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细胞色素b基因序列与7种石首鱼类的系统进化   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
通过比较一段381bp细胞色素b基因序列,分析了石首鱼科7种石首鱼的系统发育关系.该序列有51个单变异多态位点、128个简约信息多态位点,对应的氨基酸序列有41个氨基酸变异位点.根据Kimura 2参数构建的邻接树(NJ tree)和最大简约树(MP tree)都显示同样的结果:7种石首鱼类构成一个单系群.皮氏叫姑鱼位于单系群的基部,且与其他石首鱼分离时间很早;大黄鱼和棘头梅童鱼亲缘关系最近。并与钩牙皇石首鱼和波纹短须石首鱼构成姐妹群.黄姑鱼和鱿鱼也接近树的基部.  相似文献
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采用CO1基因特异扩增测序及与GenBank已有序列联配分析的方法,进行了石首鱼科19属30种鱼类75个CO1基因片段的序列比较和系统进化研究,结果表明,石首鱼科鱼类该片段的平均GC含量为48.3%,其中第2密码子位点含量最高(51%-58.4%,平均56.6%),第1密码子变化范围最大(27.6%-54.1%,平均44.9%),第3密码子差别较小(41.6%-43.6%,平均42.7%)。依据Kimura-2-parameter模型,30种石首鱼科鱼类种内遗传距离平均值为0.006,种间为0.210,种间遗传距离是种内的35倍;在分子系统树上,28个种(93.3%)可形成单系,18个属(94.7%)可聚为独立的分支;与形态学分类不同的是,由黑鳃梅童鱼(Collichthys lucidus)与棘头梅童鱼(C.niveatus)的遗传距离(0.004)推断二者遗传变异尚未达到种的分化水平,灰鳍彭纳石首鱼(Pennahia anea)与白姑鱼(Argyrosomus argentatus)的形态学特征相似性和条形码序列同源性都提示二者可能为同种异名,而红牙(Otolithes ruber)印度洋和南海两个地理群...  相似文献
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苏新红 《台湾海峡》2010,29(1):27-33
以福建近海出现过的13属23种石首鱼(Sciaenidae)作为分类单元(operationalt axonomicunits)及其量化数据取值依据,选取39个特征指标,采用系统聚类分析法(hierarchical cluster)对其进行数值分类,得出了福建近海石首鱼类的聚类分类结果.结果表明:聚类分析法的分类结果与传统的形态分类结果基本吻合,可将福建近海出现过的石首鱼类分成13类(属).证明了朱元鼎教授等对我国石首鱼类的分类是比较科学、合理的.研究结果支持把娩状黄姑鱼(Nibea.miichthioides)归到黄鳍牙馘属(Chrysochir),这一点与传统的形态分类法观点不同.研究结果还支持了朱元鼎等的观点即认为石首鱼属(Sciaena)和叫姑鱼属(Johnius)均属较为原始型的石首鱼类.另外,本研究结果对大头白姑鱼(Argyrosomus macrocephalus)和勒氏短须石首鱼(Umbrina.russelli)的分类仍存有分歧,并提出了一些具有参考价值和值得重视的观点,有待将来进一步的探讨.  相似文献
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A sampling programme targeting larvae of winter spawning fishes immigrating from the oceanic domain into the Pamlico-Albemarle Sounds system (NC, U.S.A.) was performed at the four major inlets of the lagoon system. Sampling yielded abundant catches of three species, a Clupeid (Atlantic menhaden,Brevoortia tyrannus) and two Sciaenids (Atlantic croaker,Micropogonias undulatusand spot,Leiostomus xanthurus). In this article, the author documents the differences in the mechanisms developed for estuarine recruitment among the three species. Abundance at the tidal inlets was dependent upon numerous factors, such as sampling month, inlet, luminosity, tide flow direction and depth. The spatial and temporal positioning of the larvae differed among the species and affected their capabilities to be transported through the inlets. More specifically, spot and croaker migrated vertically within the water column in accordance with the direction of the water flow. Sciaenids minimized the outwelling effects of ebb tides by migrating into the slowest ebbing currents, near the bottom. Menhaden did not rely on vertical migrations for estuarine transport and retention. For this species, landward transport is provided either when dusk and flood onset are coincident or through non-tidal flows developing under meteorological forcing. The Sciaenids were less, or not, dependent upon these conditions. In one inlet, the retention was dependent upon the strength of the flooding and ebbing flows. In this case, the retention of the pelagic species was lower than the retention of demersal species.  相似文献
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The West Coast dusky kob Argyrosomus coronus is an understudied yet important fishery species in Angola. During a five-year study (2005–2009), the species was recorded in all fishery sectors, but was most important in the inshore recreational fishery in southern Angola (Cunene Estuary to Namibe). Early juveniles (<300 mm total length, TL) were captured in the offshore artisanal fishery at Praia Pinda, whereas juveniles (300–600 mm TL), subadults (600–870 mm TL) and adults (>870 mm TL) were captured in all fisheries as far north as Namibe, and shoals of large adult fish (>1 000 mm TL) were occasionally captured in the offshore purse-seine commercial fishery between the Cunene Estuary and Lucira. Because some Argyrosomus species are morphologically cryptic, a DNA barcoding method was used to confirm the taxonomic status of the biological samples used in this study. The male:female sex ratio of examined samples was 1:1.4 (n = 225). The length-at-50% maturity was 823 mm and 904 mm TL for males and females respectively. Age-at-50% maturity was 4.4 and 4.3 years for males and females respectively. The periodicity of otolith ring formation was confirmed to be one year using a marginal zone and a chemical marking analysis. Growth (in mm TL) was best described by: Lt = 1 826(1—e−0.12(t + 1.60)). Argyrosomus coronus fed predominantly on fish, mainly Sardinella aurita (62% frequency of occurrence). Early juveniles appeared to frequent the offshore zone (50–100 m depth), moving into the inshore region at approximately 300 mm TL. Juveniles and subadults were resident (57% recaptured at the same site) and were particularly abundant around the mouth of the Cunene Estuary as well as in central and northern Namibia. Adults undertake migrations that correspond with the movement of the Angola–Benguela frontal zone, moving north as far as Gabon in winter and returning to southern Angola in spring, when spawning appeared to take place offshore. There are currently no catch restrictions on A. coronus in Angolan waters. However, declining catches and increasing fishing effort suggest that some management intervention is required, commencing with a proposed closure of the Cunene Estuary mouth region to fishing.  相似文献
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Slender baardman Umbrina robinsoni are an important component of recreational shore-angler and spearfisher catches along the eastern seaboard of South Africa. Stocks of U. robinsoni at three sites—False Bay, Stil Bay and the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) coast—were modelled using a per-recruit approach. Total (Z) and fishing (F) mortality rates were estimated by catch-curve analyses using measures of individual size (length or weight) recorded by researchers, divers (log books) or during spearfishing competitions. Based on estimates of F during the period 2001–2003, spawner biomass per-recruit ratios were estimated to be either at or below the 25% threshold (False Bay SB/R = 21% SB/RF = 0, Stil Bay SB/R = 25% SB/RF = 0, and KZN SB/R = 21% SB/RF = 0), suggesting that rates of F were too high. Reductions in F necessary to achieve target fishing mortality levels (F F = 0) at the current minimum size limit (l 40 cm total length) were 51% for Stil Bay and the KZN coast and 57% for False Bay. Based on the bag frequencies from 927 diver outings in KZN (1989–2003), a reduction in bag limit from the current five to two fish is predicted to reduce F in this region by approximately 25%. Increasing the l to 50 cm is predicted to increase SB/R ratios to 36% SB/RF = 0 in False Bay, 43% SB/RF = 0 in KZN and 52% SB/RF = 0 in Stil Bay, at current levels of F. Owing to the philopatric nature of U. robinsoni and the consequent existence of temporary refugia, catch curves are likely to underestimate fishing mortality. The reductions in F estimated to attain the target reference points are therefore probably conservative.  相似文献
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The effect of temporal variation in growth rate on per-recruit model outputs was investigated by comparing biological reference points obtained using growth curves derived for Umbrina robinsoni populations from False Bay, on the south coast of South Africa, sampled 10 years apart (1991–1993 and 2001–2003), and applying the two different age–length keys to length frequency data collected over the period 1991–1993 (n = 1 389) for the estimation of total mortality (Z), fishing mortality (F) and spawner biomass per recruit (SB/R). The SB/R and yield per-recruit (Y/R) curves constructed using biological data collected during the two different time periods were very similar, with target and threshold reference points differing only moderately (11%). This suggests that for long-lived species, the frequency of age and growth studies can be at least the lifespan of a cohort if they are to be assessed with a per-recruit approach. The use of the more recent length-at-age data, however, resulted in lower estimates of F (0.61 y−1 vs 1.05 y−1) and a slightly higher spawner biomass per-recruit ratio (19.5% vs 14.5%) for the earlier period. The reduced estimate of F when using the more recent dataset was likely due to a bias towards older fish caused by small sample size, the philopatric nature of U. robinsoni, and possible recruitment collapse. This highlights the importance of having a large, representative sample of length-at-age data for construction of age–length keys.  相似文献
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Management measures for South African line-caught fish include output controls such as closed seasons, bag and size limits and no-take moratoria. The main condition for these measures to be effective is that undesirable catches can be successfully released. However, most of the line-caught fish species are susceptible to barotrauma, a condition caused in physoclists by the rapid reduction of hydrostatic pressure during the ascent to the surface during capture. We investigated the effects of barotrauma on five commercially important species: roman Chrysoblephus laticeps, silver kob Argyrosomus inodorus, hottentot Pachymetopon blochii, santer Cheimerius nufar and carpenter Argyrozona argyrozona. A classification of the external signs of barotrauma was developed and internal and external signs of barotrauma were examined in relation to fishing depth and fish size, and compared between species. Immediate post-release mortality was investigated during a catch-and-release experiment. Medium-term survival of C. laticeps (~1 d) was examined by returning fish to depth in cages and subsequent monitoring on SCUBA. Our results indicate that most of the fish experience barotrauma even when caught at relatively shallow depths. External signs include extension of the inflated, everted stomach through the mouth, distended eyes, protrusion of the hind-gut and other organs through the cloaca, and gas bubbles in the dermal tissue between the fin rays. The absence of any obvious external signs of barotrauma can be misleading as dissections of such fish revealed ruptures of the swimbladder and other internal injuries consistent with barotrauma. Our results indicate that there might be significant post-release mortality, a factor that needs to be taken into account during stock assessment predictions and during the implementation of catch restrictions.  相似文献
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