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We used a new experimental device called PASS (PArticle Sinking Simulator) during MedFlux to simulate changes in in situ hydrostatic pressure that particles experience sinking from mesopelagic to bathypelagic depths. Particles, largely fecal pellets, were collected at 200 m using a settling velocity NetTrap (SV NetTrap) in Ligurian Sea in April 2006 and incubated in high-pressure bottles (HPBs) of the PASS system under both atmospheric and continuously increasing pressure conditions, simulating the pressure change experienced at a sinking rate of 200 m d−1. Chemical changes over time were evaluated by measuring particulate organic carbon (POC), carbohydrates, transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), amino acids, lipids, and chloropigments, as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved carbohydrates. Microbial changes were evaluated microscopically, using diamidinophenylindole (DAPI) stain for total cell counts and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) for phylogenetic distinctions. Concentrations (normalized to POC) of particulate chloropigments, carbohydrates and TEP decreased under both sets of incubation conditions, although less under the increasing pressure regime than under atmospheric conditions. By contrast, dissolved carbohydrates (normalized to DOC) were higher after incubation and significantly higher under atmospheric conditions, suggesting they were produced at the expense of the particulate fraction. POC-normalized particulate wax/steryl esters increased only under pressure, suggesting biochemical responses of prokaryotes to the increasing pressure regime. The prokaryotic community initially consisted of 43% Bacteria, 12% Crenarchaea and 11% Euryarchaea. After incubation, Bacteria dominated (90%) the prokaryote community in all cases, with γ-Proteobacteria comprising the greatest fraction, followed by the Cytophaga–Flavobacter cluster and α-Proteobacteria group. Using the PASS system, we obtained chemical and microbial evidence that degradation by prokaryotes associated with fecal pellets sinking through mesopelagic waters is limited by the increasing pressure they experience.  相似文献
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本文通过传统微生物分离培养方法从富营养化环境中分离培养出可高效处理多种底物的污水并具备胞外电子传递能力和产电潜力的兼性厌氧光合细菌。在光照培养条件下,利用改良的能够将光合细菌富集/分离的培养基分离培养光合细菌,从形态学和16S rDNA的分子生物学角度鉴定菌株。运用多个指标检测光合细菌处理不同底物的污水培养基的能力,如化学需氧量(chemical oxygen demand,COD)、总氮(total nitrogen,TN)、总磷(total phosphate,TP),并在电化学工作站检测光合细菌的产电能力。结果表明,获取的光合细菌菌株DH-3与光合细菌类球红细菌(Rhodobacter sphaeroides)有97%的相似性。该菌株拥有在多种底物的污水培养基中生长的能力,其中在以乙酸为底物的培养基中生长最好。通过检测发现该菌株对污水的COD、TN和TP均具有较高的去除率。电化学工作站检测结果表明,菌株DH-3的最大产电流量能达到7.5mA/m2,最大功率密度达到0.056W/m2。由此可见,光合细菌DH-3在污水处理及资源再循环利用等方面具有十分重要的应用潜力。  相似文献
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