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1.
本文研究了1997年8月、1998年2-3月、8月和1999年8月台湾海峡浮游植物生物量和初级生产力的粒级组成、各粒级生物量和初级生产力变动(包括年际变动及其影响因子。结果表明,台湾海峡微型(简称NANO)和微微型浮激植物(简称PICO)占优势,贡献率分别达34%-48%、34%-40%,小型浮游植物(简称MICRO)仅占12%-27%。粒级组成和各粒级生物量存在着明显的季节和年际变化,如1997年夏季三种粒级浮游植物生物量均明显低于其它年份,PICO和MICRO组份呈1998年夏季高于1997年和1999年夏季,而NANO组份则呈1998年夏季低于1997年和1999年夏季。PICO组份对初级生产力的贡献最大,达45%-50%,而NANO和MICRO组份对初级生产力的贡献相近,为19%-32%;PICO组份的同化系数明显高于NANO和MICRO组份。初步分析了初级生产的碳流途径,表明台湾海峡初级生产的碳将有25%经异养细菌的“二次”生产而进入微食物环,36%通过原生动物(主要是异养鞭毛虫)摄食“打包”的作用后进入微食物环,即近60%的初级生产的碳经微食物环的两个起点分别进入微食物环,表明微型生物食物网在该海域生源有机碳转换过程中起重要作用。  相似文献
2.
海洋微型底栖生物调查方法与操作规程   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
海洋微型底栖生物包括底栖细菌、底栖微藻及底栖原生动物等单细胞原核和真核生物, 是底栖微食物网中能量传递的基础和关键环节, 在海洋生物地球化学循环过程中起着重要作用。然而我国现有的《海洋调查规范》国家标准中有关底栖生物的研究仅涉及利用网筛分选的大型和小型底栖动物, 缺少微型底栖生物调查的方法与规程, 严重制约了对海洋整体食物网能流研究, 以及微型、小型及大型底栖生物间的生态过程与作用等研究。本文提出海洋微型底栖生物调查的关键技术和规程, 包括采样和固定、底栖微藻和细菌调查技术、以及底栖原生动物调查技术, 所涉方法与规程是海洋微型底栖生物调查行业标准的核心内容。本方法与规程适用于潮间带、浅海和深海等不同生境的海洋微型底栖生物调查, 以及利用微型底栖生物进行环境监测与评价。  相似文献
3.
To distinguish between adsorbed and absorbed PCBs in seawater microorganisms, 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC #153; HCB) was added to a pure culture of Chrysochromulina apheles Moestrup et H.A. Thomsen. After the addition of the HCB, the cells were immediately harvested onto 2 μm polycarbonate filters and rinsed with a gradient of ethanol concentrations. Rinsing with 40% ethanol (v/v) was found to remove 80% of the HCB, which was loosely adsorbed to the cell surfaces, but did not extract the interior of the cells, as tested by chlorophyll a analysis. This method was used in a time course experiment which estimated PCBs adsorption and absorption to different groups of plankton organisms. Three different 14C-PCBs, 4-chlorobiphenyl (IUPAC #3; MCB), 2,2′,5,5′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC #52; TCB), and 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC #153, HCB), were incubated in seawater from the northern Baltic Sea during a spring bloom. Samples were taken every third day and separated by filtration into three fractions; 0.2–2 μm (bacteria), 2–10 μm (flagellates), and >10 μm (microplankton; phytoplankton and protozoa). Two subsamples were retained from each size fraction. One of the subsamples was left untreated, to obtain adsorbed plus absorbed PCB, while the other subsample was rinsed with 40% of ethanol, to obtain the absorbed PCB. The sorption was found to vary depending on the hydrophobicity of the compounds, the structure of the cell membranes, and the lipid content and composition of the cells. The absorption increased for the TCB and the HCB in the largest size fraction over time, which coincided with an increase of the neutral and non-polar lipids.  相似文献
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5.
The planktonic food web structure in the subarctic coastal water off Usujiri south-western Hokkaido, Japan was investigated from June 1997 to June 1999, based on seasonal biomass data of pico- (<2 µm), nano- (2–10 µm), micro- (10–200 µm) and mesoplankton (>200 µm), and path analysis using the structural equation model (SEM). In spring, microphytoplankton predominated due to diatom bloom, while pico- and nanophytoplankton predominated in the other seasons, except November and December 1997. The seasonal change in size distribution of heterotrophic plankton was almost similar to that of phytoplankton, and mesozooplankton biomass was high in spring. The path analyses suggest that the main channel in the microbial food web could vary according to phytoplankton size composition, indicating not only the classical food chain (microphytoplankton - copepods) but also the indirect route (microphytoplankton - naked dinoflagellates - copepods).  相似文献
6.
Seasonal changes in nano/micro-zooplankton grazing on pico-, nano- and micro-size phytoplankton and heterotrophic nano-flagellates (HNF) feeding on heterotrophic bacteria were quantified by the dilution technique in the surface layer off Cape Esan, southwestern Hokkaido, Japan. Pico- and nano-size phytoplankton were major components throughout the year except in spring when a diatom bloom was observed. Although there was little seasonal variation in bacteria and HNF biomass throughout the year, the micro-zooplankton biomass varied appreciably with a peak in spring. Nano/micro-zooplankton grazing or feeding on pico-size chl-a and bacteria were well balanced throughout the year. However, nano-size and micro-size chl-a growth were much greater than grazing in summer. Nano/micro-zooplankton ingestion of phytoplankton was greater than their ingestion of bacteria almost throughout the year, which suggests phytoplankton are more important as food sources of nano/micro-zooplankton in microbial food webs off Cape Esan than bacteria off Cape Esan. This revised version was published online in July 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
7.
The dilution technique, combined with identification and enumeration of pico-, nano- and micro-plankton by microscopy, was used to estimate microzooplankton impact on the microbial community in surface waters of a coastal embayment on the NW Iberian upwelling system. Microzooplankton were important consumers of autotrophic and heterotrophic plankton in this system, feeding up to 93% of standing stock and more than 100% of production of several groups. Heterotrophic bacteria and heterotrophic picoflagellates experienced the highest and constant impact, with 75–84% of their standing stocks and 85–102% of their production being channelled through the microbial food web. Pico- and nano-phytoplankton were also consumed, although maximum grazing occurred on diatoms during upwelling events, coinciding with highest primary production. Predation on pico-nano-heterotrophs was especially relevant under downwelling conditions, when consumption of total carbon and particularly autotrophic carbon was considerably lower than during upwelling. The results suggest that the existence of a multivorous food web, extending from the microbial loop to the herbivorous food web, could be a major feature in this coastal upwelling system. The microbial loop, which occurs as a permanent background in the system, would contribute to sustain the microbial food web during downwelling, whereas the herbivorous food web could coexist with a microbial food web based on large diatoms during upwelling. The multivorous food web would partially divert diatoms from sinking and hence favour the retention of organic matter in the water column. This could enhance the energy transfer to higher pelagic trophic levels in coastal upwelling systems.  相似文献
8.
基于2013年4,7,10月和2014年1月的大面调查数据探讨了桑沟湾养殖生态系统浮游植物的粒径结构及生物量时空变化特征。结果表明,桑沟湾海域表层Chl a浓度年变化范围为0.10~20.46 μg/L,平均浓度2.13 μg/L。浮游植物粒径结构以微型浮游植物(nano-phytoplankton)为主,贡献率为65.1%。利用模拟现场流水法探讨了原生动物在能量从微食物环向滤食性贝类传递的重要纽带作用。结果表明,栉孔扇贝通过摄食浮游生物的碳需求为11033.05 μg/(g·d),原生动物(鞭毛虫和纤毛虫)是主要的贡献者,占栉孔扇贝碳需求量的48.78%。微食物环可满足养殖的栉孔扇贝约58.45%的碳需求量。研究结果揭示了微食物环在桑沟湾养殖生态系统中的重要性。  相似文献
9.
海洋中存在着大量的颗粒,包括大型聚合颗粒(即海雪,粒径>500μm)、小型聚合颗粒(1~500μm)和亚微米颗粒粒径(<1μm)等。颗粒在海水中营造了不同于纯海水的小生境,其中生活着与自然海水中不同的生物。异养细菌、蓝细菌、真核藻类、鞭毛虫、纤毛虫等微食物网生物可以黏附在海洋颗粒上,或生活在颗粒内部,其丰度高于周围水体中的自由生活生物,这可能是由于颗粒提供了更适宜生长的营养环境。本文综述了海洋浮游微食物网生物在海洋颗粒形成和沉降中的作用。微食物网生物在颗粒物的形成过程中起到很重要的作用,它们可以直接促进颗粒形成,也可以彼此结合成颗粒,或微型浮游动物排粪形成颗粒。微食物网生物还可以对颗粒进行转化,影响颗粒的大小、沉降速度、或对颗粒及其黏附生物进行摄食。微食物网生物由于本身较小,沉降较慢,但这些生物和颗粒的结合使得微食物网生物在碳通量中发挥重要的作用。  相似文献
10.
2014年12月和2016年3月分别对热带西太平洋Y3海山(中层海山)和M2海山(浅海山)微食物网主要类群(包括聚球藻、原绿球藻、微微型真核浮游生物、异养细菌和浮游纤毛虫)丰度和生物量垂直分布进行了研究。结果表明,Y3和M2海山水文环境比较相似但略有区别,叶绿素最大值层(DCM)分别在75—100m和110m水层,微食物网各主要类群在垂直尺度上的分布与叶绿素a浓度紧密相关。其中浮游纤毛虫呈现“双峰型”模式,即丰度高值出现在表层和DCM层;原绿球藻和微微型真核浮游生物呈现“单峰型”模式,丰度高值出现在DCM层;聚球藻和异养细菌峰型相对不显著,DCM层以浅丰度较高,DCM层以深丰度明显降低。分析其原因,可能是受到温度、光照和营养盐的共同影响。Y3和M2海山微食物网结构的垂直变化不完全一致。其中,Y3海山30m以浅和150m以深异养细菌生物量占绝对优势,75—100m水层自养型生物(原绿球藻和微微型真核浮游生物)占绝对优势;M2海山75m以浅和200m以深异养细菌占绝对优势,110—150m自养型生物占绝对优势。M2海山自养型生物占优势的水层要明显深于Y3海山,可能与它们的海山类型和采样季节不同有关。  相似文献
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