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Mechanisms and timescales responsible for pockmark formation and maintenance remain uncertain, especially in areas lacking extensive thermogenic fluid deposits (e.g., previously glaciated estuaries). This study characterizes seafloor activity in the Belfast Bay, Maine nearshore pockmark field using (1) three swath bathymetry datasets collected between 1999 and 2008, complemented by analyses of shallow box-core samples for radionuclide activity and undrained shear strength, and (2) historical bathymetric data (report and smooth sheets from 1872, 1947, 1948). In addition, because repeat swath bathymetry surveys are an emerging data source, we present a selected literature review of recent studies using such datasets for seafloor change analysis. This study is the first to apply the method to a pockmark field, and characterizes macro-scale (>5 m) evolution of tens of square kilometers of highly irregular seafloor. Presence/absence analysis yielded no change in pockmark frequency or distribution over a 9-year period (1999–2008). In that time pockmarks did not detectably enlarge, truncate, elongate, or combine. Historical data indicate that pockmark chains already existed in the 19th century. Despite the lack of macroscopic changes in the field, near-bed undrained shear-strength values of less than 7 kPa and scattered downcore 137Cs signatures indicate a highly disturbed setting. Integrating these findings with independent geophysical and geochemical observations made in the pockmark field, it can be concluded that (1) large-scale sediment resuspension and dispersion related to pockmark formation and failure do not occur frequently within this field, and (2) pockmarks can persevere in a dynamic estuarine setting that exhibits minimal modern fluid venting. Although pockmarks are conventionally thought to be long-lived features maintained by a combination of fluid venting and minimal sediment accumulation, this suggests that other mechanisms may be equally active in maintaining such irregular seafloor morphology. One such mechanism could be upwelling within pockmarks induced by near-bed currents.  相似文献
In situ tensile fracture toughness of surficial cohesive marine sediments   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
This study reports the first in situ measurements of tensile fracture toughness, K IC, of soft, surficial, cohesive marine sediments. A newly developed probe continuously measures the stress required to cause tensile failure in sediments to depths of up to 1 m. Probe measurements are in agreement with standard laboratory methods of K IC measurements in both potter’s clay and natural sediments. The data comprise in situ depth profiles from three field sites in Nova Scotia, Canada. Measured K IC at two muddy sites (median grain size of 23–50 μm) range from near zero at the sediment surface to >1,800 Pa m1/2 at 0.2 m depth. These profiles also appear to identify the bioturbated/mixed depth. K IC for a sandy site (>90% sand) is an order of magnitude lower than for the muddy sediments, and reflects the lack of cohesion/adhesion. A comparison of K IC, median grain size, and porosity in muddy sediments indicates that consolidation increases fracture strength, whereas inclusion of sand causes weakening; thus, sand-bearing layers can be easily identified in K IC profiles. K IC and vane-measured shear strength correlate strongly, which suggests that the vane measurements should perhaps be interpreted as shear fracture toughness, rather than shear strength. Comparison of in situ probe-measured values with K IC of soils and gelatin shows that sediments have a K IC range intermediate between denser compacted soils and softer, elastic gelatin.  相似文献
The C-band wind speed retrieval models, CMOD4, CMOD - IFR2, and CMOD5 were applied to retrieval of sea surface wind speeds from ENVISAT (European environmental satellite) ASAR (advanced synthetic aperture radar) data in the coastal waters near Hong Kong during a period from October 2005 to July 2007. The retrieved wind speeds are evaluated by comparing with buoy measurements and the QuikSCAT (quick scatterometer) wind products. The results show that the CMOD4 model gives the best performance at wind speeds lower than 15 m/s. The correlation coefficients with buoy and QuikSCAT winds are 0.781 and 0.896, respectively. The root mean square errors are the same 1.74 m/s. Namely, the CMOD4 model is the best one for sea surface wind speed retrieval from ASAR data in the coastal waters near Hong Kong.  相似文献
A series of physical tests are conducted to examine the characteristics of the wave loading exerted on circular-front breakwaters by regular waves. It is found that the wave trough instead of wave crest plays a major role in the failure of submerged circular caissons due to seaward sliding. The difference in the behavior of seaward and shoreward horizontal wave forces is explained based on the variations of dynamic pressure with wave parameters. A wave load model is proposed based on a modified first-order solution for the dynamic pressure on submerged circular-front caissons under a wave trough. This wave loading model is very useful for engineering design. Further studies are needed to include model uncertainties in the reliability assessment of the breakwater.  相似文献
多目标渔业资源科学调查的分层方案设计优化   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
渔业资源科学调查常用于收集高质量的生物学和生态学数据以进行渔业资源评估与管理。渔业资源调查设计优化十分必要,其有助于在经济有效的采样努力量下提高调查估计量的精度。对于估计单鱼种资源量指数和物种多样性指数为主的多目标渔业资源调查设计,本研究应用模拟方法评价和优化了分层随机采样设计的分层方案。在不同月份,对于不同调查目标,分别比较了不同分层方案设计的表现。对于大多数指标,与简单随机采样设计相比,分层方案设计可以提高调查估计量的精度。目前采用的具有5层的分层随机采样设计表现最好。通过分层方案设计可以补偿由于采样努力量降低造成的估计量精度的下降,采样努力量的减少有助于降低调查成本、减轻调查拖网对于种群数量较低鱼种的不利影响。本研究表明对于不同的调查目标,最优化的分层方案设计不同。调查后分析有助于改善渔业资源调查的分层方案设计。  相似文献
自1998年“捕捞降低海洋食物网”概念首次提出以来,渔获物平均营养级(Mean trophic level of fisheries landings,MTL)广泛用于评估捕捞活动对生态系统完整性的影响,并指导管理机构的政策制定。近年来研究表明,掌握MTL的潜在变化机制对于以MTL作为渔业可持续性指标至关重要。根据联合国粮农组织FAO提供的渔获统计数据,结合Fishbase提供的相关鱼种营养级,本文探讨了全球三大洋14个FAO渔区MTL的变化趋势,并进一步分析不同MTL变化趋势下高营养级鱼种和低营养级鱼种渔获量的变动情况。研究表明, MTL呈上升和回升状态均可能伴随着低营养级鱼种渔获量的下降。此外,通过观察营养级高于3.25鱼种的MTL以区分“捕捞降低海洋食物网”和“捕捞沿着海洋食物网”现象需考虑生态系统的群落结构和开发历程。利用渔获物平均营养级评价渔业可持续性必须综合考虑高营养级和低营养级鱼种,以及群落结构和开发历程的掩盖效应。  相似文献
随着人们对于海洋生态的认识逐渐深入,渔业等人类活动的影响受到了更多的关注,"基于生态系统的渔业管理"(EBFM)这一概念被越来越多的研究者和国际组织所接受。生态模型为EBFM的实践提供了科学的评估方法和技术工具。与单鱼种评估模型相比,生态模型更多地考虑了系统内的各种生态过程和作用机制,栖息地等环境条件的变化,以及生态系统整体的结构和功能等,依此来反映生态系统的动态变化。由于生态模型是多样化的,关注和涉及不同的目标对象、机制过程、模型结构和参数,本文按照生态模型所关注的生态层次和组分将其分为多物种模型、群落结构模型和生态系统模型3个类型,分析了各类模型的优劣点。本文进一步阐述了生态模型在渔业管理中的应用领域,以管理策略评估为中心的应用方式,以及实践中模型选择和构建所需要注意的问题,还探讨了生态模型中降低不确定性和提高预测能力的方法。  相似文献
Anomalously high precipitation and river discharge during the spring of 2005 caused considerable freshening and depletion of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface waters along the coastal Gulf of Maine. Surface pCO2 and total alkalinity (TA) were monitored by repeated underway sampling of a cross-shelf transect in the western Gulf of Maine (GOM) during 2004–05 to examine how riverine fluxes, mixing, and subsequent biological activity exert control on surface DIC in this region. Most of the variability in surface DIC concentration was attributable to mixing of low DIC river water with higher DIC, saline GOM waters, but net biological uptake of DIC was significant especially during the spring and summer seasons. The extent and persistence of the coastal freshwater intrusion exerted considerable influence on net carbon dynamics. Integrated over the 10-m surface layer of our study region (∼5 × 104 km2), net biological DIC uptake was 0.48 × 108 mol C during April–July of 2004 compared to 1.33 × 108 mol C during April–July of 2005. We found the temporal signature and magnitude of DIC cycling to be different in adjacent plume-influenced and non-plume regions. Extreme events such as the freshwater anomaly observed in 2005 will affect mean estimates of coastal carbon fluxes, thus budgets based on short time series of observations may be skewed and should be viewed with caution.  相似文献
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