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A methodology is developed and tested for division of estuarine and coastal systems into water bodies for monitoring and management purposes. This division is often implicit in the choice of sampling stations and in pollution abatement measures applied to different locations – it is now an explicit requirement of European Union Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive) and recommended by United States Agencies such as EPA and NOAA. The approach considers both natural characteristics and the human dimension, by means of a stepwise methodology, which considers, on the one hand, morphology and salinity distribution, and, on the other, appropriate indicators of pressure and state. In the present application, nitrogen and phosphorus loading was used as the pressure component and chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen as indicators of state. The criteria for system division were defined based on (1) an adimensional shape factor and salinity classes for the natural component; and (2) a normalised pressure index and (ASSETS) eutrophication symptom classes for the human dimension. Water quality databases and GIS were used to develop spatial distributions for the various components, and the results were aggregated into a final water body division, using tidal excursion as a “common sense” test. The methodology was applied to three well-studied systems in Portugal, a tubular estuary (Mondego), a wide lagunal estuary (Sado) and a coastal barrier island system (Ria Formosa). Although a final definition of water bodies will usually be a policy decision, this type of approach for the division of coastal systems into management units scientifically informs the decision-making process.  相似文献
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This study investigates the transformation of the political regulation of the Norwegian aquaculture industry. The study is conducted as a historical-institutional analysis of industrial development combined with analyses of the multiple impacts of directives produced by changes in international political institutions. We describe a transformation from a corporate regulation regime to a new regime based on control and monitoring. The origin of these changes is very much a result of the interplay between actors and organizations at separate but interconnected levels. Our empirical discussion is informed by the neoinstitutional organization theory.  相似文献
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In the past decade, the European Commission has developed the Marine Strategy Directive and the Maritime Policy. Both policies aim at governing the marine environment; yet the two policies have a differing signature in policy formulation and implementation. From a fisher's perspective these policies present a change in institutional setting; major policy measures no longer descend from the EU Common Fisheries Policy alone, but increasingly are derived from general environmental policy developments. In this paper, the policy arrangement approach is used to analyse the differences between the two maritime policies, and the way in which they can affect fisheries management.  相似文献
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对Eu1-xSrxMnO3 (ESMO, x=0—1)体系的结构和磁性进行了系统的研究,结果表明Sr的掺入使EuMnO3反铁磁母体的磁结构发生巨大的变化.通过磁化和电输运测量,深入探讨了高掺杂浓度Eu0.4Sr0.6MnO3和Eu0.3Sr0.7MnO3相似文献
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This paper reports that Eu-doped ZnO films were successfully deposited on silicon (100) by radio-frequency magnetic sputtering. The x-ray diffraction patterns indicate that Eu substitutes for Zn in the lattice. Ferromagnetic loops were obtained by using superconducting quantum interference device at 10 K and room temperature. No discontinuous change was found in both of the zero-field-cooled and field-cooled curves. The observed ferromagnetism in Eu-doped ZnO can be attributed to a single magnetic phase. The saturation magnetisation decreased remarkably for the Eu-doped ZnO prepared by introducing 5% of oxygen in the sputtering gas or by the post annealing in O2, suggesting that the defects play key roles in the development of ferromagnetism in Eu-doped ZnO films.  相似文献
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Owing to their style and economic impact, Brazil, Russia, India and China (the BRIC countries) are destined to become relevant actors in the new ocean governance. The following working hypothesis is sustained: the BRIC countries, due to the potential of their maritime territories, can be considered to be emerging maritime powers capable of displacing some of the historical maritime powers. This would also entail a shift of strategic maritime space towards the southern hemisphere. Other emerging maritime scenarios associated with the BRIC countries include the Russian Arctic, and the Indo-Pacific ocean belt, or “string of pearls”, as it is known. Factors such as competitiveness, maritime leadership and ocean governance are thus placed in a new economic and political context where they might be redefined and adapted to the circumstances of the BRIC block and other emerging countries, the majority of which are subject to demographic pressure and a high degree of poverty. The most relevant conclusions point to the emergence of a new type of neo-navalism, on the one hand—a BRIC version of traditional sea power and, on the other, a possible threat to the EU's Integrated Maritime Policy under pressure from strong competitiveness in a highly internationalised environment, forcing changes in its original approach with its distinct social profiles and commitment to latest generation rights.  相似文献
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In 2007 the EU Commission published the so-called “Blue Book” aimed at developing an Integrated Maritime Policy for the Union. Even though Norway is not an EU member and is usually referred to as a small state, this article shows how the Norwegian government was able to exercise significant influence on EU maritime policy development, positioning itself as one of the key actors. Applying the negotiation theory and tracing the process as it unfolded, this analysis identifies causal relationships leading to increased influence for Norwegian actors—particularly in respect to how issues concerning the Arctic became an integrated part of the policy. The paper concludes that even though the Norwegian actors had a strategic point of departure, utilizing objective advantages to maximize their own utility, their influence may also have been due to competence and sharing of knowledge. The article relies on official documents, but is to a large extent also based on interviews with key EU Commission and Norwegian governmental representatives. On an elevated, substantive analytical level the article contributes to the “small state” research agenda and its interest in how small states in international relations might influence policy outcomes and thrive in the international community.  相似文献
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The European Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) has failed to deliver on social, economic and ecological goals. This failure is in part the result of a number of social–ecological feedback mechanisms. The policy is currently undergoing reform, with unknown practical outcomes. Here, relatively successful fisheries policies outside the European Union are reviewed. Through interviews and workshops with scientists, managers and other stakeholders, complemented with literature reviews, practices that can create incentives for long-term sustainability are investigated. The focus is on how the provision of clear and trusted scientific evidence can stimulate defensible decisions, in turn creating incentives for compliance, leading to positive social–ecological outcomes. Despite differences between Europe and the investigated case studies, the prospects of an increased regionalization within the European CFP provides the best starting point for implementing best practice identified in this study.  相似文献
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Conventional sectoral management and piecemeal governance are considered less and less appropriate in pursuit of sustainable development. Ecosystem based marine spatial management (EB-MSM) is an approach that recognizes the full array of interactions within an ecosystem, including human uses, rather than considering single issues, species, or ecosystem services in isolation. Marine spatial planning and ocean zoning are emerging concepts that can support EB-MSM. EB-MSM is driven by high-level goals that managers aim to achieve through the implementation of measures. High-level goals and objectives need to be translated into more operational objectives before specific targets, limits and measures can be elaborated.Monitoring, evaluation and adaptation are necessary to ensure that marine management measures are both effective and efficient. Solid monitoring frameworks are the foundation of adaptive management, as they provide the necessary information to evaluate performance and the effectiveness of management actions. Marine protected areas (MPAs) - possibly set up in networks - constitute a key component in EB-MSM policies and practises and have been applied as a cornerstone in conservation of marine biodiversity, management of fish populations, development of coastal tourism, etc. Moreover, MPA experiences have provided methods and concepts (such as zoning) to a wider EB-MSM context. The assignment of values to biophysical features of the marine environment allows the direct assessment of related management choices and may assist EB-MSM.A range of monetary valuation techniques have been proposed to reduce attributes of goods and services to a single metric. However, in the marine environment such an approach is often over simplistic, and thus less reductive techniques may be necessary. Rather than producing a single metric, the results of non-monetary assessments guide policy allowing weight to be given as necessary to potential areas of conflict and consensus.Strategies to take into account climate change effects and geohazard risks in EB-MSM have been applied or proposed worldwide. EB-MSM regimes must be alert to such risks and flexible to account for changes.  相似文献
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