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1.
综述了南海和台湾以东海域若干气旋型和反气旋型涡旋研究.在南海存在着许多活跃的中尺度涡,我们分别对南海中、南部海域和南海北部海域中尺度涡作了评述.在南海北部海域,目前最感兴趣的问题为:南海水与西菲律宾海通过吕宋海峡的交换的物理过程,以及黑潮是否以反气旋流套形式进入南海.这些问题目前尚不清楚,尤其是这些问题的机理.这些问题必须通过今后深入和细致的、长时间的海流和水文观测,以及长时间卫星遥感观测资料的论证才能逐渐认识清楚.台湾以东海域,黑潮两侧经常出现中尺度涡,而且变化较大而复杂.文中着重讨论兰屿冷涡和台湾东北的气旋式冷涡.  相似文献   
2.
Profiles observed by Sea-Wing underwater gliders are widely applied in scientific research. However, the quality control(QC) of these data has received little attention. The mismatch between the temperature probe and conductivity cell response times generates erroneous salinities, especially across a strong thermocline. A sensor drift may occur owing to biofouling and biocide leakage into the conductivity cell when a glider has operated for several months. It is therefore critical to design a mature real-time QC procedure and develop a toolbox for the QC of Sea-Wing glider data. On the basis of temperature and salinity profiles observed by several Sea-Wing gliders each installed with a Sea-Bird Glider Payload CTD sensor, a real-time QC method including a thermal lag correction, Argo-equivalent real-time QC tests, and a simple post-processing procedure is proposed. The method can also be adopted for Petrel gliders.  相似文献   
3.
In this study, the coccolith compositions of 213 surface sediment samples from the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean were analysed with respect to the environmental parameters of the overlying surface waters. From this data set, the abundance patterns of the main species and their ecological affinities were ascertained. In general, Emiliania huxleyi is the most abundant species of the recent coccolith assemblages in the study region. However, the lower photic zone taxa, composed of Florisphaera profunda and Gladiolithus flabellatus often dominate the assemblages between 20°N and 30°S. If E. huxleyi is excluded, Calcidiscus leptoporus and F. profunda become the most abundant species, each dominating discrete oceanographic regimes. While F. profunda is very abundant in the sediments underneath warmer, stratified surface waters with a deep nutricline, Calcidiscus leptoporus is encountered in high-productivity environments. Furthermore, the results of a canonical correspondence analysis reveal affinities of Gephyrocapsa spp., Helicosphaera spp. and Coccolithus pelagicus for intermediate to higher nutrient conditions in a well-mixed upper water column. In contrast, Gladiolithus flabellatus seems to be associated with high temperatures and salinities under low-nutrient conditions. Based on the relative abundances of Calcidiscus leptoporus, F. profunda, Gladiolithus flabellatus, Helicosphaera spp., Umbilicosphaera foliosa, Umbilicosphaera sibogae and a group of subordinate subtropical species, six surface sediment assemblages have been identified, which reflect the distribution and characteristics of the overlying surface waters. Their distribution appears to be mainly a function of the relative position of the nutricline and thermocline in the overlying photic zone.  相似文献   
4.
In this study, the impact of oceanic processes on the sensitivity of transient climate change is investigated using two sets of coupled experiments with and without tidal forcing, which are termed Exp_Tide and Exp_Control,respectively. After introducing tidal forcing, the transient climate response(TCR) decreases from 2.32 K to 1.90 K,and the surface air temperature warming at high latitudes decreases by 29%. Large ocean heat uptake efficiency and heat storage can explain the low TCR in Exp_Tide. Approximately 21% more heat is stored in the ocean in Exp_Tide(1.10×10~(24) J) than in Exp_Control(0.91×10~(24) J). Most of the large ocean warming occurs in the upper 1 000 m between 60°S and 60°N, primarily in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans. This ocean warming is closely related to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation(AMOC). The initial transport at mid-and high latitudes and the decline in the AMOC observed in Exp_Tide are both larger than those observed in Exp_Control. The spatial structures of AMOC are also different with and without tidal forcing in present experiments. The AMOC in Exp_Tide has a large northward extension. We also investigated the relationship between AMOC and TCR suggested by previous studies using the present experiments.  相似文献   
5.
The seasonal variability of tropical cyclones (CTCs) generated over the South China Sea (SCS) from 1948 to 2003 is analyzed. It peaks in occurrence in August and few generate in late winter (from January to March). The seasonal activity is attributed to the variability of atmosphere and ocean environments associated with the monsoon system. It is found that the monsoonal characteristics of the SCS basically determine the region of tropical cyclone (TC) genesis in each month.  相似文献   
6.
The algorithms of extracting chlorophyll-a(Chl-a) concentration have been established for Chinese moderate resolution imaging spectrometer(CMODIS) mounted on Shenzhou-3 spaceship launched on 25 March 2002.The CMODIS is an ocean color sensor with 30 visible channels and 4 infrared channels,much different from other ocean color satellites and needs new algorithms to process data.Three models of Chl-a concentration were established based on Chl-a data retrieved from sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor(SeaWiFS),with the average relative errors of 26.6%,24%.0% and 33.5%,respectively.This practical and economic approach can be used for developing the algorithms of Chinese ocean color and temperature sensor(COCTS) on the satellite Haiyang-1 to derive the Chl-a concentration concentration distribution.The applicability of the algorithms was analyzed using some in situ measurements.Suspended sediment is the main factor influencing the accuracy of the spectral ratio algorithms of Chl-a concentration.The algorithms are suitable to using in the regions where suspended sediment concentrations(SSC) are less than 5 g/m3 under the condition of relative error of Chl-a concentration retrieval within 35%.High concentration of suspended sediment leads to the overestimate remote sensing retrieval of concentration of Chl-a,while low-middle SSCs lead to the low Chl-a concentration values using the spectral ratio algorithms.Since the accuracy of Chl-a concentration by the spectral ratio algorithms is limited to waters of Case 2,it is necessary to develop semi-analytical models to improve the performance of satellite ocean color remote sensing in turbid coastal waters.  相似文献   
7.
For 15 years since the beginning of China Argo project, China has deployed over 350 profiling floats in Pacific and Indian ocean, and constructed China Argo ocean observing network. Moreover, we have setup the Argo data receiving, processing and distributing system, and developed various Argo data products using Argo observations, which has promoted the progress of ocean data sharing in China. The abundant Argo data have become a main data source in oceanic and atmospheric basic researches and operational applications. A batch of important achievements in basic research and operational application have been brought, e.g. in aspects of tropical cyclone (typhoon), ocean circulation, meso-scale eddy, turbulence, heat/salt storage and transport and water mass, as well as in ocean, atmosphere/climate operational forecasting and predicting. With the extension of the international Argo program from “Core Argo” to “Global Argo”, we are faced with great challenges in the long-term maintaining and sustained developing of our Argo ocean observing network. It is suggested that we should take the opportunity to construct China regional Argo ocean observing network as soon as possible in adjacent northwestern Pacific and Indian ocean using Chinese BeiDou profiling floats, which will make us to take responsibility and obligation of a big country for addressing global climate changes and preventing natural disasters.  相似文献   
8.
Accurately estimating the mean and extreme wave statistics and better understanding their directional and seasonal variations are of great importance in the planning and designing of ocean and coastal engineering works. Due to the lack of long-term wave measurement data, the analysis of extreme waves is often based on the numerical wave hind-casting results. In this study, the wave climate in the East China Seas (including the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea) for the past 35 years (1979–2013) is hind-casted using a third generation wave model – WAMC4 (Cycle 4 version of WAM model). Two sets of reanalysis wind data from NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction, USA) and ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts) are used to drive the wave model to generate the long-term wave climate. The hind-casted waves are then analysed to study the mean and extreme wave statistics in the study area. The results show that the mean wave heights decrease from south to north and from sea to land in general. The extreme wave heights with return periods of 50 and 100 years in the summer and autumn seasons are significantly higher than those in the other two seasons, mainly due to the effect of typhoon events. The mean wave heights in the winter season have the highest values, mainly due to the effect of winter monsoon winds. The comparison of extreme wave statistics from both wind fields with the field measurements at several nearshore wave observation stations shows that the extreme waves generated by the ECMWF winds are better than those generated by the NCEP winds. The comparison also shows the extreme waves in deep waters are better reproduced than those in shallow waters, which is partly attributed to the limitations of the wave model used. The results presented in this paper provide useful insight into the wave climate in the area of the East China Seas, as well as the effect of wind data resolution on the simulation of long-term waves.  相似文献   
9.
A regional reanalysis product—China Ocean Reanalysis(CORA)—has been developed for the China's seas and the adjacent areas. In this study, the intraseasonal variabilities(ISVs) in CORA are assessed by comparing with observations and two other reanalysis products(ECCO2 and SODA). CORA shows a better performance in capturing the intraseasonal sea surface temperatures(SSTs) and the intraseasonal sea surface heights(SSHs) than ECCO2 and SODA do, probably due to its high resolution, stronger response to the intraseasonal forcing in the atmosphere(especially the Madden-Julian Oscillation), and more available regional data for assimilation. But at the subsurface, the ISVs in CORA are likely to be weaker than reality, which is probably attributed to rare observational data for assimilation and weak diapycnal eddy diffusivity in the CORA model. According to the comparison results, CORA is a good choice for the study related to variabilities at the surface, but cares have to be taken for the study focusing on the subsurface processes.  相似文献   
10.
在登陆海南岛之前,台风威马逊在南海北部从热带风暴级别迅速增强成为超强台风。观测数据的分析结果显示,海洋上层的异常暖水在威马逊的迅速增强过程中扮演了重要的角色。威马逊期间,南海北部的海表面温度相比于气候态海表面温度暖很多。这部分异常暖水为威马逊提供了更多的能量,从而导致了威马逊的迅速增强。数值模拟结果进一步证明,南海北部的暖水在台风威马逊的迅速增强过程中起重要作用。如果没有这团异常暖水的影响,威马逊只增强25 hPa,仅为有暖水影响条件下增强程度的58.1%。  相似文献   
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