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长江河口潮波传播机制及阈值效应分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
河口潮波传播过程受沿程地形(如河宽辐聚、水深变化)及上游径流等诸多因素影响,时空变化复杂。径潮动力非线性相互作用研究有利于揭示河口潮波传播的动力学机制,对河口区水资源高效开发利用具有重要指导意义。本文基于2007—2009年长江河口沿程天生港、江阴、镇江、南京、马鞍山、芜湖的逐日高、低潮位数据及大通站日均流量数据,统计分析不同河段潮波衰减率与余水位坡度随流量的变化特征,结果表明潮波衰减率绝对值与余水位坡度随流量增大并不是单调递增,而是存在一个阈值流量和区域,对应潮波衰减效应的极大值。为揭示这一阈值现象,采用一维水动力解析模型对研究河段的潮波传播过程进行模拟。结果表明,潮波传播的阈值现象主要是由于洪季上游回水作用随流量加强,余水位及水深增大,导致河口辐聚程度减小,而余水位坡度为适应河口形状变化亦有所减小,从而形成相对应的阈值流量和区域。  相似文献   
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River deltas and associated turbidity current systems produce some of the largest and most rapid sediment accumulations on our planet. These systems bury globally significant volumes of organic carbon and determine the runout distance of potentially hazardous sediment flows and the shape of their deposits. Here we seek to understand the main factors that determine the morphology of turbidity current systems linked to deltas in fjords, and why some locations have well developed submarine channels while others do not. Deltas and associated turbidity current systems are analysed initially in five fjord systems from British Columbia in Canada, and then more widely. This provides the basis for a general classification of delta and turbidity current system types, where rivers enter relatively deep (>200 m) water. Fjord-delta area is found to be strongly bimodal. Avalanching of coarse-grained bedload delivered by steep mountainous rivers produces small Gilbert-type fan deltas, whose steep gradient (11°–25°) approaches the sediment's angle of repose. Bigger fjord-head deltas are associated with much larger and finer-grained rivers. These deltas have much lower gradients (1.5°–10°) that decrease offshore in a near exponential fashion. The lengths of turbidity current channels are highly variable, even in settings fed by rivers with similar discharges. This may be due to resetting of channel systems by delta-top channel avulsions or major offshore landslides, as well as the amount and rate of sediment supplied to the delta front by rivers. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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Throat aurora was defined based on the ground observations near local noon and has been suggested to be the ground signature of an indentation on the subsolar magnetopause. A global view of the auroral oval with throat aurora will be critical for inferring global processes at the magnetopause, but it has never been achieved. Using imaging spectrograph observations from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites, for the first time, here we show typical throat auroras in a global view and reveal some important observational facts as follows.(1) The throat auroras can be as long as ~8 degrees in latitudinal direction,which is hardly to be fully seen in the ground-based camera.(2) The plasma flows and field aligned currents associated with throat aurora show consistences with previous radar observations, which have been suggested to be the observational evidence of magnetopause reconnection.(3) Most importantly, we confirmed that the electron and ion precipitations associated with throat aurora are always spatially separated, i.e., electrons in the east and ions in the west. The observational results not only establish a new picture of the aurora oval near local noon, but also provide important support to a conceptual model of throat aurora.  相似文献   
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《China Geology》2020,3(4):633-642
Oil and gas resources are short in Pakistan and no commercially viable oil and gas sources have been yet discovered in its offshore areas up to now. In this study, the onshore-offshore stratigraphic correlation and seismic data interpretation were conducted to determine the oil and gas resource potential in the Offshore Indus Basin, Pakistan. Based on the comprehensive analysis of the results and previous data, it is considered that the Cretaceous may widely exist and three sets of source rocks may be developed in the Offshore Indus Basin. The presence of Miocene mudstones has been proven by drilling to be high-quality source rocks, while the Cretaceous and Paleocene–Eocene mudstones are potential source rocks. Tectonic-lithologic traps are developed in the northwestern part of the basin affected by the strike-slip faults along Murray Ridge. Furthermore, the Cretaceous and Paleocene–Eocene source rocks are thick and are slightly affected by volcanic activities. Therefore, it can be inferred that the northwestern part of Offshore Indus Basin enjoys good prospects of oil and gas resources.  相似文献   
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The Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) are one of Earth's great mountain belts and are a fundamental physiographic feature of Antarctica. They are continental-scale, traverse a wide range of latitudes, have high relief, contain a significant proportion of exposed rock on the continent, and represent a major arc of environmental and geological transition. Although the modern physiography is largely of Cenozoic origin, this major feature has persisted for hundreds of millions of years since the Neoproterozoic to the modern. Its mere existence as the planet's longest intraplate mountain belt at the transition between a thick stable craton in East Antarctica and a large extensional province in West Antarctica is a continuing enigma. The early and more cryptic tectonic evolution of the TAM includes Mesoarchean and Paleoproterozoic crust formation as part of the Columbia supercontinent, followed by Neoproterozoic rift separation from Laurentia during breakup of Rodinia. Development of an Andean-style Gondwana convergent margin resulted in a long-lived Ross orogenic cycle from the late Neoproterozoic to the early Paleozoic, succeeded by crustal stabilization and widespread denudation during early Gondwana time, and intra-cratonic and foreland-basin sedimentation during late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic development of Pangea. Voluminous mafic volcanism, sill emplacement, and layered igneous intrusion are a primary signature of hotspot-influenced Jurassic extension during Gondwana breakup. The most recent phase of TAM evolution involved tectonic uplift and exhumation related to Cenozoic extension at the inboard edge of the West Antarctic Rift System, accompanied by Neogene to modern glaciation and volcanism related to the McMurdo alkaline volcanic province. Despite the remote location and relative inaccessibility of the TAM, its underlying varied and diachronous geology provides important clues for reconstructing past supercontinents and influences the modern flow patterns of both ice and atmospheric circulation, signifying that the TAM have both continental and global importance through time.  相似文献   
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The hydrostatic energy of high-pressure seawater is a renewable and green energy source for ocean exploration and have been used to replace underwater electrical energy transmission through the cable and underwater battery pack to power seafloor equipment. The advantage of the energy supply method is the cost-effective and the robustness. In the paper, the energy performance of the existing hydrostatic seafloor sediment samplers powered by seawater hydrostatic energy are modelled and analyzed and compared. In view of the common shortcoming of existing technology, a novel hydrostatic seafloor sediment sampler is proposed. The model of energy conversion of the new sampler is built, and its energy performance is obtained. The analysis results indicate that the energy conversion efficiency of the novel sediment sampler is much higher than the existing ones, which means that the new sampler can collect much longer sample with the limited amount of hydrostatic energy. The seawater hydrostatic energy conversion system of the new sampler can also be used to power other seafloor equipment.  相似文献   
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High-biomass red tides occur frequently in some semi-enclosed bays of Hong Kong where ambient nutrients are not high enough to support such a high phytoplankton biomass. These high-biomass red tides release massive inorganic nutrients into local waters during their collapse. We hypothesized that the massive inorganic nutrients released from the collapse of red tides would fuel growth of other phytoplankton species. This could influence phytoplankton species composition. We tested the hypothesis using a red tide event caused by Mesodinium rubrum (M. rubrum) in a semi-enclosed bay, Port Shelter. The red tide patch had a cell density as high as 5.0×105 cells L?1, and high chlorophyll a (63.71 μg L?1). Ambient inorganic nutrients (nitrate: \(\rm{NO}_3^-\), ammonium: \(\rm{NH}_4^+\), phosphate: \(\rm{PO}_4^{3-}\), silicate: \(\rm{SiO}_4^{3-}\)) were low both in the red tide patch and the non-red-tide patch (clear waters outside the red tide patch). Nutrient addition experiments were conducted by adding all the inorganic nutrients to water samples from the two patches followed by incubation for 9 days. The results showed that the addition of inorganic nutrients did not sustain high M. rubrum cell density, which collapsed after day 1, and did not drive M. rubrum in the non-red-tide patch sample to the same high-cell density in the red tide patch sample. This confirmed that nutrients were not the driving factor for the formation of this red tide event, or for its collapse. The death of M. rubrum after day 1 released high concentrations of \(\rm{NO}_3^-\), \(\rm{PO}_4^{3-}\), \(\rm{SiO}_4^{3-}\), \(\rm{NH}_4^+\), and urea. Bacterial abundance and heterotrophic activity increased, reaching the highest on day 3 or 4, and decreased as cell density of M. rubrum declined. The released nutrients stimulated growth of diatoms, such as Chaetoceros affinis var. circinalis, Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii, and Nitzschia sp., particularly with additions of \(\rm{SiO}_4^{3-}\) treatments, and other species. These results demonstrated that initiation of M. rubrum red tides in the bay was not directly driven by nutrients. However, the massive inorganic nutrients released from the collapse of the red tide could induce a second bloom in low-ambient nutrient water, influencing phytoplankton species composition.  相似文献   
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The current study provides long-term catch-rate, biological and feeding data for smooth hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna zygaena, caught in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal bather protection programme. In total, 2 512 S. zygaena were caught in net installations between 1978 and 2014, and 72 S. zygaena were caught on drumlines between 2007 and 2014. There was no significant log-linear year trend in the net catch rate over time (slope = 0.0054, t = 1.808, p = 0.07). However, there was a significant temporal increase in mean size of the captured sharks (slope = 0.0012, t = 3.502, p < 0.001). A quasi-Poisson generalised additive mixed model showed that increasing latitude, winter months, colder sea temperatures and the deployment of drumlines all had a significant positive effect on the catch rate of sharks in nets. The size frequency of the catch was unimodal, with significantly more females caught in the nets and more males on the drumlines. The majority (93.1%) of all sharks caught were immature and measured between 80 and 120 cm precaudal length. Teleosts and cephalopods dominated the sharks’ diet in terms of all dietary indices. The prey species consumed indicate that immature S. zygaena are feeding primarily within the pelagic zone of shallow coastal habitats.  相似文献   
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