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1.
An assessment of global ocean wave energy resources over the last 45 a   总被引:6,自引:6,他引:1  
Against the background of the current world facing an energy crisis,and human beings puzzled by the problems of environment and resources,developing clean energy sources becomes the inevitable choice to deal with a climate change and an energy shortage.A global ocean wave energy resource was reanalyzed by using ERA-40 wave reanalysis data 1957–2002 from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts(ECMWF).An effective significant wave height is defined in the development of wave energy resources(short as effective SWH),and the total potential of wave energy is exploratively calculated.Synthetically considering a wave energy density,a wave energy level probability,the frequency of the effective SWH,the stability and long-term trend of wave energy density,a swell index and a wave energy storage,global ocean wave energy resources were reanalyzed and regionalized,providing reference to the development of wave energy resources such as wave power plant location,seawater desalination,heating,pumping.  相似文献
2.
The first Chinese microwave ocean environment satellite HY-2A, carrying a Ku-band scatteromenter (SCAT), was successfully launched in August 2011. The first quality assessment of HY-2A SCAT wind products is presented through the comparison of the first 6 months operationally released SCAT products with in situ data. The in situ winds from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys, R/V Polarstern, Aurora Australis, Roger Revelle and PY30-1 oil platform, were converted to the 10 m equivalent neutral winds. The temporal and spatial differences between the HY-2A SCAT and the in situ observations were limited to less than 5 min and 12.5 km. For HY-2A SCAT wind speed products, the comparison and analysis using the NDBC buoys yield a bias of-0.49 m/s, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.3 m/s and an increase negative bias with increasing wind speed observation above 3 m/s. Although less accurate of HY-2A SCAT wind direction at low winds, the RMSE of 19.19° with a bias of 0.92° is found for wind speeds higher than 3 m/s. These results are found consistent with those from R/Vs and oil platform comparisons. Moreover, the NDBC buoy comparison results also suggest that the accuracy of HY-2A SCAT winds is consistent over the first half year of 2012. The encouraging assessment results over the first 6 months show that wind products from HY-2A SCAT will be useful for scientific community.  相似文献
3.
A scanning microwave radiometer(RM) was launched on August 16,2011,on board HY-2 satellite.The six-month long global sea surface wind speeds observed by the HY-2 scanning microwave radiometer are preliminarily validated using in-situ measurements and WindSat observations,respectively,from January to June 2012.The wind speed root-mean-square(RMS) difference of the comparisons with in-situ data is 1.89 m/s for the measurements of NDBC and 1.72 m/s for the recent four-month data measured by PY30-1 oil platform,respectively.On a global scale,the wind speeds of HY-2 RM are compared with the sea surface wind speeds derived from WindSat,the RMS difference of 1.85 m/s for HY-2 RM collocated observations data set is calculated in the same period as above.With analyzing the global map of a mean difference between HY-2 RM and WindSat,it appears that the bias of the sea surface wind speed is obviously higher in the inshore regions.In the open sea,there is a relatively higher positive bias in the mid-latitude regions due to the overestimation of wind speed observations,while the wind speeds are underestimated in the Southern Ocean by HY-2 RM relative to WindSat observations.  相似文献
4.
超大型海洋浮式储油系统的风险评估   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:5  
对超大型海洋浮式储油系统的危险灾害识别、失效概率计算、失效后果评估、风险准则评定和风险管理决策等几个主要步骤进行了风险分析,计算结果为在设置防坡堤情况下,储油船漂移的概率为2 217×10-6,沉没的概率为6 778×10-8,结构损坏的概率为6 300×10-7,总的经济损失为70万人民币;在未设置防波堤的情况下,储油船漂移的概率为3 167×10-3,沉没的概率为9 683×10-5,结构损坏的概率为9 000×10-4,总的经济损失为9 91亿人民币。结果表明,采取合理的措施,如在储油船系泊地点设置防波堤,以降低风险水平是十分必要的。  相似文献
5.
The protection of the biological diversity and the maintenance of the regional ecological integrity for the Huanghe (Yellow River) Estuary and its adjacent areas are practically significant and valuable. However, frequent human activities and natural climate changes have caused vigorous disturbances on the ecosystem in these sea areas. An objective assessment on the benthic habitat quality (BHQ) of the Huanghe Estuary and its adjacent areas is conducted, using AZTI's Marine Biotic Index (AMBI) and multivariate AMBI (M-AMBI) based on the data of macrobenthos in May and August 2011. The results show that both the indices do not correlate significantly, and their assessment results are greatly different. All of the samples assessed using the AMBI were "high" or "good", because the ecological group I (EGI) and the ecological group II (EGII) were dominant macrobenthic ecological groups in the research area. Owing to a low species' richness and a high individual abundance in some samples, the BHQ levels using the M-AMBI were worse than those of the AMBI. Significant correlations are observed between the M-AMBI, water depth, bottom water salinity and dissolved inorganic nitrogen, thus the M-AMBI could sensitively respond to environmental changes and distinguish influences from uninfluenced stations, but the AMBI could not. The consistent results between the AMBI and the M-AMBI mainly appeared in the uninfluenced (undisturbed or slightly disturbed) sta- tions. Therefore, the M-AMBI is more effective than the AMBI in assessing the benthic habitat quality in the Huanghe Estuary and its adjacent areas. Using the M-AMBI to assess the BHQ of the Huanghe Estuary and its adjacent areas, the results show that 3% of the stations are undisturbed and the BHQs are "high", and 61% of the stations are slightly disturbed and those of the BHQ are "good", and the rest are meanly disturbed and those of the BHQ are "moderate".  相似文献
6.
本文综合运用单因子污染指数法、Hakanson 潜在生态风险指数法和沉积物质量基准法3 种方法, 研究和评价了2012 年和2013 年山东近岸海域表层沉积物重金属的污染特征和潜在生态风险。结果表明: 山东近岸海域94%以上站位的表层沉积物重金属含量符合第一类海洋沉积物质量标准,沉积物质量良好; 山东近岸海域重金属综合潜在生态风险低, 各重金属潜在生态风险由高到低为Hg>As>Cd>Pb>Cu>Cr>Zn (2012 年)和Hg>Cd>As>Pb>Cu>Cr>Zn (2013 年), Hg 在个别站位达中潜在生态风险程度, 为主要污染因子; 50%以上站位As 含量介于美国佛罗里达州和加拿大沉积物质量基准的TEL—PEL 之间, 表明负面生物效应偶尔发生。应加强对山东近岸海域表层沉积物中重金属Hg和As 的监测, 重点关注二者相对高值区的潜在生态风险和负面生物效应。  相似文献
7.
海洋平台结构实时安全监测系统   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:20  
阐述了海洋平台结构实时计算模型的建立和修正方法,确定了在海洋环境监测的基础上本系统实时环境荷载,提出了海洋平台结构实时安全评估的方法,采用Delphi开发工具,开发出了Windows应用程序“海洋平台结构实时安全监测系统”。该系统于1998-1999年和1999-2000年冬季两次在渤海JZ20-2MUQ平台上试运行,实时监测了JZ20-2MUQ平台两个冬季的安全状况。  相似文献
8.
中国大陆沿岸波浪能分布初步研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:1  
波浪能作为可持续利用的清洁能源,日益被人们所关注,本文基于WAVEWATCHⅢ全球波浪模式,建立了较高精度的中国沿岸海域波浪数学模型,重点对中国大陆沿岸-30m等深线上的波浪能分布进行了研究,在已有研究成果的基础上进一步细化了中国沿岸海域波浪能的时空分布规律,为合理开发、利用波浪能提供了一定的数据支持。研究认为,中国沿岸波浪能储量相对较小,南北分布以长江口为界,以南海域波能整体较大,波能季节性差异明显,在开发利用时,需要对工程区域的波浪能特征充分论证,科学合理地选用波浪能转化设备,防止造成巨大经济损失。  相似文献
9.
基于风险的海底管道安全评估方法研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:3  
海底管道系统技术复杂、安全性要求高、环境多变,从设计阶段开始一直到生产运行的全过程,始终存在各种风险。考虑到海底管道的这一特点,风险评估方法应该既要考虑理论分析又要重视工程经验的多方面、多层次的综合性评估方法。论文从分析海底管道失效因素入手,重点研究了海底管道风险评估的流程及风险等级的划分方法,为海底管道完整性管理提供了一种实用的评估方法,同时结合工程实例对一运行中的海底管道进行了风险评估。  相似文献
10.
IPCC AR4 模式对热带气旋热力控制因子的模拟评估   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
海平面温度是影响热带气旋活动重要的大尺度环境热力控制因子,根据1948-1999年热带地区(30°S-30°N)海平面温度(SST)的气候场、线性趋势、年代际变化与年际变化的空间结构特征,分别就24个IPCC AR4模式的模拟性能进行评估。结果表明,虽然24个IPCC AR4模式对SST气候场的模拟性能都比较好,但大部分模式输出的SST系统性偏低于观测分析场(ERSST)。所有模式热带区域平均SST都表现出与ERSST相一致的增暖趋势,但各模式与ERSST的这一趋势强度差异明显。综合考虑SST线性趋势及年代际变化的空间结构,24个IPCC AR4模式中,有6个模式的模拟性能较差,其空间型态与ERSST相差很大,不应作为模式集成的对象,它们是INM CM3_0, MRI_CGCM2, INGV_ECHAM4,UKMO_HADCM3,NCAR_PCM1,MPI_ECHAM5。前5个空间型态与ERSST最接近的模式依次是:CGCM3.1_T47,GISS ER,MIROC_HIRES,GFDL CM2_1,GFDL CM2_0。对西北太平洋、北大西洋以及南海地区6~10月热带气旋主要活动海域SST进行了评估,相对来说,模式对北大西洋和南海海域SST不论是线性趋势还是年代际变化的模拟都好于西北太平洋。北大西洋有18个模式年代际序列与ERSST的相关较高。在西北太平洋,UKMO_HADGEM1和MPI_ECHAM5的年际变化序列与ERSST的相关达到0.05的显著性水平;在南海,年际变化模拟最好的模式是UKMO_HADCM3。  相似文献
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