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1.
Base flows are important for tropical regions with pronounced dry seasons, which are facing increasing water demands. Base flow generation, however, is one of the most challenging hydrological processes to characterize in the tropics. In many years during the May–December wet season in the Panama Canal Watershed (PCW), base flows in rivers abruptly increase. This increase persists until the start of the December–April dry season. Understanding this unusual base flow jump (BFJ) behaviour is critical to improve water provisioning in the seasonal tropics, especially during droughts and extended dry seasons. This study developed an integrated approach combining piecewise regression on cumulative average base flow and sensitivity analysis to calculate the timing and magnitude of BFJ. Rainfall, forest cover, mean land surface slope, catchment area, and estimated subsurface storage were tested as predictors for the occurrence and magnitude of the BFJs in seven subcatchments of the PCW. Sensitivity analysis on correlated predictors allowed ranking of predictor contributions due to isolated and cross-correlation effects. Correlations between observed BFJs and BFJs predicted by watershed and rainfall-related predictors were 0.92 and 0.65 for BFJ timing and magnitude, respectively. Forest cover was the second most significant predictor after cumulative rainfall for jump magnitude, owing to larger subsurface storage and groundwater recharge in forests than pastures. Catchments in the mountainous eastern PCW always generated larger jumps due to their higher rainfall and greater forest cover than the western PCW catchments. The cross-correlations between predictors contributed to more than 50% of the jump variances. The results demonstrate the importance of rainfall gradient and catchment characteristics in affecting the sudden and sustained BFJs, which can help inform land management decisions intended to enhance water supplies in the tropics. This study underscores the need for more research to further understand the hydrological processes involved in the BFJ phenomenon, including better BFJ models and field characterizations, to help improve tropical ecosystem services under a changing environment.  相似文献   
2.
Theoretical and Applied Climatology - Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) variability of ± 10% of its long-term mean leads to flood and drought, affecting the life and economic...  相似文献   
3.
An operational storm surge forecasting system aimed at providing warning information for storm surges has been developed and evaluated using four typhoon events. The warning system triggered by typhoon forecasts from Taiwan Cooperative Precipitation Ensemble Forecast Experiment (TAPEX) has been executed with two storm surge forecasting scenarios with and without tides. Three numerical experiments applying different meteorological inputs have been designed to assess the impact of typhoon forcing on storm surges. One uses synthetic wind fields, and the others use realistic wind fields with and without adjustments to the initial wind fields for the background circulation. Local observations from Central Weather Bureau (CWB) weather stations and tide gauge stations are used to evaluate the wind fields and storm surges from our numerical experiments. The comparison results show that the accuracy of the storm surge forecast is dominated by the track, the intensity, and the driving flow of a typhoon. When the structure of a typhoon is disturbed by Taiwan’s topography, using meteorological inputs from real wind fields can result in a better typhoon simulation than using inputs from synthetic wind fields. The driving flow also determines the impact of topography on typhoon movement. For quickly moving typhoons, storm forcing from TAPEX is reliable when a typhoon is strong enough to be relatively unaffected by environmental flows; otherwise, storm forcing from a sophisticated typhoon initialization scheme that better simulates the typhoon and environmental flows results in a more accurate prediction of storm surges. Therefore, when a typhoon moves slowly and interacts more with the topography and environmental flows, incorporating realistic wind fields with adjustments to the initial wind fields for the background circulation in the warning system will obtain better predictions for a typhoon and its resultant storm surges.  相似文献   
4.
古地理学是一门强数据依赖性学科,古地理重建作为古地理学的核心任务之一,着眼于研究地质历史时期地球表面的地理、生物、气候面貌及其演化规律。随着大数据时代的来临,海量古地理数据的不断积累和计算机技术的高速发展使得标准化、智能化的数字古地理重建成为可能。文章通过介绍国内外与古地理相关的代表数据库及团队,总结其优缺点,提出大数据驱动下的数字古地理重建核心思路:(1)建立标准化的古地理学知识体系;(2)建立开放互动、动态更新的古地理数据库,并利用机器阅读技术等拓展数据来源;(3)建立标准化的古地理学数据质量控制体系;(4)利用机器学习技术建立各类型古地理重建模型,深度挖掘数据;(5)以可实时更新的智能数字地图集或多维动画形式输出成果。  相似文献   
5.
Zhang  Kun  Mu  Mu  Wang  Qiang 《中国科学:地球科学(英文版)》2020,63(11):1678-1690
Science China Earth Sciences - Oceanic observation design is of considerable significance and has made remarkable progress during the past several decades. This study addresses the critical role of...  相似文献   
6.
Melt inclusions in kimberlitic and metamorphic diamonds worldwide range in composition from potassic aluminosilicate to alkali-rich carbonatitic and their low-temperature derivative, a saline high-density fluid (HDF). The discovery of CO2 inclusions in diamonds containing eclogitic minerals are also essential. These melts and HDFs may be responsible for diamond formation and metasomatic alteration of mantle rocks since the late Archean to Phanerozoic. Although a genetic link between these melts and fluids was suggested, their origin is still highly uncertain. Here we present experimental results on melting phase relations in a carbonated pelite at 6 GPa and 900–1500 °C. We found that just below solidus K2O enters potassium feldspar or K2TiSi3O9 wadeite coexisting with clinopyroxene, garnet, kyanite, coesite, and dolomite. The potassium phases react with dolomite to produce garnet, kyanite, coesite, and potassic dolomitic melt, 40(K0.90Na0.10)2CO3·60Ca0.55Mg0.24Fe0.21CO3 + 1.9 mol% SiO2 + 0.7 mol% TiO2 + 1.4 mol% Al2O3 at the solidus established near 1000 °C. Molecular CO2 liberates at 1100 °C. Potassic aluminosilicate melt appears in addition to carbonatite melt at 1200 °C. This melt contains (mol/wt%): SiO2 = 57.0/52.4, TiO2 = 1.8/2.3, Al2O3 = 8.5/13.0, FeO = 1.4/1.6, MgO = 1.9/1.2, CaO = 3.8/3.2, Na2O = 3.2/3.0, K2O = 10.5/15.2, CO2 = 12.0/8.0, while carbonatite melt can be approximated as 24(K0.81Na0.19)2CO3·76Ca0.59Mg0.21Fe0.20CO3 + 3.0 mol% SiO2 + 1.6 mol% TiO2 + 1.4 mol% Al2O3. Both melts remain stable to at least 1500 °C coexisting with CO2 fluid and residual eclogite assemblage consisting of K-rich omphacite (0.4–1.5 wt% K2O), almandine-pyrope-grossular garnet, kyanite, and coesite. The obtained immiscible alkali‑carbonatitic and potassic aluminosilicate melts resemble compositions of melt inclusions in diamonds worldwide. Thus, these melts entrapped by diamonds could be derived by partial melting of the carbonated material of the continental crust subducted down to 180–200 km depths. Given the high solubility of chlorides and water in both carbonate and aluminosilicate melts inferred in previous experiments, the saline end-member, brine, could evolve from potassic carbonatitic and/or silicic melts by fractionation of Ca-Mg carbonates/eclogitic minerals and accumulation of alkalis, chlorine and water in the residual low-temperature supercritical fluid. Direct extraction from the hydrated marine sediments under conditions of cold subduction would be another possibility for the brine formation.  相似文献   
7.
本文采用多源卫星遥感数据通过统计分析的方法研究了17年间(2000—2016年)南海夏季(6—9月)台风对该海域降水、淡水通量的贡献及其可能导致的环流异常。主要结论如下: 1) 台风是南海中北部降水的重要影响因子, 可导致日平均降水量增加12mm, 约占南海夏季日平均降水(25mm·d -1)的一半, 且西北太平洋台风和南海“土台风”产生的降水分布存在显著的区域和强度差异; 2) 夏季, 南海由淡水通量引起的盐致环流表现为以海南岛东南部海域为中心的弱气旋式, 其流量量级约为-0.15Sv, 约占同期风生环流流量(约为-1.5Sv)的10%; 3) 夏季, 台风带来的降水使得南海中北部的气旋式盐致环流增强, 且西北太平洋台风降水导致的淡水通量变化引起的盐致环流强度要强于南海“土台风”。  相似文献   
8.
Screening bioactive natural products from bacteria is a determinative step in the drug discovery programs. The present study aim to isolate actinobacteria from the Oman Sea sediments for determining the effects of different culture media and treatments on the yield of the isolation process, and measure the DPPH radical scavenging and Artemia cytotoxic activity of culture extracts of the actinobacterial isolates. A total of 290 actinobacterial isolates were collected from 14 sediment samples. Heat treatment(40.68%) and M_4 medium(29.31%) exhibited the maximum isolation rates of actinobacteria. Streptomyces isolates were dominantly distributed in all of the investigated stations according to 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. The distribution pattern of Streptomyces followed a depth-dependent frequency trend, whereas the members of rare genera including Micromonospora, Nocardia Actinoplanes, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora and Crossiella were distributed in deeper stations. Approximately,25% of the examined isolates could scavenge 90% of 10~(–4) mol/L DPPH solutions at 1 250 μg/mL final concentration of their ethyl acetate culture extracts. Furthermore, the most potent extracts could scavenge DPPH radicals with IC50 ranges from 356.8 to 566.4 μg/mL. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity tests showed that 38.88% of the examined culture extracts exhibited LC_(50) lower than 1 000 μg/mL against the Artemia cells. Moreover, the most potent culture extracts exhibited LC_(50) range from 335.4 to 534.4 μg/mL. Phylogenetic analysis by 16 S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the OS 005, OS 263 and OS 157 closely related to Streptomyces djakartensis, Streptomyces olivaceus and Nocardiopsis dassonvillei respectively. These results suggested the widespread distribution of the antioxidant and cytotoxic producing actinobacteria in the Oman Sea sediments, which could be considered as promising candidates for the discovery of microbial bioactive compounds.  相似文献   
9.
Meandering river sinuosity increases until the channel erodes into itself (neck cutoff) or forms a new channel over the floodplain (chute cutoff) and sinuosity is reduced. Unlike neck cutoff, which can be measured or modelled without considering overbank processes, chute cutoff must be at least partially controlled by channel-forming processes on the floodplain. Even though chute cutoff controls meandering river form, the processes that cause chute cutoff are not well understood. This study analyses the morphology of two incipient chute cutoffs along the East Fork White River, Indiana, USA, using high temporal and spatial resolution UAS-based LiDAR and aerial photography. LiDAR and aerial imagery obtained between 1998 and 2019 reveals that large scour holes formed in the centre of both chutes sometime after chute channel initiation. A larger analysis within the study watershed reveals that scour holes within incipient chutes can be stable or unstable, and tend to stabilize when the chute is colonized by native vegetation and forest. When the scour holes form in farmed floodplain, they enlarge rapidly after initial formation and contribute to complete chute cutoff. In addition, this study shows that the formation of scour holes can occur in response to common, relatively low-magnitude floods and that the amount of incipient chute erosion does not depend on peak flood magnitude. The role of scour holes in enlarging chute channels could be an important mechanism for chute channel evolution in meandering rivers. This study also confirms that understanding the relationships among flow, land cover, and cutoff morphology is substantially improved with on-demand remote sensing techniques like integrated UAS and LiDAR. © 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
10.
Doklady Earth Sciences - The results of an analysis of changes in the atmospheric air quality in Moscow during the lockdown period and the decline in business activity caused by the COVID-19...  相似文献   
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