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1.
东海浮游桡足类的摄食活动及其对垂直碳通量的贡献   总被引:24,自引:7,他引:17       下载免费PDF全文
王荣  范春雷 《海洋与湖沼》1997,28(6):579-587
于1993年10月和1994年4月在东海进行了桡足类自然群体肠道色素含量测定1994年4月还在2个48h连续观测站上进行肠道色素排空率实验。  相似文献
2.
Water column concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN) were measured at three different depths in four different locations bracketing the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) along the main channel of a temperate riverine estuary (Winyah Bay, South Carolina, USA). Measurements were carried out over full tidal cycle (over 24 h). Salinity, temperature, current magnitude and direction were also monitored at the same time throughout the water column. Tidally averaged net fluxes of salt, TSS, POC and PN were calculated by combining the current measurements with the concentration data. Under the extreme low river discharge conditions that characterized the study period, net landward fluxes of salt were measured in the lower part of the study area, suggesting that the landward transport through the main channel of the estuary was probably balanced by export out through the sides. In contrast, the net fluxes of salt in the upper reaches of the study area were near zero, indicating a closed salt balance in this part of the estuary. In contrast to salt, the net fluxes of TSS, POC and PN in the deeper parts of the water column were consistently landward at all four sites in Winyah Bay indicating the non-conservative behavior of particulate components and their active transport up the estuary in the region around the ETM.The carbon contents (%POC), carbon:nitrogen ratios (org[C:N]a) and stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13CPOC) of the suspended particles varied significantly with depth, location and tidal stage. Tidally averaged compositions showed a significant increase up the estuary in the %POC and org[C:N]a values of suspended particles consistent with the preferential landward transport of carbon-rich particles with higher vascular plant debris content. The combination of tidal resuspension and flood-dominated flow appeared to be responsible for the hydrodynamic sorting of particles along the estuary that resulted in denser, organic-poor particles being transported landward less efficiently. The elemental and isotopic compositions indicated that vascular C3 plants and estuarine algae were the major sources of the particulate organic matter of all the samples, without any significant contributions from salt marsh C4 vegetation (Spartina alterniflora) and/or marine phytoplankton.  相似文献
3.
The Prydz Bay in the Antarctic is an important area in the Southern Ocean due to its unique geographic feature. It plays an important role in the carbon cycle in the Southern Ocean. To investigate the distributions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and surface seawater and its air-sea exchange rates in this region, the Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) had set up several sections in the Prydz Bay. Here we present the results from the CHINARE-XVI cruises were presented onboard R/V Xue/ong from November 1999 to April 2000 and the main driving forces were discussed controlling the distributions of partial pressure of carbon dioxide. According to the partial pressure of carbon dioxide distributions, the Prydz Bay can be divided into the inside and outside regions. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide was low in the inside region but higher in the outside region during the measurement period. This distribution had a good negative correlation with the concentrations of ehlorophyll-a in general, suggesting that the partial pressure of carbon dioxide was substantially affected by biological production. The results also indicate that the biological produetion is most likely the main driving force in the marginal ice zone in the Southern Ocean in summer. However, in the Antarctic divergence sector of the Prydz Bay (about 64°S), the hydrological processes become the controlling factor as the sea surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide is much higher than the atmospheric one due to the upwelling of the high DIC CDW, and this made the outside of Prydz Bay a source of carbon dioxide. On the basis of the calculations, the CO2 flux in January (austral summer) was -3.23 mmol/(m^2 · d) in the inner part of Prydz Bay, i.e. , a sink of atmospheric CO2, and was 0.62 mmol/(m^2 · d) in the outside part of the bay, a weak source of atmospheric CO2. The average air-sea flux of CO2 in the Prydz Bay was 2.50 mmol/(m^2 · d).  相似文献
4.
In the eastern North Water, most of the estimated annual new and net production of carbon (C) occurred during the main diatom bloom in 1998. During the bloom, at least 30% of total and new phytoplankton production occurred as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and was unavailable for short-term assimilation into the herbivorous food web or sinking export. Based on particle interceptor traps and 234Th deficits, 27% of the particulate primary production (PP) sank out of the upper 50 m, with only 7% and 1% of PP reaching the benthos at shallow (≈200 m) and deep (≈500 m) sites, respectively. Mass balance calculations and grazing estimates agree that ≈79% of PP was ingested by pelagic consumers between April and July. During this period, the vertical flux of biogenic silica (BioSi) at 50 m was equivalent to the total BioSi produced, indicating that all of the diatom production was removed from the euphotic zone as intact cells (direct sinking) or empty frustules (grazing or lysis). The estimated flux of empty frustules was consistent with rates of herbivory by the large, dominant copepods and appendicularians during incubations. Since the carbon demand of the dominant planktivorous bird, Alle alle, amounted to ≈2% of the biomass synthesized by its main prey, the large copepod Calanus hyperboreus, most of the secondary carbon production was available to pelagic carnivores. Stable isotopes indicated that the biomass of predatory amphipods, polar cod and marine mammals was derived from these herbivores, but corresponding carbon fluxes were not quantified. Our analysis shows that a large fraction of PP in the eastern North Water was ingested by consumers in the upper 50 m, leading to substantial carbon respiration and DOC accumulation in surface waters. An increasingly early and prolonged opening of the Artic Ocean is likely to promote the productivity of the herbivorous food web, but not the short-term efficiency of the particulate, biological CO2 pump.  相似文献
5.
6.
Spring diatom blooms are important for sequestering atmospheric CO2 below the permanent thermocline in the form of particulate organic carbon (POC). We measured downward POC flux during a sub-polar North Atlantic spring bloom at 100 m using thorium-234 (234Th) disequilibria, and below 100 m using neutrally buoyant drifting sediment traps. The cruise followed a Lagrangian float, and a pronounced diatom bloom occurred in a 600 km2 area around the float. Particle flux was low during the first three weeks of the bloom, between 10 and 30 mg POC m−2 d−1. Then, nearly 20 days after the bloom had started, export as diagnosed from 234Th rose to 360-620 mg POC m−2 d−1, co-incident with silicate depletion in the surface mixed layer. Sediment traps at 600 and 750 m depth collected 160 and 150 mg POC m−2 d−1, with a settled volume of particles of 1000-1500 mL m−2 d−1. This implies that 25-43% of the 100 m POC export sank below 750 m. The sinking particles were ungrazed diatom aggregates that contained transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). We conclude that diatom blooms can lead to substantial particle export that is transferred efficiently through the mesopelagic. We also present an improved method of calibrating the Alcian Blue solution against Gum Xanthan for TEP measurements.  相似文献
7.
Riverine carbon input is closely related to the inshore aquatic environment,the marine carbon pool and climate change.Samples were synchronously obtained from 16 rivers discharging into the Bohai Sea (China) in 1-5 July 2005.The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of the 16 rivers were mainly controlled by anthropogenic activities.The particulate organic carbon (POC) of the Haihe,Luanhe,Ziyaxinhe,Chaobaixinhe,Xiaoqinghe,Xiaolinghe,Duliujianhe,Jiyunhe,and Majiahe Rivers mainly originated from pollu...  相似文献
8.
There has been more attention to phytoplankton dynamics in nutrient-rich waters than in oligotrophic ones thus requiring the need to study the dynamics and responses in oligotrophic waters. Accordingly, phytoplankton community in Blanes Bay was overall dominated by Prymnesiophyceae, remarkably constant throughout the year (31 ± 13% Total chlorophyll a, Tchl a) and Bacillariophyta with a more episodic appearance (20 ± 23% Tchl a). Prasinophyceae and Synechococcus contribution became substantial in winter (Prasinophyceae = 30% Tchl a) and summer (Synechococcus = 35% Tchl a). Phytoplankton growth and grazing mortality rates for major groups were estimated by dilution experiments in combination with high pressure liquid chromatography and flow cytometry carried out monthly over two years. Growth rates of total phytoplankton (range = 0.30–1.91 d−1) were significantly higher in spring and summer (μ > 1.3 d−1) than in autumn and winter (μ ∼ 0.65 d−1) and showed a weak dependence on temperature but a significant positive correlation with day length. Microzooplankton grazing (range = 0.03–1.4 d−1) was closely coupled to phytoplankton growth. Grazing represented the main process for loss of phytoplankton, removing 60 ± 34% (±SD) of daily primary production and 70 ± 48% of Tchl a stock. Chla synthesis was highest during the Bacillarophyceae-dominated spring bloom (Chl asynt = 2.3 ± 1.6 μg Chl a L−1 d−1) and lowest during the following post-bloom conditions dominated by Prymnesiophyceae (Chl asynt = 0.23 ± 0.08 μg Chl a L−1 d−1). This variability was smoothed when expressed in carbon equivalents mainly due to the opposite dynamics of C:chl a (range = 11–135) and chl a concentration (range = 0.07–2.0 μg chl a L−1). Bacillariophyta and Synechococcus contribution to C fluxes was higher than to biomass because of their fast-growth rate. The opposite was true for Prymnesiophyceae.  相似文献
9.
The Laptev Sea is a high-Arctic epicontinental sea north of Siberia (Russia) that is one of the least understood regions of the world’s ocean. It is characterized by a shallow and broad shelf plateau, high influx of river water, sediments and nutrients during summer, long-lasting sea-ice cover from October to May, and the formation of a narrow flaw-lead polynya off the fast-ice edge during winter.Here, we describe results of a German–Russian research project (1993-present), presenting the distribution patterns and dynamics of its marine flora and fauna, as well as pathways and processes of coupling between sea-ice, water-column and sea-floor biota.Three ecological zones are distinguished along a combined east–west and Lena-impact gradient, differing in the composition of pelagic and benthic communities. In general, high Chl a concentrations in the sediments indicate a tight coupling between sympagic and pelagic primary production and nutrient supply to the benthos throughout the entire Laptev Sea. However, there were pronounced regional differences between the ecological zones in magnitude of primary production and trophic dynamics. Primary production during the ice-free summer was highest in the estuarine zone most strongly influenced by the Lena River (210 mg C m−2 day−1). The western and northeastern Laptev Sea yielded 55 and 95 mg C m−2 day−1, respectively. Moreover, the zones differed in the partitioning of carbon flux between zooplankton and benthic food webs. In the Lena zone zooplankton carbon demand was about 31 mg C m−2 day−1 whereas in the western zone it was 21 mg C m−2 day−1 and in the eastern zone 4 mg C m−2 day−1. Total benthic carbon demand was 32 mg C m−2 day−1 for the Lena zone, 56 mg C m−2 day−1 in the western zone and 100 mg C m−2 day−1 in the northeastern zone.A carbon budget constructed for the Laptev Sea indicates that (1) a high proportion of primary production is channelled through the benthic trophic web, bypassing the pelagic trophic web, and (2) autochthonous primary production in the northeastern and western Laptev Sea might not be sufficient to fuel both pelagic and benthic secondary production and, hence, input of allochthonous organic carbon is required to balance the overall carbon demand.  相似文献
10.
After a short introduction to the physical setting and the history of biological research the pelagic ecosystem of the Kara Sea is described. Main emphasis is on regional aspects of the plankton communities and their seasonal dynamics using mostly data collected between 1996 and 2001. In the zooplankton, for which most data were available, four regional aggregations were separated: (1) the rivers and estuaries of the Southern Kara Sea, (2) the south-western and (3) the central Kara Sea, and (4) the northern troughs and slope. The phytoplankton communities had a similar distribution. To provide components for detailed carbon budgets the regional dynamics of bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass and production are described and carbon requirements of bacteria and zooplankton are estimated. For completeness a short literature review on higher trophic levels is included. Finally, recent observations of the pelago-benthic coupling are considered. Estimates of the carbon requirements from the plankton and benthos reveal a large underestimation of primary production, which to date, together with seasonal aspects, shows the largest gap in our knowledge.  相似文献
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