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在全球气候变暖背景下,了解红树林生态系统对亚洲季风的响应可以通过重塑近岸沉积物记录的红树林演化过程实现。本文以广西钦州湾一钻孔岩心的一段时间跨度为5.6 ~ 7.7 cal. ka BP(相当于全新世大暖期)的沉积物为研究对象,在沉积物总有机碳、总氮含量和有机碳稳定碳同位素组成(δ13Corg)分析基础上,利用总有机碳与总氮含量之比(C/N)和δ13Corg, 采用有机质来源三端元混合模型,定量计算出沉积物混合源有机质中红树林源、陆源和海洋生物源有机质贡献比例,并以红树林源有机质贡献为红树林演化的示踪参数。研究表明,在全新世大暖期,沉积物中的红树林源有机质贡献相对较大,但却在~7.3、~6.9和~6.2 cal. ka BP呈现出3次显著的降低,指示了广西钦州湾红树林呈发生了3次明显衰替。3次红树林衰退事件恰好对应于亚洲夏季风的减弱(冬季风增强)事件,由此表明,即便在利于红树林繁盛的全新世大暖期,极端气候事件的发生(如受亚洲季风驱动的冷干事件)也会导致红树林的衰退。  相似文献
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We used a new experimental device called PASS (PArticle Sinking Simulator) during MedFlux to simulate changes in in situ hydrostatic pressure that particles experience sinking from mesopelagic to bathypelagic depths. Particles, largely fecal pellets, were collected at 200 m using a settling velocity NetTrap (SV NetTrap) in Ligurian Sea in April 2006 and incubated in high-pressure bottles (HPBs) of the PASS system under both atmospheric and continuously increasing pressure conditions, simulating the pressure change experienced at a sinking rate of 200 m d−1. Chemical changes over time were evaluated by measuring particulate organic carbon (POC), carbohydrates, transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), amino acids, lipids, and chloropigments, as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved carbohydrates. Microbial changes were evaluated microscopically, using diamidinophenylindole (DAPI) stain for total cell counts and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) for phylogenetic distinctions. Concentrations (normalized to POC) of particulate chloropigments, carbohydrates and TEP decreased under both sets of incubation conditions, although less under the increasing pressure regime than under atmospheric conditions. By contrast, dissolved carbohydrates (normalized to DOC) were higher after incubation and significantly higher under atmospheric conditions, suggesting they were produced at the expense of the particulate fraction. POC-normalized particulate wax/steryl esters increased only under pressure, suggesting biochemical responses of prokaryotes to the increasing pressure regime. The prokaryotic community initially consisted of 43% Bacteria, 12% Crenarchaea and 11% Euryarchaea. After incubation, Bacteria dominated (90%) the prokaryote community in all cases, with γ-Proteobacteria comprising the greatest fraction, followed by the Cytophaga–Flavobacter cluster and α-Proteobacteria group. Using the PASS system, we obtained chemical and microbial evidence that degradation by prokaryotes associated with fecal pellets sinking through mesopelagic waters is limited by the increasing pressure they experience.  相似文献
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Diatoms play a significant role in the global carbon cycle through their role in biogenic silica production and the transport of organic matter to the seafloor. Recent work has shown that silicified diatom frustules contain a significant amount of organic matter, and that the proportion of diatom-bound organic matter increases with depth in the water column and sediments. Here, we investigate the association between organic matter and the mineral phase. We used a combination of scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and carbon X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to characterize the distribution and composition of organic matter in frustules of the diatom Cylindrotheca closterium and a biomimetic silica gel. To our knowledge, this study represents the first successful attempt to simultaneously image and obtain chemical information about the organic matter within a diatom frustule using X-ray spectromicroscopy near the carbon edge. Organic carbon, most likely protein, was distributed throughout the frustules and was not removed by harsh chemical treatment. The physical structure of the frustules appeared to be related to the chemical composition of this organic matter, with aromatic or unsaturated carbon being concentrated in the most intricately patterned regions of the frustule. A similar physical and chemical structure was observed in a biomimetic silica gel precipitated spontaneously with polylysine. These results are consistent with the theory that organic constituents of diatom frustules direct silica precipitation and become incorporated within the silica matrix as it forms. The relationship between organic matter composition and silica morphology, the failure of harsh chemical treatments to remove this organic matter, and the spontaneous nature of the co-precipitation of silica and organic matter indicate some chemical interaction between the siliceous and organic components of diatom frustules. Frustule-bound organic matter should therefore be protected from decomposition in the water column or diagenetic alteration in sediments unless the frustule dissolves.  相似文献
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本文通过传统微生物分离培养方法从富营养化环境中分离培养出可高效处理多种底物的污水并具备胞外电子传递能力和产电潜力的兼性厌氧光合细菌。在光照培养条件下,利用改良的能够将光合细菌富集/分离的培养基分离培养光合细菌,从形态学和16S rDNA的分子生物学角度鉴定菌株。运用多个指标检测光合细菌处理不同底物的污水培养基的能力,如化学需氧量(chemical oxygen demand,COD)、总氮(total nitrogen,TN)、总磷(total phosphate,TP),并在电化学工作站检测光合细菌的产电能力。结果表明,获取的光合细菌菌株DH-3与光合细菌类球红细菌(Rhodobacter sphaeroides)有97%的相似性。该菌株拥有在多种底物的污水培养基中生长的能力,其中在以乙酸为底物的培养基中生长最好。通过检测发现该菌株对污水的COD、TN和TP均具有较高的去除率。电化学工作站检测结果表明,菌株DH-3的最大产电流量能达到7.5mA/m2,最大功率密度达到0.056W/m2。由此可见,光合细菌DH-3在污水处理及资源再循环利用等方面具有十分重要的应用潜力。  相似文献
5.
Four year-long time-series sediment trap experiments were conducted along the equatorial Pacific Ocean in order to understand the biogeochemistry of particulate organic matter (POM) on the basis of amino acid (AA) and hexosamine (HA) compositions of the settling particles. Total mass flux in the study area varied over 4 orders of magnitude without a common seasonality among all trap sites. Planktonic blooms were apparent in terms of total mass and AA fluxes at the easternmost end of the Ni?o-4 region. AA fluxes closely followed the total mass flux profiles, suggesting that increased particle flux delivered a greater amount of labile OM to the deep ocean. A labile OM index (LI)-based classification showed that during the El Ni?o conditions in 2002, the eastern side of the equatorial Pacific transported relatively more labile OM than the western equatorial Pacific. An overall change in AA and HA composition of settling particles could be revealed with the help of discriminant analysis, suggesting that settling particles during El Ni?o were compositionally different from those settling during La Ni?a condition in the equatorial Pacific.  相似文献
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