2.71) according to the saprobic classification, indicating that a better sewage treatment efficiency was apparent in the Aegiceras than Sonneratia belt. The present data suggested that ciliates could serve as a good bioindicator in assessing organically polluted sediment qualities.  相似文献   
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Theories related to the precipitation mechanism of the metallic elements in marine manganese nodules have remained controversial between two schools of thoughts (1) chemical oxidation (abiotic origin) and (2) deposition of the metals through microbial enzymatic processes (biogenic origin). One of the most important evidence in support of the biogenic origin is the occurrence of fossilized microbes. However, well-documented literature in this regard is either lacking or very scanty in case of Indian Ocean nodules. Using high resolution FEG-SEM we have recorded various biogenic signatures and ultra microfossils in the ferromanganese nodule samples from Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) that are presented in this paper. The microfossils are mostly protozoans belonging to varieties of bacteria, diatoms and foraminifera. Some of the features recorded in this study have perhaps never been reported before from any manganese nodules. The chemical compositions of these ultra microfossils indicate a high-level of manganese precipitation in and around them in comparison to the distant surrounding areas. While clumpy microbes are enriched with nickel, the rod shaped bacteria are rich in copper. Up to 4.70 wt.% nickel and 5.31 wt.% Cu have been recorded in the fossilized microbe bodies. The high abundance of biogenic features as well as microfossils in the ferromanganese nodules and their chemical compositions support arguments in favor of a dominant role of the microorganisms in the construction of the nodules of the CIOB.  相似文献   
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围绕全球变化研究国家重大研究计划项目“亚洲区域海—陆—气相互作用机理及其在全球变化中的作用”预定的总体研究内容和科学目标,项目执行两年多以来,取得了一系列阶段性科研成果.关于气候动力学方面,项目揭示了热带印度洋—西太平洋暖池的海温变化是全球热带气候年代际变化的重要驱动力,是全球尺度副热带干旱的重要调控器;发现热带东太平洋海温存在冷舌模态,它是一个海气耦合模态,阐明在全球变暖背景下其对ENSO型态变异的作用及影响东亚气候的机理;揭示了青藏高原热力强迫的异常特征及其气候效应;提出了水平非均匀基流中行星波传播的理论,研究了其在不同东亚夏季风背景下的传播特征.关于气候预测方法方面,提出了若干有物理基础的气候预测方法,如尺度分离的降尺度预测新方法、基于北大西洋涛动(NAO)-ENSO的东亚夏季风预测模型、基于南半球环状模的东亚气候预测模型等,为业务部门提供了重要参考.关于观测方面,项目在亚洲区域海气补充观测和海洋资料同化方面也取得突出进展,成功进行了南海18°N断面海洋综合观测,为形成我国第一条南海断面长期海气观测打下了基础.在国际合作方面,项目还继续推动和领导了“亚洲季风年”(AMY2007-2012)与“东亚气候模拟”国际计划,提升了我国在该领域的国际地位.  相似文献   
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MultiBeam echosounder data were collected during a surface-ship survey of the 22/4b well site in the North Sea in September 2011 using a Teledyne-Reson 7125. Modern multibeam echosounders are instrumental in providing detection and accurate localization of weak to strong bubble plumes. Two survey profiles effectively insonified the bubble plumes rising from the main crater at the well site, providing snapshot data of bubble plume processes. Additionally, three profiles insonified bubble plumes rising from, in, and to the south of a secondary crater, 1.2 km southeast of the main crater. Data processing included a simple algorithm that muted mislocated echoes from incomplete sidelobe suppression. The data processing produced a Cartesian volume of echo intensity from the water column and seabed.Plume geometry was analyzed to investigate a number of important large-scale plume processes, including plume bubble detrainment due to currents and stratification, downwelling flows, sea surface interaction, plume heterogeneity, and other fluid transport processes. The data showed strong upwelling flows, with bubble vertical motions generally much faster than currents. One important finding was that megaplumes create intrusions above the general thermocline, in part because their extensive upwelling flow lifts the thermocline locally. As a result, the intrusion layer deposits dissolved gases in the upper wave-mixed layer of the water column where it is not isolated from the atmosphere, unlike dissolved gases in the lower water column.The analysis shows that high fidelity multibeam echosounder data can provide a wealth of remote sensing information on bubble plume characteristics and processes, with important applications, including blowout monitoring and response, better understanding of megaplumes such as used in lake destratification, and improved characterization of natural seep emission processes.  相似文献   
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南沙群岛珊瑚礁砾洲地貌特征   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
通过对南沙群岛永暑礁、西门礁和安达礁3个砾洲的现场调查,基于理论最低潮面和平均海面分别计算了砾洲的可能分布范围和平均出露范围,获得了砾洲的地形地貌特征。3个砾洲均为向西北凸出的弧形,呈北东-南西向展布。永暑礁和西门礁砾洲周边地势较高,中部相对低洼,分布有多条砾脊,边缘向海侧主砾脊高度最大,内部多条较低的次砾脊相交于主砾脊并汇聚于砾洲东部;安达礁砾洲则中部凸起地势较高,周边较低,无多重砾脊分布。推断砾洲的发育由最初珊瑚枝块堆积于中部形成凸起,逐渐向北东和南西两侧以砾脊形式扩展,最终形成砾洲由内向外的洼地-砾脊-砾滩的地貌分带模式。砾洲的地形地貌特征表明,南沙群岛砾洲的发育主要受北东-南西向水动力条件季节性交替的控制,反映了南海海区盛行季风的影响。南沙群岛珊瑚礁砾洲的地貌特征为深入研究南海珊瑚礁灰沙岛地貌发育演化及动力机制提供了基础数据。  相似文献   
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