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1.
东海浮游桡足类的摄食活动及其对垂直碳通量的贡献   总被引:7,自引:7,他引:18  
王荣  范春雷 《海洋与湖沼》1997,28(6):579-587
于1993年10月和1994年4月在东海进行了桡足类自然群体肠道色素含量测定1994年4月还在2个48h连续观测站上进行肠道色素排空率实验。  相似文献
2.
The Prydz Bay in the Antarctic is an important area in the Southern Ocean due to its unique geographic feature. It plays an important role in the carbon cycle in the Southern Ocean. To investigate the distributions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and surface seawater and its air-sea exchange rates in this region, the Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) had set up several sections in the Prydz Bay. Here we present the results from the CHINARE-XVI cruises were presented onboard R/V Xue/ong from November 1999 to April 2000 and the main driving forces were discussed controlling the distributions of partial pressure of carbon dioxide. According to the partial pressure of carbon dioxide distributions, the Prydz Bay can be divided into the inside and outside regions. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide was low in the inside region but higher in the outside region during the measurement period. This distribution had a good negative correlation with the concentrations of ehlorophyll-a in general, suggesting that the partial pressure of carbon dioxide was substantially affected by biological production. The results also indicate that the biological produetion is most likely the main driving force in the marginal ice zone in the Southern Ocean in summer. However, in the Antarctic divergence sector of the Prydz Bay (about 64°S), the hydrological processes become the controlling factor as the sea surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide is much higher than the atmospheric one due to the upwelling of the high DIC CDW, and this made the outside of Prydz Bay a source of carbon dioxide. On the basis of the calculations, the CO2 flux in January (austral summer) was -3.23 mmol/(m^2 · d) in the inner part of Prydz Bay, i.e. , a sink of atmospheric CO2, and was 0.62 mmol/(m^2 · d) in the outside part of the bay, a weak source of atmospheric CO2. The average air-sea flux of CO2 in the Prydz Bay was 2.50 mmol/(m^2 · d).  相似文献
3.
Water column concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN) were measured at three different depths in four different locations bracketing the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) along the main channel of a temperate riverine estuary (Winyah Bay, South Carolina, USA). Measurements were carried out over full tidal cycle (over 24 h). Salinity, temperature, current magnitude and direction were also monitored at the same time throughout the water column. Tidally averaged net fluxes of salt, TSS, POC and PN were calculated by combining the current measurements with the concentration data. Under the extreme low river discharge conditions that characterized the study period, net landward fluxes of salt were measured in the lower part of the study area, suggesting that the landward transport through the main channel of the estuary was probably balanced by export out through the sides. In contrast, the net fluxes of salt in the upper reaches of the study area were near zero, indicating a closed salt balance in this part of the estuary. In contrast to salt, the net fluxes of TSS, POC and PN in the deeper parts of the water column were consistently landward at all four sites in Winyah Bay indicating the non-conservative behavior of particulate components and their active transport up the estuary in the region around the ETM.The carbon contents (%POC), carbon:nitrogen ratios (org[C:N]a) and stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13CPOC) of the suspended particles varied significantly with depth, location and tidal stage. Tidally averaged compositions showed a significant increase up the estuary in the %POC and org[C:N]a values of suspended particles consistent with the preferential landward transport of carbon-rich particles with higher vascular plant debris content. The combination of tidal resuspension and flood-dominated flow appeared to be responsible for the hydrodynamic sorting of particles along the estuary that resulted in denser, organic-poor particles being transported landward less efficiently. The elemental and isotopic compositions indicated that vascular C3 plants and estuarine algae were the major sources of the particulate organic matter of all the samples, without any significant contributions from salt marsh C4 vegetation (Spartina alterniflora) and/or marine phytoplankton.  相似文献
4.
Riverine carbon input is closely related to the inshore aquatic environment,the marine carbon pool and climate change.Samples were synchronously obtained from 16 rivers discharging into the Bohai Sea (China) in 1-5 July 2005.The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of the 16 rivers were mainly controlled by anthropogenic activities.The particulate organic carbon (POC) of the Haihe,Luanhe,Ziyaxinhe,Chaobaixinhe,Xiaoqinghe,Xiaolinghe,Duliujianhe,Jiyunhe,and Majiahe Rivers mainly originated from pollu...  相似文献
5.
Silva et al. propose a new method for quantifying benthic net community production (NCP) of tidal flats under submerged condition, based on the monitoring of water pCO2 in a transparent benthic chamber around high tide. I demonstrate here with theoretical considerations that this method is inappropriate for coastal environments, because it allows only the quantification of the change in the dissolved CO2 which, at classical seawater pH, is only ∼10% of the change of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Total Alkalinity and/or DIC must be measured at the beginning and end of incubations in order to compute NCP in coastal environments. However, I also demonstrate that when pH is below 7, more than 95% of the DIC change occurs in the CO2 pool. The method proposed by Silva et al. is thus valuable for freshwater environments with acidic, low alkalinity waters, where monitoring the water pCO2 in a vial or chamber provides alone a very close approximation of the planktonic or benthic net community production.  相似文献
6.
7.
234Th (T1/2=24.1 d) and 210Po (T1/2=138.4 d) are particle reactive radioisotopes that are used as tracers for particle cycling in the upper ocean. Particulate organic carbon (POC) export has frequently been estimated using 234Th/238U disequilibrium. Recent evidence suggests that 210Po/210Pb disequilibrium may be used as an additional tool to examine particle export, given the direct biological uptake of 210Po into cellular material. Differences in these two radioisotope pairs with regard to their half-lives, particle reactivity and scavenging affinity in seawater should provide complementary information to be obtained on the processes occurring in the water column. Here, we review eight different studies that have simultaneously used both approaches to estimate POC export fluxes from the surface ocean. Our aim is to provide a complete “dataset” of all the existing POC flux data derived from the coupled use of both 234Th and 210Po and to evaluate the advantages and limitations of each tracer pair. Our analysis suggests that the simultaneous use of both radiotracers provides more useful comparative data than can be derived from the use of a single tracer alone. The difference in half-lives of 234Th and 210Po enables the study of export production rates over different time scales. In addition, their different biogeochemical behaviour and preferred affinity for specific types of particles leads to the conclusion that 234Th is a better tracer of total mass flux, whereas 210Po tracks POC export more specifically. The synthesis presented here is also intended to provide a basis for planning future sampling strategies and promoting further work in this field to help reveal the more specific application of each tracer under specific water column biogeochemistries.  相似文献
8.
The MedFlux project was devised to determine and model relationships between organic matter and mineral ballasts of sinking particulate matter in the ocean. Specifically we investigated the ballast ratio hypothesis, tested various commonly used sampling and modeling techniques, and developed new technologies that would allow better characterization of particle biogeochemistry. Here we describe the rationale for the project, the biogeochemical provenance of the DYFAMED site, the international support structure, and highlights from the papers published here. Additional MedFlux papers can be accessed at the MedFlux web site (http://msrc.sunysb.edu/MedFlux/).  相似文献
9.
Prompted by recent data analyses suggesting that the flux of particulate organic carbon sinking into deep waters is determined by fluxes of mineral ballasts, we undertook a study of the relationships among organic matter (OM), calcium carbonate, opal, lithogenic material, and excess aluminum fluxes as part of the MedFlux project. We measured fluxes of particulate components during Spring and Summer of 2003, and Spring of 2005, using a swimmer-excluding sediment trap design capable of measuring fluxes both in a time-series (TS) mode and in a configuration for obtaining particle settling velocity (SV) profiles. On the basis of these studies, we suggest that distinct OM–ballast associations observed in particles sinking at a depth of 200 m imply that the mechanistic basis of the organic matter–ballast association is set in the upper water column above the Twilight Zone, and that the importance of different ballast types follows the seasonal succession of phytoplankton. As in other studies, carbonate appears to enhance the flux of organic matter over opal. Particles must be at least half organic matter before their settling velocity is affected by ballast concentration. This lack of change in ballast composition with SV in particles with <40% OM content suggests that particle SV reaches a maximum because of the increasing importance of inertial drag. Relative amounts of OM and opal decrease with depth due to decomposition and dissolution; carbonates and lithogenic material contribute about the same amount to total mass, or increase slightly, throughout the water column. The high proportion of excess Al cannot be explained by its incorporation into diatom opal or reverse weathering, so Al is most likely adsorbed to particulate oxides. On shorter time scales, dust appears to increase particle flux through its role in aggregation rather than by nutrient inputs enhancing productivity. We suggest that the role of dust as a catalyst in particle formation may be a central mechanism in flux formation in this region, particularly when zooplankton fecal pellet production is low.  相似文献
10.
There has been more attention to phytoplankton dynamics in nutrient-rich waters than in oligotrophic ones thus requiring the need to study the dynamics and responses in oligotrophic waters. Accordingly, phytoplankton community in Blanes Bay was overall dominated by Prymnesiophyceae, remarkably constant throughout the year (31 ± 13% Total chlorophyll a, Tchl a) and Bacillariophyta with a more episodic appearance (20 ± 23% Tchl a). Prasinophyceae and Synechococcus contribution became substantial in winter (Prasinophyceae = 30% Tchl a) and summer (Synechococcus = 35% Tchl a). Phytoplankton growth and grazing mortality rates for major groups were estimated by dilution experiments in combination with high pressure liquid chromatography and flow cytometry carried out monthly over two years. Growth rates of total phytoplankton (range = 0.30–1.91 d−1) were significantly higher in spring and summer (μ > 1.3 d−1) than in autumn and winter (μ ∼ 0.65 d−1) and showed a weak dependence on temperature but a significant positive correlation with day length. Microzooplankton grazing (range = 0.03–1.4 d−1) was closely coupled to phytoplankton growth. Grazing represented the main process for loss of phytoplankton, removing 60 ± 34% (±SD) of daily primary production and 70 ± 48% of Tchl a stock. Chla synthesis was highest during the Bacillarophyceae-dominated spring bloom (Chl asynt = 2.3 ± 1.6 μg Chl a L−1 d−1) and lowest during the following post-bloom conditions dominated by Prymnesiophyceae (Chl asynt = 0.23 ± 0.08 μg Chl a L−1 d−1). This variability was smoothed when expressed in carbon equivalents mainly due to the opposite dynamics of C:chl a (range = 11–135) and chl a concentration (range = 0.07–2.0 μg chl a L−1). Bacillariophyta and Synechococcus contribution to C fluxes was higher than to biomass because of their fast-growth rate. The opposite was true for Prymnesiophyceae.  相似文献
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